Intro to Human Geography
Intro to Human Geography GEOG140
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Local Culture, Popular Culture, and Cultural Landscapes Culture Sum total of the knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behavior patterns shared and transmitted by the members of a society o Complex concept with various meanings o Important how people, not academics, define themselves as a group Local Culture Group of people in a particular place who see themselves as a collective or community who… Share experiences, customs, and traits Work to preserve those traits and customs in order to claim uniqueness and to distinguish themselves from others o Usually found in a small area o Accept or reject diffusing cultural traits o Use a variety of tactics to maintain their ways i.e., community celebrations, family structures, lack of interaction with other cultures o Influence places i.e., leave their imprint on the cultural landscape i.e., with their material and nonmaterial culture o “material culture” Art, housing, clothing, sports, dances, foods, and other similar items constructed or created by a group of people Constructed Items Frequently express non-material culture o “non-material culture” Beliefs, practices, aesthetics, and values of a group of people o Sustaining Local Culture Local Cultures… Are sustained through retaining customs Often purposively define themselves as unique o To create boundaries around their culture o Distinguish themselves from other local cultures Work to avoid “cultural appropriation” Process by which cultures adopt customs and knowledge from other cultures and use them for their own benefit o Rural Local Cultures Decreased amount of interaction with other cultural groups allow local living in rural areas to more easily maintain their ways Often share a common economic activity i.e., Anabaptist Groups o i.e., Hutterites Live communally in colonies of roughly 100 people Colonies primarily found in the northern parts of American and the southern portions of the Canadian Great Plains Religious beliefs, customs, and ways bind them Agricultural economy that adopts modern agricultural technologies o Urban Local Cultures Often are ethnic neighborhoods within cities Hasidic Jews in Brooklyn, NY Create a space to practice customs Can cluster businesses, houses of worship, schools to support local culture o Commodification of Local Cultures Local cultures often experience “commodification” o Process of making something that wasn’t previously bought and sold a commodity in the marketplace Can be done themselves or by outsiders Commodification of material culture, nonmaterial culture, culture as a whole Often affects the authenticity of the culture i.e., type casts what the dominant consumers will purchase and thus perpetuates myths o i.e., the noble savage Cultures are dynamic “Authentic” tourist destinations are frequently designed to exploit the mystical in local cultures o Theme parks and entertainment venues sometimes overtly choose and perpetuate a culture’s stereotype i.e., Guinness and the Irish Pub Company recreating Irish pubs throughout the world Popular Culture o Can be defined as traits or a population Cultural traits that identify and are part of today’s changeable, urban-based, media- influence western societies Large, heterogeneous population, typically urban, with rapidly changing culture Practiced by a large, heterogeneous group i.e., food o Hearths Typically begin with an idea or good Creation or manufacture of popular culture by… Companies o i.e., soft drink companies Individuals o i.e., best dressed people Major hearths Europe Japan United States Replacing Old Hearths with new Corporations must create the “new” so that they have something to sell that is “socially desirable” Beating out the Big 3 Sports: Football, Basketball, Baseball o Surfing (1960s) o Skateboarding (1970s) o Snowboarding (1980s) o Ultimate Fighting (1990s) o Diffusion Rapid spread of new traits by contagious and hierarchical diffusion via communication, marketing, and transportation networks Distance-decay Likelihood of diffusion decreases as distance from hearth increases Time-Space Compression Diffusion most rapid at most compressed spaces Interaction between local and popular cultures Patronage by local cultures of popular culture services Adoption of popular culture of local culture traits o Resisting Popular Culture Diffusion Government subsidies Media in local languages Dominant cultures of wealthy counties Fundamentalism Minorities in wealthy counties Cultural preservations Political elites in poorer countries Nationalist ideologies Social and ethnic minorities in poorer counties Greater autonomy Seeing Cultures in the Cultural Landscape o Cultural Landscape Lewis’s “Axioms for Reading the Landscape” “Our human landscape in our unwitting autobiography, reflecting our tastes, our values, our aspirations, and even our fears, in tangible, visible form” Cultural landscape as the visible human imprint on the land o Convergence of cultural landscapes Diffusion of skyscrapers as a mark of a city Widespread distribution of businesses and products Borrowing of idealized landscape images i.e., Eiffel Tower o Are all places becoming the same? Does globalization equal “placelessness”? Loss of uniqueness of place in the cultural landscape so that one place looks like the next “Global-local continuum” o Notion that what happens at the global scale has a direct effect on what happens at the local scale, and vice versa What happens in an individual place is the product of interaction across scales “Glocalization” o Process by which people in a local place mediate and alter regional, national, and global processes Geodemographic Themes and Concepts Malthus o An Essay on the Principles of Population (1798) warned that population was growing faster than food supply o Population growing exponentially o Food supplies growing linearly Reasons his predictions didn’t materialize o Global food sources expanded o Agricultural productivity increased Doubling Time Number of Years a population to double in size o Decrease in means comparative rapid growth o Increase in means comparative slower growth 70/Growth Rate= Doubling Rate Diseases that can affect Life Expectancy and Mortality o Infectious Diseases (65%) Spread from Person to person Vectored Spread through intermediary, such as an insect o i.e., Malaria NonVectored Spread directly from person to person o i.e., HIV/AIDS Chronic or degenerative disease o Disease of middle or old age o i.e., heart disease Genetic or inherited disease o Passed through genes from one generation to the next o i.e., Hemophilia Natural Increase Rate (NIR) o Difference between births and deaths o Doesn’t include immigrations and emigration o High Most African and Asian Countries o Low Developed Countries o Zero or Negative Eastern Europe Population implosion implications Major World Population Clusters East Asia (1.55 Billion+) o Population concentrated Easter cities along rivers, basins, and lowlands South Asia (1.53 Billion) o Confined region with rapid population growth 23% of worlds population on 3% of world’s land o Population clustered in cities, coasts, and rivers i.e., along Ganges River plain i.e., Bangladesh: 156 million people in area size of Iowa o Physical geography barriers separate population clusters i.e., Himalayas Europe (715 Million) o Population especially concentrated in cities and along coal fields o Highly urbanized i.e., 80% in UK, 78% in France, 73% in Germany North America (335.6 Million) o Largest Urban Center (megalopolis) from Boston to Washington (BOSWASH) More than 20% of US population Most Populous Countries as of 2015 China- 1,367,485,388 India- 1,251,695,584 United States- 321,368,864 Indonesia- 255,993,674 Brazil- 204,259,812 Studying Population of Composition and Dynamics Important to understand components of a population’s composition o Gender Distribution o Age Distribution “Population Pyramid” Graphic Depiction of a population by percentage in each gender’s age group o Magic Fertility Number 2.1 Children Generalization of Shapes o Evergreen Tree Youngest age cohorts make up largest share of population Small population in older age groups Usually associated with poorer countries that have… High Fertility High Infant Mortality Short Life Expectancy Rapid Population Growth i.e., Niger o Lopsided Vase Middle Age cohorts make up largest share of population Usually associated with wealthier countries that have… Low fertility rates Low infant mortality Long Life expectancy Little to no growth i.e., France o “Demographic Transition Model” Multi-stage model of changes in population growth exhibited by countries undergoing industrialization Takes into account changes in birth, death, and growth rates Decline in death rates followed by decline in birth rates, resulting in a low or stable growth rate Factors limiting population growth Famine, epidemics, plagues, wars Factors enhancing population growth Agricultural advances, Industrial Revolution, sanitation, vaccinations Governments Affecting Population Change Various policies that are viewed as radical o Expansive Policies that encourage large families and raise the rate of natural increase i.e., USSR and Mao’s China i.e., Tax incentives in some modern European countries i.e., Ulyanovsk Province, Russia’s National Day of Conception (Sept. 12) o Eugenic Policies which favor a racial or cultural sector of population over others Promotion of birth control among certain groups i.e., Nazi Germany Can be covertly practiced through discriminatory taxation, biased allocation of resources, and other forms of favoritisms o Restrictive Policies designated to reduce growth rate Numerous formats Toleration of officially unapproved means of birth control o i.e., India (Feticides or Infanticide) Prohibition of large families o i.e., China’s One Child Policy Successful-1970s NIR 3%, Today 0.7% Unintended consequences Background Information on Domestic Human Trafficking Worldwide, 2 ndmost profitable illegal activity o High profit, low risk Commonplace in US o 100,000 children estimated to be in the sex trade in the US each year Occurs nearly everywhere o Know what to look for and look FBI and Police are main source of finding trafficking Video: Largest trafficking stunt in US is in KC Male, Female, Domestic, and International Victims Slums and High Class areas of KC Background Info Within the Great Plains, efforts at preliminary research and teaching have begun in order o Combat Stereotypes o Increase Public awareness o Assist law enforcement o Provide statistics for victim-support services o Heal Victims o Change Policy o Prevent Future incidents Geographic Perspective of Human Trafficking