WHII Test 3 Notes
Popular in Department
This 38 page Bundle was uploaded by sgm0010 on Monday February 22, 2016. The Bundle belongs to at Auburn University taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 110 views.
Reviews for WHII Test 3 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/22/16
th 20 century China 04/02/2015 ▯ TwentiethCentury China ▯ I. What are general characteristics of the government and economy in the People’s Republic of China? ▯ II. What was the history of Jiang Jeishi? ▯ III. What was the Cultural Revolution? ▯ IV. What did Deng Xiaoping think of freeenterprise and democracy? ▯ ▯ Before WWII Europe had global hegemony, after soviet union and U.S.A 1945Nov.9 1989 ▯ ▯ 1. People’s Republic of China Promise Q (PRC; exists 1949 to the present; not the same as the Republic of China) Contemporary gov’t of china Also called communist china Authoritarianism / single party rule Command economy ▯ 2. Mao Zedong (18931976; also spelled Mao Tsetung) creator or People’s republic of china in 1949 wanted a command economy as a means of industrializing from Joseph Stalin ▯ ▯ 3. Communist Party of China (singleparty, authoritarian rule) one political party that runs the gov’t of china truly a Bolshevik party, modeled from what is to be done ▯ 4. command economy, freeenterprise economy, mixed economy command economy gov’t makes all decisions opposite of free enterprise economy, businesses decide mixed economy china has come to have, has characteristics of both command and freeenterprise economy o since 1978 they’ve had a mixed economy ▯ ▯ 5. Qing Dynasty (16441911) ruled by emperors for 2000 years till 1911 when they were overthrown Nationalist movement, removed Qing from power ▯ ▯ 6. Republic of China (existed 1912 to 1949; not same as People’s Republic of China) led by GMD ▯ ▯ 7. Sun Yatsen (18661925) leader of 1911 Nationalist movement that overthrew Qing Dynasty organized into a political party known as the Guomindang first head of republic of china ▯ 8. Guomindang (GMD) 1912 chinese national party led by Sun Yatsen took over gov’t of china in 1912 and set up a new go’vt known as the republic of China ▯ 9. Jiang Jeishi (Chiang Kaishek; 18871975) replaced Sun Yatsen in 1925 devoted member of GMD, hated having political opponents o Chinese communist party in 1921 was opponent o Wanted to kill all of them, started in 1927, not successful b/c the Chinese party used Guerilla fighting tactics. ▯ 10. Chen Duxiu (18791942) founder of Chinese communist party that had backing and support from Soviet Union. Absorbed teachings of Lenin/ what is to be done (1902)/ revolutionary vanguard ▯ 11. Second SinoJapanese War (19371945) 1937 china was attacked by japan ended when WWII ended Chinese Civil War o 19451949 o communist and nationalist fought , ended the republics of china and started communist china ▯ 12. Formosa; Taiwan Jeishi fled to Taiwan ▯ 13. First Five Year Plan (19531958) Mao brought this idea to china Started the process of Nationalizing all industry which means making all industry property of the state ▯ ▯ 14. collectivization step 1 take away small private land form owners step 2 combine these lands and farms and create huge farms for the state ▯ ▯ 15. Second Five year Plan (19591962) great leap forward o emphasis on steal production o collective farms were suppose to have steel, attention away from food which resulted in a massive in food shortage o 30 million people died from starvation after 4 years ▯ 16. Great Leap Forward; Great Leap Famine name of second five year plan ▯ ▯ 17. The Cultural Revolution rein of terror began in 19661976 when mao died program for getting rid of the four olds eliminating mao’s opponents sort of like great purge and strike fear to people who could criticize mao in the future lots sent to work camps, persecuted ▯ 18. "Four Olds": old ideas, old culture, old customs, and old habits do away with tradition ▯ 19. Red Guards young chinese people who were loyal to mao some loyal believed in teachings others sought job opportunity ▯ ▯ 20. “Little Red Book” book filled with mao’s saying ▯ 21. Deng Xiaoping (19041997) leader of people’s republic of china after mao died and created mixed economy began in 1978 , replaced four olds ▯ 22. “Four Modernizations”: agriculture, industry, science and technology, and military replaced