ANTHROPOLOGY 101 Weeks 1-6
ANTHROPOLOGY 101 Weeks 1-6 Anth 101-01
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Date Created: 02/22/16
Major Trends in Hominin Evolution 0 Bipedalism o Distinctive dentition o Directional selection towards a larger more specialized brain 0 Culture Origins of Bipedalism o Bipedalism is the single most critical de ning factor for hominids as it occurred rst 0 Nothing preceding bipedalism is considered hominid 0 Note that many models of the origins of bipedalism have assumed an environment that was becoming cooler and drier leading to an expansion of woodlands and savanna o BUT early hominids like Sahelanthropus appear to have lived in the forest yet may have been bipedal Sahelanthropus tchadnesis o Discovered in Chad surprise in 2001 Michael Brunet Ardipithecus ramidus rdi o Lived approximately 44 mya o Discovered in Ethiopia in 1994 0 Fossil of Ardi released to the public and scientists in 2009 0 Suggest that knuckle walking evolved after hominids split with the LCA 0 Short stubby canines less intrasexual competition 0 Ate fruits nuts and leaves Australopitecines Mosaic Evolution 0 The earliest con rmed willknown hominids 42 mya ram 0 Relatively small brain 400500 cc Australopithecus afarensis o Lived in East Africa 43 mya 0 Mary Leakey found additional fossils from Laetoli Tanzania dating to 375 mya 0 Small brain 400500cc o Prognathic face just out in a muzzle Donald Johanson Lucy Australopithecus afarensis o Pelvic and leg structure shows changes towards bipedalism Robust Australopithecines 0 They have a sagittal crest ridge running down the center of the top of the skull to anchor the chewing muscles like go Has o Temporalis muscle runs from the jaw up under the zygomatic arch and attaches to the sides and top of the skull at the sagittal crest A aethiopicus o KNM WT 17000 The Black Skull Oldest 2725 mya found in Kenya East Africa shows ancestral cranial traits also linking it with A afarensis More Robust Australopthecines o A robustus Found in South Africa 1810 mya o A boisei Found in East Africa more robust 2213 mya Australopithecus Africanus Gracile Australopithecus Africanus The Taung Child 0 Discovered by Raymond Dart o Arrived in South Africa and found the 39Taung Child in 1924 0 Estimated adult brain size of 404440 cc compared to modern humans of 1200cc o A Africanus mature 2050 faster than modern humans Australopithecus sediba 0 New species 19 mya found in south Africa 0 Long legs suggesting efficient bipedal walking and running 0 BUT long arms and strong hands suggesting some climbing too Homo naledi 0 NEW NEW NEW Early Homo Evolutionary HodgePodge o Homo habiis Smaller brain Smaller lest at face Smaller molars 510 cc 0 Homo rudophensis Bigger brain Large at face Large molars 770cc Homo errectusergaster o Homos erectus erect walking human 0 Found in North South and East Africa as well as Europe and Asia O O NonAsian individuals called H ergster Homo erectusergaster although it originated in Africa was the rst member of Homo to leave Africa AHS H heidelbergensis O O O O O O 800000200000 years ago early archaic Homo sapien thought to be predecessor of other AHS Very variable Global Even larger brains and clear culture AHS H neanderthalensis O 0 Appearance of Neanderthal traits 150000 to 28000 years ago Very large brains 1465cc on average Long wide low braincase Low forehead Occipital bun Large midface Mental foramen Weak chin High rounded orbits Doublearched browridge Large nose Large front teeth Retromolar space Anthropology Tackles the BIG Questions 0 What makes humans human 0 What does it mean to be human 0 Where have we been as humans 0 Why is it important to ask these questions 0 How can we best study humans Intro to Anthropology o Literally quotStudy of Humansquot o Effort to gain an understanding of the evolution diversity and interaction of human culture and biology o A holistic approach to anthropology includes all four major sub elds Cultural Archaeological Linguistic and Biological Anthropologies A fth category Applied Anthropology may combine elements of all four Cultural Anthropology oVariations in cultural behaviors among human populations both current populations and those in the recent past Culture is learned behavior including social systems economic systems marriage customs religion philosophy mortuary practices etc 0 Anything transmitted via learning rather than instinct Linguistic Anthropology o The study of the evolution of language and its relation to culture Archaeology 0 Archaeological Anthropology study of cultural behaviors in the historic and prehistoric past through analysis of the culture s remains Biological Physical Anthropology 0 Biological Anthropology the biological evolution of humans and human ancestors and the