Geographic Lens o Spatial examination of interdisciplinary concepts, Geography has much to offer o Trafficking is better understood thought Core Culture Demographics Sample Research Objectives Examining and Understanding human geography complexities o Enslavement processes Location Motivation Middle Aged Vietnamese man enslaved and prostitiudted in Lincoln in order to “keep him in his place” Source Regions Transfer locations Destinations Identifiy Common charatcteristics and papers o Victims Socio-economic status Push/Pull Factors Minneapolis teens lured to Omaha by promises of modeling, but instead forced into prostitiution Identify common characteristics and patterns o Traffickers Economic Demand Situations College World Series Sturgis Pheasant Hunting Season Pipeland construction Truck Stops o Clients Examples of Branding Bar code tattoo Branders name tattoo Challenges Just because there isn’t media coverage of, research on, public conversation about, etc. o Doesn’t mean human trafficking isn’t happening Human Trafficking Definitions Trafficking in persons o Recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring, or receipt or persons, by means of threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deceptions, of the abuse of power or of a person Federal Law Human Trafficking o Recruitment, harboring, transpiration or obtaining of a person for labor services, though the use of force, feud, or coercion for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery Sex Trafficking o , harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for the purposes of a commercial sex act, in which the commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such an act has not attained 18 years of age Labor Trafficking o Boys in the Bunkhouse Turkey plant in Catawissa Iowa Not Label/prosecuted correctly Central Nebraska Human Trafficking and Immigration Outreach o Commonly sees o Victims frequently immigrants (legal or illegal) and ex- convicted felons Words to Listen For People “Daddy” “Romeo” o Prides himself on controlling others. Shower victims with affection and gifts “Bottom B****/ Girl” o Appointed by trafficker supervise others and report violations. “Right Hand.” Help instruct victims, collect money, etc. John (Client) Misc. The Life/ The Game “Seasoning” o Combination of mental manipulation, intimidation, rape, sodomy, beatings, deprivation, isolation, and threatening victim. Designed to break down victim’s resilience and ensure compliance. Track Trick Quota “The Circuit” o Series of cities among which prostituted Common Assumption It Happens over there, not here Only big cities have that problem The girls trafficked here are from elsewhere Pimps are males Victims are females Incidents occurred in the past Human trafficking laws have been on the states’ books for a long time “Johns” are single, low socio-economic recluse males H.T. Indicators General o Believe that they must work against their will o Be unable to leave their work environment o Show signs that their movements are being contolled o Feel that they cannot leave o Show fear or anxiety o Be subjected to violence or threass of violence against themselves or against their family members o Suffer injuries or impairments typical of certain jobs or control measures o Suffer injuries that appear to be the result of the application of control measures o Be distrustful with authorities o Be threatedned with being handed to authorities o Be afraid of revealing their immigration status o Not be in possession of passports or identity documents o Have false identitiy o Found in or connected to a type of olocation likely to used for exploiting o Unfamiliar with local langage o Sllow others to speak for them o Act as if they were instructed by someone else o Force tow ork under certain conditions o Discipline through punishment o Unable to negotitte working conditions o Receive little or not payment o Have no acces to their earnings o Work excessively long hours over long periods o Not have any days off o Live in poor conditions o No access to medical care o Limited social interaction o Limited Contact with families o Unable to communicate freely with others o Under the perception that they are bonded by debt o In a situation of dependence o Come from a place known to be source of trafficking o Acted on the basis of false promises Sexual Exploitations o Be of any age, although the age may vary according to the location and the market o Move from one brothel to the next or work in various locations o Escorted wherever they go to and return from work and other outside activities o Have tattoos or other marks indicating “ownership” by their exploitators o Work long hours or have few if any days off o Sleep where they work o Live or travel in a group, sometimes with other woman who do not speak the same language o Have very few items of clothing o Have clothes that are mostly the kind of typically worn for doing sex work o Only know how to say sex-related wordsin the local language or in the language of the client group o Have no cash of their own o Be unable to show identity document o Following might also indicated that children have been trafficked: o Evidence suspected victims have had unprotected and/or violent sex o Evidences suspected ictims have had unprotected and/or violent sex o Evidence that a person has been bought and sold o Evidence