four olds decollectivization opening china to foreign investors privatize certain industries promoted consumer goods ▯ 23. Fifth Modernization democracy ▯ ▯ 24. Wei Jingshang (1950present) fifth modernization electrician ▯ ▯ 25. Democracy Wall where Wei posted his fifth modernizations created to criticize cultural revolution ▯ ▯ 26. Beijing Spring of 1979 (Bejing = capital of China) democracy movement arose due to democracy rule deng didn’t like democracy wall, shut it down 1979 democracy leaders imprisoned ▯ ▯ 27. Tiananmen Square (Beijing, June 34, 1989) democracy movement was reunited military forces sent to stop this democracy movement ▯ ▯ 28. Xi Jinping (current leader of China; leader since 2012) ▯ willing to reform the economy that will be a global economic house ▯ ▯ Cold War Eastern Europe ▯ I. What happened to Laszlo Rajk and Rudolf Slanský? ▯ II. Describe shopping in Cold War Eastern Europe. ▯ III. What happened in the Black Triangle during the Cold War? ▯ IV. Discuss the family policy of Nicolae Ceausescu of Romania. ▯ ▯ 1. East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Romania all called themselves communist but followed principles of Lenin all belonged in sphere of soviet union under domination 2. single-party authoritarian rule; command economy ▯ 3. Yugoslavia did not belong to those countries that were in soviet sphere of influence had single party rule and command economy but managed to escape soviet union domination ▯ People faced a lot of difficulties and hardships in eastern Europe during the cold war ▯ 4. Purges late 1940s’early 1950s in eastern Europe modeled on Stalin’s great purge o carried out using training from soviet experts and methods ruling parties wanted to scare people, didn’t want them to have independent ideas or alternative views ▯ ▯ 5. Stalin's Great Purge (1934-1938); Stalin died in 1953 purged his society of political opponents, started at top at leaders, then moved down to rest of soviet society that effected normal people ▯ ▯ 6. Cheka (“sword and shield” of Bolshevik Party); KGB secret police of soviet union who spied of people 1917 sword and shield of Bolshevik party 1954 renamed the KGB carried out purges and interrogations ▯ 7. Interrogations and “show trials” someone being purged would be arrested without warning on fake or fictional charges, no legal rights like us during purges and placed into prisons without contact. They would then be interrogated with cruel methods in order to get the arrested individual to confess. o Physical and psychological torture. o Depriving people of sleep to drive them insane and confess o Deprived of water and food. Small # of people who held out, then they use psychological torture o Family members threatened Then put on trial in public court show trial o Show population what could happen to them if they didn’t obey o Confession would be broadcasted over radio to intimidate people o Judge would then read sentence, also on radio which were extremely harsh Uranium mines Really long jail sentenced in extremely brutal prisons Death by hanging ▯ 8. Laszlo Rajk (from Hungary; died in 1949) leading member of communist people sentenced to death by hanging purged ▯ ▯ 9. Rudolf Slanský (from Czechoslovakia; died in 1952) also leading member of communist party purged sentenced to death by hanging charges against men were bogus both were announced they made mistakes and killed innocent men ▯ ▯ *ended in 1953 when Joseph Stalin died * ▯ ▯ 10. Hungarian Revolution of 1956 centered in (Budapest is capital of Hungary) major attempt at revolution that aimed to get rid of authoritarian single party rule and establish democratic multi-party rule led by members of Hungarian society that called themselves freedom fighters soviet union sent in tanks and crushed the revolution killing tons ▯ ▯ 11. Imre Nagy (1896-1958) led freedom fighters in Hungarian Revolution soviets captured him and hung him ▯ 12. Prague Spring of 1968 in (Prague was capital of Czechoslovakia) led by Alexander Dubcek. Effort to overthrow single-party authoritarian rule Soviets not willing to dismantle single-party rule and send in tanks again to crush revolution ▯ 13. Alexander Dubček (1921-1992) leader of Prague Spring in 1968 forced out of politics and live in a remote part of country far away from people ▯ 14. Open-access shops