relationship of humans to other organisms 0 Patterns of biological variation within and between human populations and individuals Also includes Osteology paleopathology forensics genetics primatology paleoanthropology human biology etc Holistic Research 0 Many elds of study incorporate multiple sub elds Biocultural research Understanding and deconstructing the concept of race Ethnoarchaeology Medical Anthropology Public Archaeology Anthropology of Tourism Ethnoprimatology and conservation research Migration studies Bioarchaeology AND MANY MORE 0 Anthropology a quotwoowooquot discipline 0 O O Often dismissed due to a misunderstanding of what anthropology is how it works and how it can AND IS applied to quotrealworld problems and interests Gov Scott vs the AAA Also highlights a critical misconception about the purpose of higher education 0 Science and Anthropology O O Ongoing debate within the discipline In 2010 the American Association of Anthropologists AAA tried to remove the world science from a statement outlining the future directions of the discipline Why might this discussion be problematic Spawned numerous discussions about the nature and purpose of science in Anthropology and in general Evolution 0 Simply the change in living organisms over generations 0 Can be either biological change or cultural change combined this is referred to as Biocultural evolution The Evolution of Evolution 0 Darwin s hypothesis regarding natural selection did not spring fully formed out of nowhere 0 Instead it was the culmination of a variety of new discoveries in geology botany and zoology o 18th19th Century A Time Ripe for Evolutionary Understanding 0 Growing knowledge of human diversity 0 Increasing interest in natural history of animals and plants Linnaeus o Carolus Linnaeus 17071778 0 Developed binomial nomenclature o No evolutionary inferences were made to derive the taxonomy Only referred to simple biological relationships 0 No new species 0 Nested Hierarchy vs Great chain of being Lamarck 0 Jean Baptiste Lamarck 17441829 0 Thought evolution occurs through an organism s active adaptation to its environment during its lifetime which is then passed on to its offspring o Actively Acquired Characteristics were then passed on through Transformational Evolution 0 First to talk about evolutionary change but got it wrong Lamarckian Evolution 0 Traditional Example Giraffes 0 Use and disuse of body parts 0 This hypothesis was rejected by biologists but much of the public still holds the misconception of transitional evolution 0 quotAn animal adapts to its environmentquot Charles Darwin Right Time Right Guy 0 Theory of Natural Selection Also described as Genetic Code 0 How do we get form four nucleotide bases to 20 amino acids We have to combine them into codes 0 Can t code with single base 4 options 0 Can t code with two bases 4416 options 0 Must be three bases 44464 even allows for redundancy o The three bases coding or an amino acid is called a 39codon The basics of molecular genetics 0 Direction of transmission of genetic information is o DNA mRNA protein 0 DNA serves as a template for its own replication and for the transcription of mRNA which is translated into protein But how do we get from genes to features 0 Genotype Genetic code 0 Phenotype Physical expression of genetic code 0 How do the genes on your chromosomes cause your phenotype o This requires a little knowledge about a monk Gregor Mendel39s Pea Plant Experiments 0 What plants looked like change from generation to generation 0 Discovered by experimenting and splicing pea plants Monohybrid Crosses 0 When he crossed a parental yellow pod plant with a parental green pod plant the next generation of plants called the rst lial of F1 generation were ALL green o It seems the green color DOMINATED the yellow color in the next generation But was the yellow color gone for good 0 When he crossed a green pod plant from this F1 generation with another green pod plant from the same generation he found that the next generation second lial 0 Two things seemed very important to Mendel o The variants did not blend with each other but rather stayed separated like they were somehow different particles He called this particulate inheritance of the Principle of Segregation 0 He always ended up with a 31 ratio of variants in the second generation Mendel39s Results Were Ignored Humans not peas OOOOOOO PostMendel scientists discovered cells and chromosomes Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes 46 total chromosomes 22 pairs of autosomes 2 sex chromosomes X andor Y Sex Chromosomes determine sex of individual XX female XYmale Mitosis O Autosomal cellular division called mitosis is how cells divide into daughter cells during growth or in repairing injuries In