that groups of women are under the control of others o Ads are placed for brothels offereing the services of women of a particular ethnicity or nationality o Reported that sex workers provide services to a clientele of a particular ethnicity or nationality o Reported by clients that sex workers don’t smile Countering H.T. 4 Ps o Prevention of the crime o Prosecution of the trafficker/johns o Protection for the victims o Partnership across all levels of society Learn Intentionally educate yourself o Learn from resources o Red Flags Take and encourage others to take trainings o Legislation o Who to Contact Do Don’t ignore Figure out your niche Have courage o Lead courageously o Protect Support entities that are already helping Educate yourself o Protect/educated children about what to look out for Be Aware Report Societal Change o Prevent vulnerability o Change perceptions of purchase of human beings o Heal people Department of Justice estimates the most frequency age of entry into the commercial sex industry in the US is between 12-14 Estimates as high as 98% of prostituted women were sexually abused as children, leaving them conditioned to sexual exploitation Identity How people see themselves at different scales A. People construct their own identities through experiences, emotions, connections, and rejections B. Fluid, constantly changing, shifting, becoming C. Place is part of our identity a) People have different identities at various scales b) When people make places they do so in the context of surrounding social relationships D. “Identifying against” is one of the most powerful ways to construct an identity a) Defining the “other” and then defining ourselves as “not that” b) E.g. Europeans defined people in Asia as “mystical” others, in Africa and America as “mystical” and “savage” others Race Categorization of humans based on skin color and other physical characteristics A. Biological differences are simply different combinations of physical attributes in the human population a. Some argue that the differences likely result from a long history of adaptation to different environments b. Skin color is not a reliable indicator of genetic closeness B. Constructed identity a. Categories are social and political constructions i. Based on ideas that some biological differences are more important than others Racial distinction today are drawn from categories of skin color that are rooted in the cultural history, power relationships, and politics of a place over the past few centuries i. “People construct racial categories to justify power, economic exploitation, and cultural oppression a. i.e., Many societies modern assumptions about race grew out of the period of Europeans exploration and colonialism Race is often assigned, not chosen o In the US, racial categories are typically imposed on people through… Residential Segregation Degree to which two or more groups live separately from one another, in different parts of the urban environment Racialized divisions of labor Racial categories defined by governments Ethnicity An affiliation of identity within a group bound by common ancestry and culture Can also mean a small, cohesive, culturally linked group of people who stand apart from the surrounding culture, often as a result from migration A. Constructed identity that is tied to a place 1. Comes from idea that people are closely bounded, even related, in a place over time B. Complex concept that changes across scales, places, and times C. Frequently evident in cultural landscape 1. Can read the cultural landscape can reveal how power relationships factor into… i. Ways ethnicities are constructed, revised, and solidified ii. Where ethnic groups live iii. Who is subjugating whom D. Changes in Ethnic Space 1. i.e., Mexicali’s Chinatown i. Center of Chinese ethnicity iththe Mexicali Valley throughout much of the 20 century ii. Chinese were prominent in the social and economic life of the city iii. Few Chinese residents today iv. Yet continues to pay an important symbolic and functional role for individuals of Chinese ancestry E.g. 1992 Los Angeles riots i. (Ethnic conflicts are rooted in perceptions of distinctiveness based on differences in economics, power, languages, religion, lifestyle, or historical experiences) ii. Changing ethnic groups and cultural landscapes in South Central LA a. 1970—over 90% African American b. 1990—Half African American, half Hispanic, with small number of others (i.e., Korean) iii. Growing despair and frustration of different ethnic groups competing for a decreasing number of jobs in an environment of declining housing conditions and scarce public resources Gender Social differences between men and women, rather than anatomical, biological differences between the sexes A. “ A culture’s assumptions about the differences between men and women: their ‘characters,’ the roles they play in society, what they represent.” –Domosh and Seager B. Culturally constructed C. Notions of differences vary greatly over time and space a. E.g. Roles, expectations, value Concept of “no need” for masculine studies Capabilities vs. personality/attractiveness o E.g. Carly Fiorina’s “beautiful face,” lead prosecutor Marcia Clark’s hair o E.g. “Dr” vs. “Mrs.” o E.g. “Women are teachers, men are professors” o E.g. Northwestern Study Gendered o In terms of a place, whether the place is designed for