vs. special-access shops two types of stores open-access o shops where anyone could go and shop, didn’t have to be powerful communist or member of communist party o you could go into it but the shelves were empty and not much to buy and things were of poor quality and lack of choice o paper store- toilet paper would buy as much as possible special access ▯ 15. Shortage economy economies of eastern Europe, produce shortage of goods o things like toilet paper, food, lack of choices command economies were inefficient and weren’t able to produce enough for population ▯ 16. Black Triangle horrible pollution area inside of cold war eastern Europe where east Germany, Czechoslovakia and Poland met natural resources were rich o 17. Uranium, iron ore, lignite uranium was in demand for nuclear reasons for soviets iron un order to build machinery Lignite- soft brown coal Exists along earth surface, scrap surface of earth, we call strip mining ▯ 18. Strip mining, sulfur dioxide, acid rain strip mining- scrap surface of earth to get lignite o use to power giant electricity plants self-produced pollution like sulfur dioxide which is main ingredient in acid rain , highly toxic o high rates of respiratory diseases o acid rain would pollute rivers and streams- polluted water ▯ 19. Brontosaurus Movement (Czechoslovakia); Ecology Club (Poland) environmental group that emerged after 1968 to build awareness brave individuals were spent time in jail ecology club also called for attention for devastation in black triangle, also spent time in jail. ▯ ▯ 20. Nicolae Ceausescu (1918-1989) head of communist party of Romania become head in 1965 and managed to retain position till December 1989 lost his power because the cold war ended and his own people killed him family policy- wanted large populations, passed a decree o all adult women under the age of 45 be required by law to have at least 5 children help ensure they did, he declared birth control was illegal, abortions were illegal, books about reproduction were illegal another policy is he required the secret police of Romania had the duty of supervising women to make sure they observe mandate o state run gynecological examinations randomly secret police forces would round up woman, get into trucks, take to clinics by state run doctor, looking for signs of pregnancy if caught having abortion, go to jail up to 2 years wanted all his fetuses to grow up to be in his army ▯ 21. Romania (Bucharest is capital of Romania) woman didn’t want to have that many babies poor country , money they did have was spend on his luxury ▯ 22. Ceaucescu’s Palace used money from his poor country second largest administrative building in the world ▯ ▯ 23. "[The fetus is] the socialist property of the whole society." Quote from Nicolae Ceaucescu ▯ ▯ send their babies to state-run orphanages, serve as barracks for the babies. Lived in filth ▯ ▯ 24. microtransfusions small amounts of blood, good way to quickly and cheaply enhancing health of orphans came from soldiers in Romanian army HIV got into the blood supply that got into the orphans and tons were affected 1986- spread of HIV came to be known his response was to continue the transfusions and declared it was illegal to talk about HIV. December of 1989 when his own people killed him and cold war ended , public execution shown on TV ▯ Race and Ethnic Relations in Twentieth-Century Africa ▯ I. What is de-colonization? ▯ II. What is apartheid and what was “Grand Apartheid”? ▯ III. Discuss the Sharpeville Massacre’s causes and results. ▯ IV. What happened in the 1994 genocide in Rwanda? ▯ ▯ 1. South Africa and Rwanda th represent the racial conflict in the 20 century Africa south Africa rich with natural resources o gold and diamonds o uranium had very diverse population o organized to skin color lines o division a result in a very vast set of laws *1910 South Africa is founded as a separate state/ country ▯ ▯ 2. de-colonization (ending European imperialism) process in which European governments gave up their control over their gov’ts and peoples of foreign lands people were gradually allow to rule themselves liberated foreign countries to manage own affairs began after WWII in 1945 due to loss of European hegemony and Africans being tired of foreign rule (African nationalism) came to have some gov’t that were