mitosis the chromosomes are copied and then are divided into opposite ends of the cell which then splits to form 2 identical cells Meiosis O 0000 0 But there is a special kind of cellular division called meiosis that produces gametes sex cells sperm and eggs In this process sex cells divide twice producing four daughter cells each of which has one half as many chromosomes as the original cell What s going on here Why do they do that So when they pair together it s a full set Mixing up of different genetic information When a cell has both copies of each chromosome it is called diploid During reproduction two cells gametes come together the sperm and egg to produce the zygote which matures into the offspring If each of the gametes were diploid the resulting zygote would be quadrupled Mendelian Inheritance and Meiosis O O O 0 Scientists realized that the particles Mendel hypothesized acted just like they were located on these chromosomes Scientists began calling these particles genes and the different variants of each gene were called alleles Homozygous same allele at each copy of your gene Heterozygous different alleles at each copy of your gene Complex Traits O The majority of traits have complex inheritance patterns rather than simple Mendelian patterns Traits affected by more than one gene are polygenic Most traits are affected by multiple genes Examples eyes skin color height Some other genes affect multiple traits and are called pleiotropic Continuous Variation 0 0 Most complex traits are not discrete divisible into a nite and nonarbitrary number of categories but are conUnuous Produced from an interaction of genes and environment which results in a normal distribution of the trait How Evolution Acts on Genes O 0 Evolution acts on the phenotype which in turn in uences genotype frequencies BUT it s not that simple Nothing is ever simple If phenotypes are polygenic andor are in uenced by pleiotropic genes genotype and phenotype frequencies can change in unexpected ways and of course dominant and recessive traits are affected at different rates We also now know that epigenetic effects are a result of evolutionary responses in regulatory genes which again makes everything more complicated It s OK that genetics and evolution are complicated It just means we have more to study to understand our amazing species Mendel Genetics The Modern Synthesis 0 Geneticists realized that they had to look at allele FREQUENCCIES in a whole POPULATION to examine evolution rather than looking at single individuals Microevolution changes of allele frequency in a population from one generation to the next Macroevolution changes term patterns of genetic change over thousands of millions of generations lleccumuation of microevoutionary changes leading to species formation speciation and0r extinction Two speeds 0 Gradualism 0 Punctuated equilibrium model Population Genetics 0 0 Population Genetics the study of the total pattern of genetic variation in a biological population Includes frequencies of alleles genotypes and phenotypes for an entire population Allele Frequency is the relative proportion of each allele within a population the number of a particular allele divided by the total number of alleles in the population Genotype Frequency is the number of individuals with each genotype divided by the total number of individuals in the population Example Albinism O O O O O Albinism results from a mutation in a gene that produces a protein necessary to create colored skinfurfeathers Albinism is a recessive trait signi ed by the allele 39a Thus an albino must be a homozygote aa Normal skin color is there for dominant signi ed by the allele 39A Thus a nonalbino could either be homozygous AA or heterozygous Aa in genotype Forces of Evolution Mutations O O O Mutation introduces new alleles into a population The original common or normal version of a gene is called the quotwild type allele The new version of the gene or the abnormal version is called the mutant allele Forces of Evolution Gene Flow Migration 0 Gene Flow movement of genes alleles from one population to another 0 Gene ow often decreases with increased geographic distance a phenomenon called isolation by Distance Forces of Evolution Natural Selection 0 Natural Selection lters genetic variation by changing the likelihood of different alleles being passed on to the next generation 0 Changes the relative frequencies of alleles 0 Selection is due to differential mortalitv affectind reproduction Selection against the Dominant Allele o For example with achondroplastic dwar sm caused by a dominant allele although the tness is not zero and people born with the disease generally survive to adulthood they have to lower fecundity they don t have as many children due to both