or claimed by men or women 1. Divisions of labor one of the clearest ways in which society is gendered Sexuality A. Culturally constructed B. Most social science is written in heteronormative style a. Viewpoint of researchers that the default subject of these studies is a white heterosexual male C. Local Cultures, global cultures, politics affect sexual identities and expectations D. Scholarship a. Early studies on focused on identity clusters i. People who share similar identities who lived together and… 1. How they created their space 2. What problems they have had b. New studies see gay and lesbian neighborhoods as “extending the norm, not transgressing or challenging it” c. “Queer theory” i. Theory that highlights the contextual nature of opposition to and focuses on the political engagement of queers with the heteronormative Movie Notes More than 7,000 languages around the world 1 small language is dying every 2 weeks Usually kids decide not to use the ancestor’s language. But one they grow up it will be gone Russian language is killing Siberian language Chulym is viewed as a gutter language and many people are ashamed to speak it In school they are forbidden to speak it so they either forgot about it or are ashamed to admit it 1060 boarding schools were banned for Native Indians Language is an identity to who you are “without your native language you might as well be dead” Sora Language o Need permission from government to get onto the land o Places are restricted from others because they don’t follow Hindu o Noxils o 3 hundred thousand people speak this o Gift giving is complex o More than 80% of animals in India have not been named in western science Kallawaya o Less than 100 speakers o They are healers Language I. Basics A. Language i. Set of sounds, combinations of sounds, and symbols used for communication B. Standard Language i. Language that is published, widely distributed, and purposefully taught 1. i.e., Northern Mandarin Chinese C. Role of government in standardizing a language i. i.e., Official Language 1. Government-selected language or languages to try to enhance communication in a multilingual state a. Portuguese in Angola II. Language and Place-making A. “Place” i. The uniqueness of a location, what people do in a location, what they create, how they impart a certain character, a certain imprint on the location B. “Toponym” i. Place name ii. Imparts a certain character on a place iii. Reflects the social processes in a place iv. Can give a glimpse of the history of a place v. Major reasons people change toponyms 1. After decolonization 2. After a political revolution 3. To commodify or brand a place 4. To memorialize people or events III. Language Formation A. Linkages among languages marked by sound shifts, slight changes in a word across languages over time i. i.e., Milk+ 1. lacte in Latin 2. leche in Spanish 3. lait in French 4. latta in Italian B. Language convergence i. When people with different languages have consistent interactions and their languages blend into one C. Language divergence i. Breakup of a language into dialects and then new languages from lack on interaction among speakers 1. Dialect a. Variant of standard language by ethnicity or region b. i.e., by vocabulary, cadence, pronunciation c. i.e., Harvard dialect survey IV. Study of Historical Languages A. Backward reconstruction i. Tracking sound shifts and the hardening of consonants backward to reveal an “original language ii. Can deduce the vocabulary of an extinct language iii. Can recreate ancient languages B. Historical Linkages among languages i. Nostratic Languages 1. Ancient ancestor of Proto-Indo-European Languages ii. Proto-Indo-European Languages 1. “Renfrew Hypothesis” a. Began in the Fertile Crescent and later became… i. Europe’s languages from Anatolia ii. i.e., major Indo-European branch languages in contemporary Europe 1. Romance 2. Germanic 3. Slavic b. North Africa and Arabia’s language from the western arc of Fertile Crescent c. Southwest Asia and South Asia’s languages from the eastern arc of Fertile Crscent i. i.e., languages in present-day Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India Basic Types of Movement Cyclic Movement Traveling away from home for a short period o During we move within our “activity spaces” Area within which daily activities occurs Regular sequence of short moves within a local area o Examples Communting Seasonal Movement Nomadism Traveling along a definite set of spaces Periodic Movement Traveling away from home for a longer period o Migrant Labor Worker who crosses international borders in search of work o Transhumance Seasonal periodic traveling of pastoralists and their livestock according to seasonal availability of pastures o Military Service o Going to College Migration Change in residence intended to be permanent o Long-term reelection of an individual, household, or larger group to a new locale outside the community of origin o Types International Travel across county borders Internal Travel within a single country’s borders Guest Workers Migrants allowed into a country to fill a labor need, assuming the workers will go “home” once the labor need subsides o Have short term work visas o Send remittances to home country Money migrants send back to family and friends in their home countries, forming, an important part of the economy in poorer