authoritarian and corrupt ▯ 3. Afrikaners (Boers) dutch settlers/ descendants from Holland that became dominant group ▯ 4. white, colored, black legally divided skin colors o black- original population in south Africa o whites- descendants of European and white, originally dutch settlers from Holland o colored- descendants of people from India and Asia ▯ 5. Pass laws laws required black and colored people to have passes on them that allowed them to enter to designated zones for white only ▯ ▯ 6. Apartheid 1994 apartheid fully ended in south Africa Afrikaner word meaning separateness System of racial discrimination, privileged one group over another (whites) o Best education, public services, medical services, ect. ▯ 7. National Party (created in 1948 from union of Afrikaner Party & Reunited National Party; in power until 1994) multiparty elections , no universal elections those two parties where the two majority parties so they combined National party was very anti communist/ soviet so United States backed it. Gained power in 1948 and went on to do “grand apartheid.” ▯ ▯ 8. “Grand Apartheid” really big and elaborate 1949 law one of the first laws was the prohibition of mix marriages act of 1949 ▯ 9. Hendrik Verwoerd (1901-1966) main architect on grand apartheid ▯ 10. Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act of 1949 passed by parliament made illegal for people of different skin colored group to marry ▯ 11. Immorality Act of 1950 couldn’t have sexual relations amongst other groups unless they wanted to be arrested or thrown In jail ▯ 12. Pass books 1952 required all blacks over age of 16 had to carry this passbook that included a photo, fingerprint, permission ▯ 13. Bantu Authorities Act of 1951 (“Bantustans”; Homelands) created homelands/ bantustans designated areas within south Africa where blacks were required to live, some of the worst land, poor employment opportunities , forced resettlement, had to have them on them or thrown into jail ▯ 14. Reservation of Separate Amenities Act of 1953 similar to jim crow laws in the south. Public facilities designated for blacks/ colored only ▯ 15. Public Safety Act of 1953 protests led to this gave the gov’t the power to declare the state of emergency if there was protest against the apartheid which meant they could use military means. Gave gov’t power , if arrested they could be whipped fined or imprisoned 16. Sharpeville Massacre* (March 21, 1960) had a police station in Sharpeville, people went and gathered and announced they weren’t carrying pass books, practicing passive resistant against apartheid police reinforcement began to fire on the crowd o 69 people killed, 180 were wounded in response protests and riots broke out declared state of emergency , arrested 18,000 ppl ▯ 17. African National Congress (founded 1912) organizer of protest ▯ 18. Nelson Mandela (1918-2013) leader of African National Congress took place in organizing Sharpsville massacre arrested in 1962 for his work to end apartheid and sentenced to life imprisonment , 27 years in jail released in 1989 ▯ 19. United Nations ** (founded in October 1945) became increasingly involved in activities help ensure there wouldn’t be a WWIII talk, awareness , no military power ▯ 20. Resolution 181 (created 1962; embargo) passed by United Nations called for voluntary weapons embargo against south Africa some countries chose not to follow including USA and their sphere of influence because they didn’t want communism spreading to Afria and Leninsn an embargo is a band on trade with a country ▯ 21. International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (created 1966) created by the UN to help end apartheid same day as Sharpeville massacre ▯ 22. Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act (created 1986) the us passed this law to help end apartheid started an embargo with south Africa ▯ 23. genocide Rwanda 1994 resulted in genocide Deliberate systematic effort to wipe out a group to racial, ethnic or religious reasons Resu;ted in 500,000 deaths in 100 days ▯ 24. Cambodia, Yugoslavia, Rwanda, Darfur ▯ 25. Congo Free State and Leopold II ▯ 26. Hutus and Tutsis hutus killed the tutsis using machete ▯ 27. Darfur (region in Sudan) genocide in 2003 due to racial and ethnic conflict and is still going on today ▯ The End of the Cold War (Final Exam: 12 Noon on Monday, May 4) ▯ I. How did dissident movements contribute to the Cold War's end? ▯ II. How did economic dissatisfaction contribute to the Cold War's end? ▯ III. How did the arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union contribute to the Cold War's end? ▯ ▯ 1. November 9, 1989 berlin wall tears down ends division, end of cold war ▯ Causes of end of cold war 2. rise of dissident movements in Eastern Europe 3. Eastern European dissatisfaction with their economies 4. arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union ▯ 5. Eastern Europe: Poland, Czechoslovakia, East German, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria (Soviet Union’s sphere of influence) all independent countries that belonged to the soviet sphere of influence all single-party rule , called communist party but truly Bolshevik command economies ▯ ▯ 6. WTO (Warsaw Treaty Organization) military alliance that tied eastern countries together all countries had to promise to invade other countries if one of those countries tried to leave created in response to the creation of the NATO ▯ 7. NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) link together the countries of western Europe once war ended, it continued to exist, some countries from east joined NATO. ▯ I ▯ Dissident could also be called a political protester, suffered consequences ▯ After crushing of Prague springs in 1968 …. ▯ ▯ 8. Communist; Bolshevik or Leninist (revolutionary vanguard) ▯ 9. command economies ▯ 10. dissident (from word dissent) role models for change? ▯ 11. Gustav Husak (led Czechoslovakia, 1969-1987) largely selected by soviet union, leader selected after crushing of prague springs didn’t allow a lot of expression lots of dissidents were arrested and sent to jail declared the plastics and rock ‘n’ roll illegal because they sang songs critical of the communist party and soviet union and thought rock music had a bad influence on young ppl ▯ 12. Helsinki Accords (signed 1975) human rights document ask gov’t to sign piece of paper to commit themselves in respecting human rights right to freedom of expression, right to live with freedom from fear singed in Helsinki Finland in 1975, representatives from 35 different countries traveled and signed it ▯ 13. Plastic People of the Universe led by Ivan Jirous, “Magor”, means block head learned the power of culture from art historical studies Rock ‘n’ roll band Didn’t stop playing after Gustav banned it, they went underground, communist found out, so they began to arrest the members of band and audience members, arrest began in 1973 but reached their height in 1976 after the signing of of Helsinki accords ▯ ▯ 14. Charter '77 (led by Václav Havel) one of the most important dissident movements January 1977 Leading Czechoslovak dissident Founded upon protests against treatment of plastic people Brought about the end of the cold war in 1989 ▯ II ▯ ▯ 15. heavy industry vs. consumer goods economies of eastern Europe that emphasized heavy industry o production of coal, iron, manufacture of machines, heavy equipment, military machinery very little production of consumer goods o clothing, shoes, soap, meat, potatoes shortage economy ▯ December of 1970 worker strikes broke out because government announced they were raising the price of food ▯ ▯ 16. Edvard Gierek (led Poland, 1970-1981) Dec. 1970, new leader of Poland who they thought could manage strikes Negotiate with striking workers, made two promises o Increase wages o More consumer goods available to them Didn’t go thru with this promise, economy too inefficient to do this ▯ 1976 second wave of strikes broke out Gierek had them arrested and thrown in jail ▯ 17. KOR (Committee for Workers' Defense) in response to arrests 1976 money redistributing organization to raise money for the striking workers families power social coalition working together to ease plate for workers response was to declare KOR illegal and they arrested ▯ 18. Gdansk (Danzig) in July 1980 announced it was raising the price of food, response workers again went on strike, strongest was in polish city Gdansk, figured out they needed to organize themselves into committees ….. ▯ ▯ 19. Inter-Factory Strike Committees kind of like labor unions in USA. Came to exist in cells in each factories Decided if they really wanted to be