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The Holocaust (Weeks 4-6)

by: Molly McMullen

The Holocaust (Weeks 4-6) HIST3081

Molly McMullen

GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These notes cover what we've been learning the past couple weeks in this course.
The Holocaust
Frederic Krome
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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Molly McMullen on Monday February 22, 2016. The Bundle belongs to HIST3081 at University of Cincinnati Clermont College taught by Frederic Krome in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see The Holocaust in History at University of Cincinnati Clermont College.


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Date Created: 02/22/16
The Holocaust (Weeks 4 ­ 6) Jewish response to the Nazis  what choices/options they had  1933­39  Germany Keep in mind the basics of Jewish history  Wherever they lived, they were minority (diaspora)  Jews had equality from 1871 on  Throughout diaspora, there was NO JEWISH ARMY In terms of theology  Gault (exile) – where Jews lived  Jews lived in exile as a punishment from God  Holy land o Eretz Yisrael o Holy Relic o Place of veneration and pilgrimage Political nationalism called Zionism (Jewish movement)  The movement is minority opinion amongst Jews  Peoples response depends on where they fit into the 3 spectrums o Traditional o Assimilationists o Zionists  Often antagonistic to each other  Many Jews reject Zionism Martin Buber  Pro­Zionist  Religious  Slight assimilationist ______________________________________________________________________________ 1933­35  Beginning of exclusionary policy  Wasn’t until the end that there was an official definition to being a Jew  In the early part, Nazis tried to forced migration 1929  Great Depression – most countries didn’t welcome immigrants at this time  First people to leave were students. Parents sent them abroad to school  Migration began spiking from 1936­38 ______________________________________________________________________________ Nazis   Some dealt with Nazi regime out of fear, opportunism, laziness, they’re ignorant,  indifference, careerism People’s community (Volkisch)  People were safe in community, outside they were fair game for violence  Those who were diagnosed to only reach a certain level would get too much money spent on them. They were not safe and were euthanized st September 1 , 1939  Himmler  Hitler issued vague decrees  Nazi party, order police: occupational authorities  Jews have to be concentrated so they can be watched and so they Nazis could strip them  of their wealth  Hitler wanted this to be the end result by Feb. 1940  Jews in cities would be sealed off into ghettos  How are they going to do this? Hitler was vague and never gave details  Some ghettos were in existence until 1944  Lodz o Jews were to be concentrated here in ghetto and stripped of their wealth in  exchange for food and a place to live o End of April 1940, the ghetto was fully sealed Nazi identification policy  Productionists o Biebow in Lodz o Decided they couldn’t let Jews die  Attritionist o Palfinger went to Warsaw o Wanted to let them all die o Economic and political deviator o Wealth from Jews would be paid to Nazis who would then provide them food o Nazis set value of what was sent out which determined how much food was sent  in o Official goal was to force Jews to relinquish their wealth o Nazis thought they were hoarding ______________________________________________________________________________ January 1941  Death rate in Warsaw was terrible  Jews were starving and dying  Choices: o Let them die o Adopt productionist model  Public health officials only opposed one thing: o Do not lessen the seal of the ghetto. Don’t let Jews out or let people sneak in o Don’t want an epidemic  Ghetto was a place to liquidate Jews or put them to work  April 1941 – meeting where both sides argued (productionist and attritionist)  Attritionists:  o It was the Jews fault they were starving  The arguments were sent to higher authority  Spring and summer of 1941, Hitler set up resettlement division. He sought for the final  solution  Food supplies started again in the ghetto in result of this  Jews in Warsaw saw changed in German behavior In Poland, Nazis implemented racial policy  Under Menschen  “Service race” 1 in 3 Jewish Polands died Hitler never announced he was Catholic Auschwitz (renamed) – Polish political prisoners Einsatz Gruppin – Special action group/ squad  “Deaths head”  Trained for what’s to become because Hitler was ready to implement operation  Barbarossa (invade Soviet Union  Hitler believed Soviet Union was a house of cards 1936  Stalin began purge  Out of dozens of marshalls of Soviet Union, 10 were killed November 1939  Stalin invaded Finland  Badly planned campaign  To Hitler, Jews and Bolshevics were the same  ______________________________________________________________________________ Lodz ghetto  Slightly more women than men  Rumored that Germans wanted to kill young soldiers  Their family wanted them to flee from being taken and killed. Led to gender imbalance  Ghetto syndrome – organ failure, hunger  More men died than women (why?) o Over worked o Became more ill o Could’ve given their food to women and children o Could’ve retaliated against the Nazis, resulting in their death  Ghetto was hard on children  Some children were born in ghetto and didn’t live through the first year  1,300 born in ghetto – over 400 died before their first birthday  By the following year, 1,100 were dead  Tirbucilosis was the most common disease  Hunger was what most people died from  Factory workers were forced to eat food in factories so they couldn’t share   First deportation (Jan­May 1942)  st  Second deportation (August 31 , 1942)  Ghetto hospital and children’s hospital were cleaned out  People under 10 or over 65 were deported


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