countries Concepts Push and Pull Factors o Push Factor Negative conditions and perceptions that induce people to leave their abode and migrate to a new locale o Pull Factor Positive conditions and perceptions that effectively attract people to new locales from other areas o Push and Pull Factors that cause migration Legal Status Economic Conditions Power relationships Political Circumstances Armed Conflict and civil war Environmental Conditions Culture and Traditions Technological Advances o Reasons for moving Forced Migration Movers have no choice but to relocate Voluntary Migrations Mover has the option and chooses to relocate Migrants weigh push and pull factors to decide whether to move, where to Types o Step Migration When a migrant follows a series of stages toward a final destination At one of the steps along the path, in intervening opportunity might cause the migrant to settle there o Chain Migration Further migration to a place where friends/relatives have already settled Gender Differences Research indicates that globally males o More Mobile o Migrate farther o Have more employment choices and income Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration Every migration flow generates a return or counter migration Majority of migrants move a short distance Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big-city destinations Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants Families are less likely to make international moves that young adults Religion I. Basics A. Religion 1. System of beliefs and practices that attempts to order life in terms of culturally perceived ultimate priorities 2. Consists of “perceived ultimate priorities i. Things a follower should do ii. Ways a follower should behave B. Concepts of divinity 1. Monotheistic religions i. Worship a single deity 2. Polytheistic i. Worship more than one deity 3. Animistic i. Believe that inanimate objects posses spirits and should revered C. Classification 1. Universalizing religion i. One that actively seeks converts because members believe they offer belief systems of universal appropriateness and appeal 2. Ethnic religion i. One whose adherents are born into the faith and whose members don’t actively seek converts II. Manifestations of A. Worship B. Belief that certain people possess special divinely granted abilities C. Belief in one or more deities D. Practices 1. Ritual and prayer 2. Marking life events 3. Rituals at regular intervals E. Secularism 1. Decline in organized religious observances III. From the Hearth of South Asia A. Hinduism 1. Originated in Indus River Valley over 4,000 years ago 2. Practices and beliefs i. i.e., ritual bathing, karma, reincarnation 3. Sacred test: Vedas 4. Sacred Site: Ganges River 5. Social manifestation: caste system 6. Diffusion B. Buddhism 1. Splinter from Hinduism 2,500 years ago 2. Originated in a region from Nepal south to the Ganges River 3. Beliefs i. Anyone can achieve salvation, reach enlightenment 4. Founder i. Siddhartha 5. Sacred Sites i. Stupas 6. Diffusion IV. From the Hearth of the Eastern Mediterranean A. Judaism 1. Originated in Southwest Asia about 4,000 years ago 2. Beliefs i. First major monotheistic religion ii. Covenant between God and Abraham 3. Sacred Text: Torah 4. First patriarch/leader: Abraham 5. Sacred Sites i. Jerusalem (Western Mall) ii. Land between the Mediterranean and the Jordan River 6. Social Manifestation: Zionism 7. Diffusion i. European cities during the diaspora 1. Ashkenazim: Central Europe 2. Sephardim: North Africa and Iberian Peninsula ii. North America iii. Return to Israel over last 100 years B. Christianity 1. Originated in Southwest Asia about 2,000 years ago 2. Beliefs i. Monotheistic ii. Follow teachings of Jesus to achieve eternal life 3. Sacred text: Bible 4. Founder: Jesus Christ 5. Sacred Sites i. Bethlehem ii. Jerusalem 6. Divisions i. 1054:Split into… 1. Eastern Orthodox 2. Roman Catholic ii. 1400s-1500s: Protestants 7. Diffusion i. Western Europe ii. World wide during and after colonialism C. Islam 1. Originated on Arabian Peninsula about 1,500 years ago 2. Beliefs i. Monotheistic ii. Revelations Muhammad received from Allah iii. Five Pillars 3. Sacred text: Qu’ran 4. Founder: Muhammad 5. Sacred sites i. Mecca ii. Medina iii. Jerusalem 6. Divisions i. Sunni Muslim ii. Shi’ite Muslims 7. Diffusion i. Arabian Peninsula ii. Across North Africa, into Spain iii. East to South and Southeast Asia V. Indigenous Religions A. Local in scope B. Passed down in families C. Shamanism 1. “shaman” i. Religious leader, teacher, healer, and visionary 2. Appeared in i. Africa ii. Native America iii. Southeast Asia iv. East Asia VI. Religion in the Cultural Landscape A. Sacred sites and landscapes 1. i.e., Jerusalem i. Judaism (Western Wall) ii. Christianity (Church of the Holy Sepulchre) iii. Islam (Dome of the Rock) 2. Hinduism i. i.e., Ganges River 1. Pilgrimages along prescribed routes 2. Rituals by millions 3. Buddhism i. i.e., Shwedogon Pagoda in Yangon, Myanmar 4. Christianity i. i.e., Catholic churches are often located in the center of European cities, with spires reaching far about other buildings ii. i.e., Protestant Churches 5. Islam i. i.e., Muslim Mosques Political Geography I. Basics A. Political Geography 1. Study of the political organization of the world B. Political organization of space 1. Major concept of “territoriality” i. Attempt