powerful, they needed to organize themselves into a national committee. ▯ ▯ 20. Solidarity (led by Lech Walesa) second of two most important dissident movements, Poland In Sept. 1980 local strike committees sent representative to Gdansk to create a national committee. Gierek didn’t know what to do with it, Sep 1980- Dec 1981 communist party they left it alone ▯ 21. Wojciech Jaruzelski (established martial rule, 12/1981) new leader of Poland under instructions of the soviet union very harsh ▯ III ▯ 22. SS-20s and Minuteman Missiles (ICBMs) soviet union put on back of trucks and hid out in different places, USA hard to monitor The minuteman missile was created in 1970 in response to SS-20s. ▯ 23. President Ronald Reagan (US President, 1981-1989) increase the heat in arms race announced new program in 1983…. ▯ 24. Strategic Defense Initiative (“Star Wars”; began 1983) announced by RR satelites that would detect and deflect the soviet missiles the soviets could not retaliate due to the cost so they ended the arms race ▯ 25. Mikhail Gorbachev (led Soviet Union, 1985-1991) he withdrew soviet troops from eastern Europe ▯ 26. withdrawal of Soviet and WTO troops (began 12/1988) ▯ 27. Final Exam at 12 Noon on Monday, May 4 in HC2370 ▯ On Apr 23, 2015, at 12:10 PM, Savannah Miller <firstname.lastname@example.org> wrote: ▯ Can one of yall send me the notes from today? Im skipping Cuz I have a huge test and project due tomorrow. ▯ Savannah ▯ ▯ Sent from my iPhone ▯ ▯ Afghanistan and the Cold War (Final: 12 noon on Monday, May 4) ▯ I. What is a burqa? ▯ II. What reforms did Shah Amanullah Khan bring to Afghanistan? ▯ III. What was the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan? ▯ IV. Discuss life in the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (also called the Taliban State). ▯ ▯ 1. Afghanistan ▯ · completely land locked country ▯ 2. Pakistan(South and east border); Iran(western border); Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan(Northern border) ▯ · all border the country of Afghanistan ▯ · northern border states were apart of the soviet union prior to the fall ▯ 3. gold, silver, petroleum, lithium ▯ · Large amount of these natural resources in Afghanistan ▯ 4. Muslim; Islam; Allah; Quran (Koran); burqa ▯ · Population almost entirely Muslim (followers of Islam) ▯ · Allah is the one god of Islam and the book is the Quran ▯ 5. fundamentalists (very traditional) vs. modernizers ▯ · some more modern Muslims read the Quran and try and apply those messages to todays life (Modernizers) ▯ · other more traditional reader of the Quran believe you have to follow all the traditions the way they were originally wrote and should avoid the modern lifestyle (Fundamentalist) ▯ Burqa ▯ · Is a very long veil that completely covers a women’s body ▯ · Fundamentalists believe that this should be worn so that the women cant tempt the men in anyway. ▯ · Keeps them segregated ▯ 6. Durrani Empire ▯ · Created between 1700 and 1750 when the Durrani empire founded ▯ · Core and foundation of Afghanistan ▯ 7. Kandahar; Kabul ▯ · First capital Kandahar ▯ · Moved to Kabul ▯ · Switched back and forth between these city’s depending on who is leading at that time ▯ · Today capital Kabul th ▯ Fell under the control of the British at the end of the 19 century ▯ new state created after Britain kicked out ▯ monarchy(always kings) ▯ 8. Shah Amanullah Khan (ruled 1919-1929) ▯ · First king of the new Afghanistan ▯ · Very devout modernizer Muslim and believed modernizing was the key to keeping his countries independence ▯ · Wanted to advance women’s rights and education so they would pass those modern values to there children ▯ · Built elementary schools and required it by law (both boys and girls) ▯ · Abolished the burqua ▯ · There was lot of resientce due to his rapid changing and ideas ▯ · He was overthrown in January 1929 by a group of fundamentalist rebels ▯ Civil war between the modernizers and fundamentalist from (1929-1933) ▯ 9. Shah Mohammad Zahir (ruled 1933-1973) ▯ · took control of the government and ended the civil war ▯ · not a fundamentalist ▯ · attempts to do the same thing as the shah before him but he goes much slower than his predecessor ▯ · golden age for Afghanistan (kept a neutral position in world politics) ▯ · Didn’t fight in WWII and kept a neutral position in the cold