Sociology Ch. 5-6 Notes
Sociology Ch. 5-6 Notes Soci 20213
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This 0 page Bundle was uploaded by Julia Machuga on Monday February 22, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Soci 20213 at Texas Christian University taught by Michelle Edwards in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
Julia Machuga Sociology Notes CHAPTER 5 Dyad social group with 2 members 0 Forms 1 relationship 0 More intense social interaction than in larger groups 0 Unstable because if one member withdraws group is over Triad social group with 3 members 0 More stable than dyad 0 When group grows larger they can withstand the loss of one or more members 0 Reduces intense interaction but increases the power of a group over its individual members Small group facetoface interaction one center of attention lack of formal roles certain level of equality Large group formal structure status differentiation Primary group small social group whose members share a personal amp lasting relationship 0 Spend lots of time with them Often one s rst experience with a group Key agents of socialization Members are irreplaceable Tightly integrated group 0 Ex family Secondary group large amp impersonal social group whose members pursue a speci c goal or activity 0 Weak emotional ties amp impersonal 0 May only exist for a short time 0 Includes many people 0 Ex sorority TCU class of 2019 Passage of time can transform a group from secondary to primary lngroup social group you respect amp are loyal to also seen as the group in powermajority Outgroup social group you feel sense of opposition not necessarily hostility also seen as less powerful or stigmatized groupthe minority ex democratsrepublican Networks web of social ties not necessarily a group reach great distances amp include a lots of people people we know of or who know us but rarely interact Strength of quotweak tiesquot for employment OOOO o Relying on strong ties in job searches causes new info to be dif cult to come across Weak ties can be more powerful job search resource Social networks are valuable source of social capital 0 Social capital information knowledge of people things or connections that help people leverage or gain power in social networks all about who you know high levels of social capital generally mean the community is tightly knit amp can come together to face challengesmake improvement Social network set of relations essentially a set of dyads held together by ties between individuals Organization any social network de ned by a common purpose amp has a boundary between its membership amp the rest of the social world Paul DiMaggio amp Walter Powell part of school of thought called new institutionalism tries to develop sociological view of institutions lsomorphism constraining process forcing 1 organization to resemble others that face same environmental conditions 00 CHAPTER 6 Mechanical solidarity social cohesion based on homogeneity of individuals same work education religious views lifestyle etc Organic solidarity social cohesion based on dependence on each other as individuals perform different tasks farmers food factory workers who produce tractors etc Functionalist approach to deviant behavior 0 Mechanical social sanctions rules with repressive sanctions emphasis on collective 0 Organic social sanctions rules with restitutive sanctions emphasis on individual Deviant behavior Departs from norms Draws social disapproval Elicits if detected negative sanctions formal or informal Ex drug use provocative gestures middle nger The same action can be read many different ways depending on the audience amp place What is quotrape culturequot 0 Society doesn t outwardly promote rape 0 We don t commonly engage in sexual violence as a society 0 But some argue we commonly engage in behaviors that excuse or tolerate it A sociologist s perspective O 0000 o What we see as quotdeviantquot is socially constructed 0 How we treat different forms of quotdeviantquot behavior is affected by society What are some societal explanations of deviance amp how we control deviance Deviance o Clari es social norms amp moral boundaries 0 Brings society together against the social deviants o Deviance can also be dysfunctional if it threatens the social order too much crimedeviance Social control mechanisms that create normative compliance act of abiding by society s norms 0 Formal sanctions ruleslaws prohibiting deviant behavior Getting arrested employee of the month military award Nobel peace price red card sports 0 Informal sanctions unwritten rules of social life Smiling at someone high ving 0 Can be positive or negative Functionalist approach to deviance 0 Mechanical social sanctions rules with repressive sanctions emphasis on collective to strengthen common identity 0 Sameness gtgt mechanical solidarity us as a group punishing a person repressive 0 Example stoning scarlet letter us versus the deviant person 0 Organic social sanctions rules with restitutive sanctions emphasis on individuality amp interdependence o The type of society you are in affects what kind of punishment you would receive 0 Examples paying money back to whoever you harmed community service Robert Merton 0 Why do we have mo or less deviance 0 Strain Theory why does the US have high rates of deviant behavior When there s a lack of t between the culture s norms about success goals amp and the culture s norms about how to achieve that success means 0 Our culture s goals have a career make moneypro t support self for family be happy 0 Our culture s means educated get a job saving investing plan for retirement Labeling theory amp deviants theory that individuals subconsciously notice how others see amp label them their reactions to those labels over time forms the basis of their selfidentity quotself ful lling prophecyquot Stigma any attribute that discredits a person or disquali es him or her from quotfull social acceptancequot Crime vs deviance not all acts of deviance are punishable by law but crimes are Measuring crime 0 Uniform crime reports of cial data on crime provided by FBI law enforcement agencies voluntarily provide this information each month 0 National crime victimization survey survey of households twice a year on the frequency of crime victimization focuses on certain crimes like burglary amp assault 0 Uniform crime reports probably show higher crime rates Types of crime 0 Crimes against persons murder assault 0 Crimes against property theft without bodily harm arson 0 Crimes against morality prostitution illegal drug use gambling o Whitecollar crime embezzling insider trading tax evasion Deterrence theory of crime control philosophy crime results from a rational calculation of costs amp bene ts of criminal activity 0 Speci c amp general deterrence used to reduce recidivism person s relapse into criminal behavior often after the person receives sanctions or undergoes intervention for a previous crime
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