social and biological causes Constraints on Selection 0 Selection can only act on variation that is already present 0 Selection cannot overcome developmental constraints because organisms development is very complicated some changes are impossible because they would disrupt too many aspects of development 0 Selection cannot overcome physicalchemical constraints those laws of mechanics gravity etc Forces of Evolution Genetic Drift 0 Genetic Drift random change in allele frequency from one generation to the next due to sampling error 0 The bigger the population size the smaller the effect of drift on allele frequencies 0 Small populations are very prone to drift and alleles can go to extremes xation quickly Genetic Drift Bottleneck Effect 0 Population Bottlenecks can cause the same effect Le a bottleneck is a reduction in genetic variation The reduction can be due to disease war etc It39s Still Not So Simple 0 Remember all of the forces are acting at the same time on populations 0 You can get very strange results Especially in very small populations where genetic drift acts very strongly Sometimes this causes very maladaptive alleles to reach high frequencies Also when genes affect multiple traits selection on one trait can cause maladaptive variants to increase in frequency at another trait Goals of Archaeology 0 Anthropological archaeology has at least four main goals Reconstruct past human events as they were played out across space and through time Reconstruct past human life ways Explain how and why the past happened as it did Interpret cognitive and symbolic aspects of past cultures Artifacts Features amp Contexts o Artifacts are tangible objects anything that was made or modi ed by people in the past quali es as an artifact 0 Features are products of human activity that are integral to a site and not portable o Context describes the spatial and temporal associations existing in the archaeological record among and between artifacts and features Context 0 The environmental setting where an archaeological trace is found 0 Primary context is the setting in which the archaeological trace was originally deposited o A secondary context is one to which it has been moved Maintaining Context 0 Survey 0 Mapping 0 Photography 0 Stratigraphy Doing Archaeology 0 Site Survey The process of discovering the location of archaeological sites sometimes called the site reconnaissance o Excavation Systematic yet destructive process of uncovering mapping and removing artifacts from their contextual environment 0 Processing Analysis and Cataloging of Artifacts Just as important as excavation and survey If not more so Long hours a lab work 0 Interpretation What does it all mean Taphonomy o The study of how bones and other materials came to be buried in the earth and preserved as fossils o A taphonomist studies the processes of sedimentation the action of streams preservation properties of bone and carnivore disturbance factors Experimental Archaeology 0 Research that attempts to replicate ancient technologies and construction procedures to test hypotheses about past human activities Studying Subsistence o Middens Archaeological sites or features within sites formed largely by the accumulation of domestic waste Seasonalitv and Resource Scheduling Technique of hunter gatherers to maximize subsistence by relocating in accord with the availability of key resources at speci c times and places throughout the year Carrvind Capacity IN an environment the maximum population of a speci c organism that can be maintained at a steady state What were they eating 0 Paleothenobotanv The study of ancient plant remains Fotation technique Displaying Culture Museums o Museum Anthropology looks at how material culture is displayed and portrayed in museums and the purpose and politics of museums o Who owns the past Looting o NAGPRA CASE STUDY Kennewick Man 0 Discovers in WA in 1996 o Lived 9000 years ago o Exemplary case Archaeologically Male 40 years old Archaeological Ethics 0 NAGPRA Legally Ethically Morphologically Healthy except for some exceptional trauma 0 O Human Variation Human Microevolution Common questions about human microevolution include o How are different populations related 0 Howwhy have certain phenotypic traits come about 0 How does variation relate to health 0 Many of these questions require knowledge about Sickle Cell Hemoglobin Malaria HbS or SS genotype Sickle Cell Anemia SCA Only 15 of SS individuals survive to adulthood gt100000 deaths per year from SCA 0 IN many parts of the world HbS frequency is VERY low 0 But in other places it is as high as 1020 Malaria and S CA Allele Distribution of HbS is related to distribution of a certain form of the Malaria parasite falciparum malaria Culture and Sickle Cell 0 Biocultural