by an individual or group to affect influence or control people, phenomena, and relationships, by delimiting and asserting control over a geographic area ii. Territorial integrity a. Right of a government to keep the borders and territory of a state intact and free from attack 2. Sovereignty i. Having the last legal say over a territory C. Boundary 1. Vertical plant that cuts through the rocks below and the airspace above, dividing one state territory from another 2. Establishing i. Define ii. Delimit iii. Demarcate iv. Administrate 3. Types i. Geometric ii. Physical-political 4. Types of boundary disputes i. Definitional a. Legal boundary agreement ii. Locational a. Issues of interpretation of definition iii. Operational a. Neighbors differ on function iv. Allocational a. Who gets what resources II. Geopolitics A. Classic Geopolitics 1. German School i. Ratzel’s Organic State Theory a. Based on Darwin’s theories of evolution b. Need of a state for territory and overseas connections in order to survive c. Described expansion of empires and large states in the 19 century 2. British/American School i. Mackinder’s Heartland Theory a. Famous passage i. “Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland. Who rules the Heartland commands the world island. Who rules the World Island commands the world.” III. The World Economy A. Made possible through… 1. Capitalism i. System whereby people, corporations, and states produce goods and services and exchange them in the world market, with the goal of achieving profit 2. Commodification 3. Colonialism i. Brought the world into the world economy B. Capitalist World Economy 1. Construction of a world order based on differences in economic and political power 2. Wallerstein’s World-Systems Theory i. World economy has one market and a global division of labor ii. Although the world has multiple states, almost everything takes place within the context of the world economy iii. The world economy has a three-tier structure 3. Core i. Processes the incorporate high levels of education, higher salaries, and more technology ii. Generate more wealth in the world economy 4. Periphery i. Processes that incorporate lower levels of education, lower salaries, and less technology 5. Semi-Periphery i. Places where core and periphery processes are both occurring ii. Places that are exploited by the core but then exploit the periphery iii. Buffer between core and periphery IV. State Politically organized territory—with a permanent population, a defined territory, and a government—that is recognized as such by other states A. Modern State Idea 1. Idea of a state that is tied to a particular territory with defined boundaries 2. Diffused through… i. Mercantilism ii. Colonialism V. Nation Culturally defined group of people with a shared past and a common future who relate to a territory and have political goals A. Constructed by people to make sense of themselves B. Are “imagined communities C. Are perceived as “natural” and “always exisiting” VI. Nation-state Politically organized area in which nation and state occupy the same place A. Rare in Practice B. Ideal for government C. Origins in French Revolution 1. Democracy: people as sovereign 2. Territorial state for each nation D. Nationalism Strong sense of loyalty to the state on the part of its people 1. Government that promotes the nation within the state 2. Promotion of loyalty to the state in multinational states E. Multinational state State made up of many nations F. Stateless nation Nation with no state VII. Supranational Organizations Separate entity composed of three or more states that forge an association and form an administrative structure for mutual benefit in pursuit of shared goals VIII. European Colonialism and the Diffusion of the Nation-State Model A. Two major waves of European colonialism 1. 1500-1825 2. 1825-1975 IX. Dominant Colonial Influences (1550-1950) X. Spatial Organization by State Government A. Forms of government 1. Unitary Highly centralized government where the capital city serves as a focus of power 2. Federal Government where the state is organized into territories, which have control over government policies and funds i. i.e., Nigeria a. Allows states within to determine whether to have “Shari’a laws” Legal systems based on traditional Islamic Laws ii. Globalization and the Geography of Networks I. Basics A. Globalization The expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact 1. Chaotic set of processes and outcomes 2. Created by people 3. Processes… i. Transcend state boundaries ii. Have outcomes that vary across places and scales B. Trade as backbone 1. Arguments generally in terms of trade 2. Free-trade role in raising well-being II. Globalization A. Characteristics of 1. Networks Set of interconnected nodes without a carrier i. Ideally horizontally structured with equal power in all parts ii. Enable globalization to occur 2. Time space compression i. Inequality in access to information between core and periphery ii. Information technology B. Goals of 1. World Economic Forum i. Annual meeting held in Davos, Switzerland with participants typically… a. Champions of free trade b. Representatives of large corporations 2. “Washington Consensus” Label used to refer to the following fundamental principles of free trade a. Free trade raises the well-being of all countries by