war ▯ · Built highways, airports, hospitals and the first college and it was coed ▯ · Didn’t outlaw the burqua ▯ Both the us and soviet union wanted to take the country into there sphere of influence ▯ Shah Mohammad Zahir took money from both sides and used it to modernize his country ▯ Shah Mohammad Zahirs rule came to an end in 1973 after a coup d’etat ▯ · He was not in the countries so he wasn’t harmed ▯ 10. Non-aligned countries (Yugoslavia, India, and Afghanistan) ▯ 11. coup d’etat ▯ · violent overthrow of a government ▯ 12. Mohammad Daoud Khan (ruled 1973-1978) ▯ · cousin of the shah who carried out the coup d’etat ▯ · Goal was to have multiparty democratic rule ▯ · Killed in the Saur Revolution ▯ 13. Saur Revolution (1978) ▯ · lead by the Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan ▯ 14.*** People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) ▯ · Followed the principles of lenin ▯ · Pro-Soviet ▯ · Established single party authoritarian rule ▯ o Modeled after soviet union with command economy ▯ o Also took land away from people ▯ · There were not Muslims were actually Atheists ▯ · Attacked religious ideas and threw many people in jail ▯ · Believed in gender equality and outlawed the burqua ▯ 15. Mujahedeen (from word jihad, which means “holy war”) ▯ · formed in retaliation to the PDPA ▯ · formed from the word jihad ▯ · very devout traditional Muslims ▯ September 1979 the leader of the PDPA was killed ▯ Soviet union was outraged and wanted the PDPA to stay in power so they invaded Afghanistan ▯ 16. Soviet-Afghan War (December 1979 to February 1989) ▯ · Started when Soviet union invaded ▯ · Soviets sent 100,000 troops in Afghanistan that fought along side PDPA ▯ · Mujahedeen were very outnumbered and initially very poorly armed ▯ 17. Ronald Reagan (U.S. President from 1981-1989) ▯ · took interest in the Soviet-Afghan war due to there policy of containment ▯ 18. CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) ▯ · formed contacts in the Mujahedeen ▯ · secretly with out the knowledge of the American public and without congress passing a law gave the Mujahedeen weapons such as stinger missiles ▯ 19. Stinger missiles and launchers ▯ · very good at taking out soviet helicopters ▯ 20. Mikhail Gorbachev (Leader of Soviet Union, 1985-1991) ▯ · withdrew troops in February 1989 after he said they couldn’t afford it ▯ Civil war between Mujahedeen vs. PDPA broke out after soviets withdrew ▯ Lasted until 1992 and the fundamentalist forces won ▯ 21. Islamic State of Afghanistan (1992-1996) ▯ · state set up by the Mujahedeen ▯ 22. Taliban ▯ · didn’t think that the Islamic State of Afghanistan was fundamentalist enough ▯ · formed in 1994 to protest the government of Afghanistan ▯ · had support from Osama Bin Laden ▯ 23. Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (1996-2001; Taliban State) ▯ · Taliban took control of the government ▯ · Super strict Muslim state ▯ o All women would wear the buqua and building had to have all windows painted so people couldn’t see in the women’s houses ▯ o Women cant work ▯ 24. Department for the Propagation of Virtue and the Suppression of Vice ▯ · established to enforce all rules et by the taliban ▯ ▯ 25. Osama Bin Laden (1957-2011; from Saudi Arabia; founded al-Qaeda in ▯ 1988) ▯ · Fought in the Soviet-Afghan war on the side of the Mujahedeen ▯ · Founded al-Qaeda to support the Mujahedeen ▯ ▯ 26. September 11, 2001 ▯ · after this us sent forces into Afghanistan and ended the Taliban state ▯ ▯ The History of Israeli-Palestinian Relations (Final: Noon on Monday, May 4) ▯ I. Discuss the background of the Palestinians. ▯ II. Disuss the background of the Israelis. ▯ III. What was the Balfour Declaration? ▯ IV. What did the United Nations propose in 1947? ▯ ▯ 1. Israeli-Palestinians Relations ▯ 2. Israel **(established May 14, 1948; Israelis are citzens of Israel; capital city: Jerusalem) o ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ 3. Palestine (no such independent country; Palestinians) *used to be a region/ territory in Roman empire has never been an independent state/country o even today o Muslims on account of their history romans kicked Jews out, they didn’t want to leave, they thought the land was promised to them by God. Fell under rule of ottoman empire ▯ 4. Ottoman Empire Muslim empire, follow