disease interactions 0 The ecology of the malaria parasite and the mosquito that transmit it are affected by human habitationagriculture and by climate 0 Changes in climate and in subsistence patterns and methods have changed the environment from one the mosquito did not like to one it favors Lactase De ciency Lactose Intolerance o A condition in which an older child or adult lacks the ability to produce lactase enzyme needed to digest milk sugar lactose Adaptation to High Altitude Stress Hypoxia oxygen starvation occurs frequently at high altitudes 0 At high altitudes oxygen pressure in the air is lower so the body has difficulty supplying itself with oxygen 0 At rest hypoxia usually occurs at 300 meters 0 For active people it can occur as low as 2000 meters Loss of appetite and weight loss are common Memory and sensory ability are affected Hormone levels can also be affected High Altitude Populations 0 About 25 million people live between 2500 and 5000 meters live over 800 feet 0 Andean Highlands 15000 feet 4572 meters 0 Northern Tibet 14000 4267 meters Acclimatization vs Adaptation The power of phenotypic plasticity GeneralAcclimatization o Respiration rate increases initially but eventually returns to normal after a few days at altitude 0 Higher hemoglobin levels in the blood 0 RBC production increases after roughly 3 months Developmental Acclimatization 0 Changes also occur during growth at altitude The younger the age of migration to altitude High Altitude Adaptations Andeans have similar ventilation rates at high altitude as at low altitude but have more hemoglobin can carry more oxygen in their blood at high altitude Tibetans don t have more hemoglobin but have higher ventilation rates than others including Andeans at high altitude Ethiopian highlanders don t do either but seem to be okay nonetheless Skin Color Biology of Skin color there is a strong genetic component and it is affected by the environment sunlight Melanin is responsible for most of the variation in lightness or darkness of skin Melanin is a brown pigment secreted by cells melanocytes in the bottom layer of skin Skin color and Latitude o Hypotheses 1 Melanin protects against skin cancer sunburn and UV radiation Darker skinned people have lower rates of skin cancer because the higher concentration of melanin blocks more of the UV Melanin protects against skin cancer so high melanin at equator may re ect selection for this Problems with Hypothesis 1 0 Skin cancer usually effects people after they are past reproductive age so its not a big selective disadvantage But severe sunburn can lean to infection and reduced tness so maybe dark skin is protection against this not cancer 0 Hypothesis 2 Nutrient Photolysis Many nutrients break down when exposed to UV light Perhaps dark skin is an adaptation to prevent this For example the vitamin foate is decomposed by UV light exposure both in the lab and in living people o Hypothesis 2a Vitamin D Hypothesis UV radiation needed to synthesize vitamin D which is needed by humans for proper bone growth Some foods are high in vitamin D but are not found in all environments For most of human evolution the sun was the main source of vitamin D 0 Vitamin D De ciency o Ricketsbone disease 0 Managing exposure in different environments 0 New Comprehensive Hypothesis 0 O Darker skin at equator is prevention against sunburn related illness as well as nutrient photolysis Lighter skin at higher latitudes allows enough UV to produce enough vitamin D and prevent vitaminD de ciency BUT These hypotheses are Not mutually exclusive that is all might be a factor Melanin is also found in other regions of the body the inner ear the brain so there might be other factors impacting melanin production that we have not discovered yet Tools and the Cultural Evolution of the Genus Homo gt Oldowan Tradition Earliest stone tools 25 mya Usually made from lava and quartz Requires SKILL gt Cultural Explosion Homo erectusergaster Leave Africa 18 mya I Skilled cooperative hunter What does this mean Used caves for shelter and might have made temporary shelters Used and controlled re for cooking and warmth 14 mya new type of stone tool technology appeared called the Acheulian tradition o Earliest evidence dated at 14 mya at Koobi For a and Chesowanja Kenya 0 Most compelling evidence from Zhoukudian China Burnt bones stones thick ash beds in hearths dated to 400 kya gt Acheulean Tradition Consisted of biface tools worked on both sides Flatter and have straighter shaper sides than Oldowan tools Also more standardized I Requires great skill to manufacture One method of manufacture uses a softer material like bone or wood to make the akes Softer material absorbs more of the shock of the blow gt AHS Tools Stone Tool Technology