inducing them to devote their resources to production of those goods they produce relatively most efficiently b. Competition through trade raises a county’s long term growth rate by expanding access to global technologies and promoting innovation 3. World Social Forum i. Network of anti-globalizationists ii. Find alternatives to decisions of World Economic Forum III. Various Scales that Networks Operate at in the Globalized World A. Nongovernmental organization (NGOs) 1. Response to top-down decision-making 2. Participatory development i. Engaging locals in decisions about what development means for them and how to achieve it B. Role of politics in development C. Local exchange trading systems 1. Local currency or credits 2. Often developed in times of economic hardships IV. Networks in Media A. Vertical Integration Ownership by the same firm of a number of companies that exist along a variety of points along the production and consumption of a commodity chain B. Goal of Synergy, the cross promotion of vertically integrated goods C. “Gatekeepers” People or corporations who control access to information D. Blogs 1. Free Service to post thoughts and comments on the internet V. Networks of Retail Corporations A. Horizontal Integration Ownership by the same firm of a number of companies that exist at the same point on a commodity chain 1. More local connections by retail chains than manufacturing corporations 2. Local presence created by retail stores B. Controversy over establishment of global chain retailers in local areas VI. Identities and Globalized World A. In globalized networks, inter-linkage with flows of information and global interaction B. Making sense of ourselves within the context of the globe in a globalized world C. Personal connectedness 1. Response to a tragedy somewhere in the world i. New global awareness by personalizing and localizing it 2. Local space to express personal and/or global grief and sorrow i. Short term: Spontaneous shrines ii. Long term: permanent memorial 3. e.g., the process of memorializing place i. Whether and how quickly a place is memorialized depends on a. Funding b. Debate over… i. What to build ii. Whom to remember iii. Whether people want to remember the site I. Basics A. City 1. Conglomeration of people and buildings clustered together to serve as a center of politics, culture, and economics B. Urban 1. Buildup of the city and surrounding environments connected to the city 2. Built-up of the central city and suburbs 3. Distinctive non-rural and nonagricultural C. Urbanization 1. Movement of people from rural to urban areas II. History of Urban Places A. Origins of Urbanization 1. Agricultural villages i. Began about 10,000 years ago ii. Relatively small, egalitarian villages 2. First Urban Revolution i. Enabling components a. Agricultural surplus b. Social stratification B. Hearths of Urbanization 1. Mesopotamia 2. Nile River Valley 3. Indus River Valley i. e.g. Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro 4. Huang He and Wei River Valleys i. Purposefully planned cities 5. Mesoamerica i. e.g., Mayan and Aztec cities C. Diffusion of Urbanization 1. Greece i. Network of more than 500 cities and towns on the mainland and islands ii. Acropolis and an agora in each city 2. Rome i. System of cities and small towns, linked together by hundreds of miles of roads and sea routes ii. Sites of typically for trade iii. Combination of the acropolis and agora into one space 3. Europe i. During Europe’s middle Ages… a. Urbanization continued vigorously outside of Europe b. Little urban growth, even decline, inside Europe 4. Asia i. Centers along the Silk Road ii. Urban growth in Korea, Japan 5. West Africa i. Trading cities developed along the southern margin of the Sahara 6. The Americas i. Significant urban growth, especially within Mayan and Aztec empires D. Cities in the Age of Exploration 1. Early Eurasian enters i. Crescent-shaped zone from England to Japan ii. Most in continental interiors 2. During maritime exploration i. Change in situations to favor coastal locations ii. European model for cities in colonies E. Second Urban Revolution 1. Large-scale movement of people to cities to work in manufacturing, made possible by… i. Second agricultural revolution ii. Industrialization 2. Favored places i. Had undergone the second agricultural revolution ii. Possessed… a. Industrial resources i. i.e., Located near coal fields b. Capital from mercantilism and colonialism III. Cities and Places A. Cities are located where they are because of… 1. Site i. Static Location ii. Often chosen for trade, defense, or religion 2. Situation i. Cities place in the region and the world around it ii. Trade area Adjacent region within which a city’s influence is dominant a. Every Central place has one 3. Population, trade area, and distance i. Key components that frequently arise in urban geography B. Rank and size in the urban matrix 1. Rank-size rule Population of the city or town in inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy i. Ex. Largest city= 12 million ii. Random growth and economies of scale explain 2. Primate City Leading city of a country, disproportionately larger than the rest of the cities i. Expressive of national capacity and feeling 3. Christaller’s central place theory i. Predicts how and where ce
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