Islam, holy book is Quran Palestine became part of this ▯ 5. Muslim, Islam, Quran (also spelled Koran), Allah ▯ After WWI Great Britain got control of Palestine until shortly after WWII ▯ 6. Zionism born in late 19 thcentury in Vienna that grew out of anti- Semitism (hatred/ hostility toward Jews) creation of independent/ jewish state in region of palestine ▯ ▯ 7. Karl Lueger (mayor of Vienna around 1900) used anti-Semitic appeal to get elected ▯ ▯ ▯ 8. Anti-semitism (hatred and hostility towards Jews) ▯ ▯ 9. Theodor Herzl (1860-1904; founder of Zionism) journalist, very in tune with current events was Jewish concluded he would never be able to change Europeans and their thinking creation of an independence and Jewish country where they could go and live and raise their families wanted this to be established and maintained in the region of Palestine, ▯ 10. Mount Zion (Temple Mount in Jerusalem) where Zionism came from sacred religious site ▯ ▯ 11. World Zionist Organization (founded 1897; first international meeting in 1897 in Switzerland) jews from around europe came together and discussed independent state , convinced to move even though still under control of Ottoman. First group went in 1904 and began to settle/ lay foundation During WWI Zionism became very popular with Jews ▯ ▯ **12. Balfour Declaration (November 1917; Arthur Balfour, 1848-1930) helped boost popularity of Zionism because it made it seem possible , ottoman empire falling apart during WWI, Arthur Balfour eager to have Jewish support for great Britain in WWI, **British gov’t promised to support Zionist desire to create an independent state in Palestine encouraged more jews to leave home and go to Palestine, 1920s, 1930s increased migration led to increase conflict between Palestinians, against newcomers ▯ 13. Kibbutz (collective or communal farms) didn’t just take land away, they bought land at first Palestinians were glad to sell, but Jews pulled lands together where only Jews could work at caused economic problems by 1930s tensions began to erupt in violence ▯ ▯ 14. Great Uprising, 1936-1939 o effort on part of the Palestinians to scare Jewish newcomers o effort to try and scare great Britain out cuz they still had control ▯ ▯ 15. terrorist tactics used tactics to try and scare them, targeted public places GB had to take control and finally in 1939 and regained control In 1940, No more jews could come to Palestine to try and keep a lid on revolts in 1940, Jews really need a place to go/escape from Hitler so it upset them and made them have more desire for independent country created organizations in attempt to drive GB out, used terrorist tactics. ▯ 16. Stern Gang (leader: Yitzhak Shamir) o came to be prime minister of Israel terrorist tactics to try and get GB ou ▯ 17. Irgun (leader: Menachem Begin) o also went on to be a prime minister used terrorist tactics too to try and gain control of Palestine ▯ 18. King David Hotel in Jerusalem Irgun bombed this 1946 , 91 people died In 1947, British decided they didn’t want to own Palestine and give it up, they cannot just withdraw from it, too messy, so GB ask the UN to decide who should have control of Palestine ▯ IIII ▯ 19. United Nations (established October 24, 1945) In 1947 the UN proposed divide Palestine into two independent countries, divide land so both opposing sides get what they want o Neither side liked it , both wanted more o War broke out started in 1948 and ended around the same time, Jews won the war, felt confident to declare the creation of independent state, *May 14, 1948* o Tensions still continued ▯ 20. Knesset (Israeli parliament) Israelian parliament with multi-party rule Elected only by selected few, Many Palestinians were not allowed to vote Israelians kept taking land and Palestinians kept having to flee, went to live to designated areas in Israel or were refugees in other countries ▯ 21. Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) 1964, came out of refugee experience founded in 1964 main goal of creation a independent Palestinian state, so refugees could return home ▯ 22. Yassar Arafat (1929-2004; replaced by Mahmoud Abbas) first leader of PLO ▯ ▯ During much of Cold War the PLO received much support from Soviet Union, the U.S was supplying weapons to Israel ▯ ▯
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'