advanced from the earlier Acheulian technology of H ergastererectus and earliest AHS Neanderthal tools known as Mousterian Uses a prepared core technique to manufacture the tools called Levallois technique gt Neanderthal lncisors as Tools Most Neanderthals have unusual wear patterns on their upper incisors suggesting they used their front teeth frequently as tools gt Neanderthal Hunting Evidence from skeletons of prey animals suggest skilled hunters eg woolly mammoth Tools and the Cultural Evolution of the genus Homo 2 Stable isotope analysis of Neanderthal bones suggest large proportion of their diet was meat Not the safest hunting strategy gt Symbolic behavior Neanderthal Burials Shanidar Israel 50kyBP Kebara Israel 60 kyBP gt Compassion Many individuals had old wounds indicating they were cared for Some were seriously injured and would likely have needed help to survive o Elderly that had lost all their teeth had arthritis 0 Suggests someone cared for them provided them with food in some cases probably chewed their food for them shelter clothing etc 0 But see Dettwyler 1991 gt Language Ability Much criticism over the reconstructions Hyoid bone in throat from Kebara remains is basis for much of these arguments 0 Used to reconstruct respiratory tract Hyoid shows no difference between AMHS and Neanderthals 0 However pig hyoid also very similar to AMHS and pigs can t talk so Hyoid alone is not a good indicator No major difference in brain anatomy gt Rise of the AMHS Physical Characteristics 39no occipital bun back of the skull is rounded Forehead rises vertically above the eye orbits and does not slope back like AHS Small brow ridges Face does not protrude as much Strong chin present Less robust post crania Notice many of the features are relative or rather subjective Tools and the Cultural Evolution of the genus Homo 3 gt Upper Paleolithic Tools Upper Paleolithic is all AMHS Burins small stone tools with a sharp edge used to cut whittle or engrave bone 0 Used to make needles awls points knives harpoons art But some bone tools now known to date back to gt90kya AND even back to millions of years old Some cultural elements that may not preserve can be inferred o Eg Needles tted clothing Harpoons more signi cant marine diet gt Upper Paleolithic Trade I Materials are transported long distances gt200 miles in some cases suggesting trade networks gt Upper Paleolithic Subsistence In many ways similar to those that preceded them But we see evidence that they hunted a larger number of species including large herbivores sh birds small mammals including larger game and perhaps with more sophisticated knowledge In some cases they seem to have specialized on particular species gt Shelter Modern H sapiens lived in caves and rock shelters where available Manufactured shelter huts made of wood animal bone animal hides also existed Such shelters exist at lease as far back as 3040 kya BP gt Was AMHS better39 Than AHS AHS were successful on this planet for quite some time BUT with the AMHS we do see some evidence that they may have been better adapted to the emerging environment 0 Have fewer skeletal injuries or signs of disease Tools and the Cultural Evolution of the genus Homo 4 00 Left more archaeological sites suggesting they lived at higher population density More efficient hunting tools atlantl Long distance running gt Geographic Expansion AMHS Global takeover Humans become more successful and expanded into more environments By 50 kya humans had reached Australia which even with the drop in sea levels was still separated from Asia by gt60 miles of Ocean Humans entered the New World by 15 kya or earlier across the Bering Strait land bridge or by boat along the coast of the bridge 0 Genetic evidence de nitively links Native Americans with Northeast Asians But how did AMHS get everywhere 0 Two may hypotheses Evidence for one much stronger than the other Multiregioinalism vs Replacement aka OutOf Africa 0 Multiredional theorv homo erectus left Africa 2 mya to become homo sapiens in different parts of the world The Multiregional Continuity Model15 contends that after Homo erectus left Africa and dispersed into other portions of the Old World regional populations slowly evolved into modern humans Replacement aka Outof Africa The major competing hypothesis is the multiregional origin of modern humans which envisions a wave of Homo sapiens migrating earlier from Africa and interbreeding with local Homo erectus populations in multiple regions of the globe Tools and the Cultural Evolution of the genus Homo 5 The Agricultural Revolution 0 Characterized by the domestication of plants and animals 0 Developed independently in several spots around the world 0 Developed in Eurasia around 10000 ya Neolithic Revolution 0 The change from hunting and gathering to agriculture 0 V Gordon Childe s View Maintaining elds and herds demanded a longterm commitment from early farmers Neolithic people became more sedentary As storable harvests gradually supported more permanent communities towns and cities developed Within these larger settlements fewer people were involved in food production allowing for craft specialization Domestication O O O Domestication is an evolutionary process When we say a plant or animal is domesticated we mean there s interdependency between this organism and humans such that part of its life history depends on human intervention To achieve and maintain this relationship requires the genetic transformation of a wild species by selective breeding or other ways of interfering intentionally or not with a species natural life processes Agriculture 0 O 0 Agriculture is a cultural activity not an evolutionary process It involves the propagation and exploitation of domesticated plants and animals by humans Agriculture includes all the activities associated with both farming and animal herding Social Consequences of Farming 0 Agriculture led to Population Growth 0 More sophisticated and complex societies and technologies 0 Dramatic population explosion may strain resources Sedentary lifestyles o More rigidly de ned divisions of labor 0 Increase in interpersonal violence Warfare Environmental Degradation Destruction of biodiversity 0 Pollution 0 Among other things 0 Biological consequences of Agriculture 0 Shorter faces and jaws Crowded jaws 0 Increase in dental and dietary disease de ciency More caries and enamel hypoplasias Single crop dependence leads to nutritional de ciency o More gracile postcrania Less mechanical stress in farming vs hunting BUT Agricultureassociated workload and activity patterns can have serious effects on the body 0 Osteoarthritis degenerative joint disease fractures etc 0 Increased exposure to infectious pathogens Crowd diseases TB treponematosis etc Zoonoses Diseases that can be transmitted to humans from other vertebrates 0 So why farm 0 Less free time more disease bad for the environment aching joints neighbors too close and beating each other up What s so great about farming 0 Why did Humans Settle Down Build Cities and Establish States 0 What is social complexity Egalitarian social relations were seen in early farming and herding societies 0 No great differences were seen in wealth prestige or power 0 Such noncomplex societies should not bee seen as simple Social complexitv arose as social organization became strati ed Increasing differences were seen in access to wealth prestige or power Control of surplus production by a few individuals becomes evident Surplus production involved producing more food than bare minimum needed Occupational specialization contributed to social strati cation 0 Individuals specialized in various occupations or social roles o What are Compex Societies Complex societies have 0 Large populations 0 Extensive division of labor Occupationalspecialization Social strati cation M are 0 Ranked groups within hierarchically strati ed complex societies 0 De ned primarily in terms of wealth occupation or other economic criteria Civilization 0 Large social order that includes states related by language traditions history economic ties and other shared cultural aspects State 0 A governmental entity that persists by politically controlling a territory examples include most modern na ons 0 Social Strati cations class structure or hierarchy usually based on political economic or social standing Catalhoyuk o A large early Neolithic site in southern Turkey the name is Turkish for quotforked moundquot Mesopotamia o In the centuries after 8000 ya farmers settled the alluvial plains bordering the lower Tigris and Euphrates rivers Mesopotamia 0 Annual oods began soon after the spring planting season when crops were vulnerable 0 Farmers began to redirect the river s oodwaters onto nearby lowlying elds 0 This canaltype irrigation unlocked the fertility of the silt that had accumulated on the oodplain for millennia o This transformed the landscape and the nature of the agricultural societies Sumerians o lnscribed tablets large urban populations and religious structures indicate that essential elements of civilization had come together by 5000 ya 0 Uruk marked one of the rst true cities identi ed with people called the Sumerians 0 Development of Writing 0 Cuneiform Wedgeshaped writing of ancient Mesopotamia Citystates 0 An urban center and its supporting territory that forms an autonomous sociopolitical unit 0 Farmers and other food producers tended to live in the urban center and work their elds on the outskirts of the city
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