History 102 Exam 2 Notes
History 102 Exam 2 Notes History 102
Popular in World Civilization II
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Date Created: 02/22/16
THE REFORMATION Intro Religion had a central Role in Modern European Life o Built the environment; most of the urban architecture was made of cathedrals Churches Tithe: claim to the income of members, tax church members Separate law and court system: canon law and courts, no clergy men could be tried under state power Economic power: the church owned 1/3 of the land, worked the land to produce goods to trade, held liquid and landed assets Under foreign authority: Pope resided in Rome Latin Bible “Vulgate Bible”: only one version of the bible and it was in latin so the mass population didn’t understand it o Only clergy men knew latin and services were done in latin (except sermon) Feasts and fasts: times of celebration and starvation o Gave up meats, dairy, alcohol, and sex for a third of the religious calendar 7 sacraments: important stages of life (baptism/last rites) o Administered by clergy and essential to salvation o Excommunication leads to damnation because the individual is cut off from the sacraments Pilgrimages, Relics, Local shrines o Relics: bones or items that belonged to saints o Pilgrimages: groups or communities would travel to important religious locations (spiritual benefits were gained through this trip) REFORMATION Begins in North German Speaking lands (Saxony) Criticisms of the Church before Luther included: o The moral authority of the Pope: he had his own personal agenda o The politicization of the papacy: everyone was power hungry o Corruption and abuses: Pluralism: simultaneous holding of more than one position (these individuals had more power) Absenteeism: vacant offices, no sacraments can be administered if the clergy is not present Simony: buying and selling of church offices (was a good investment because they got power and influence in return) Nepotism: Church authorities would give church positions to relatives Clerical immorality: ideal was abstinence, although many clergy men had mistresses and lived immoral lives Clerical ignorance: (local clergy especially) they needed to know latin to understand and teach the bible, but many had little to no experience with the language (THEY DIDN’T UNDERSTAND THE THEOLOGY THEMSELVES) SELLING OF INDUGENCES ALBRECHT Archbishop of Mainz and Magdeburg Nepotist who bought his 2 ndclerical position Bought with credit and was trying to raise funds so he could pay off the debt o *Cough Cough* sell indulgences or pardons? POPE LEO X Italian from the Medicci family Wanted to build the grandest church on St. Peter’s grave but needed to find the funds o ST PETER’S BASILLICA: The dome of the church was designed by Michelangelo o The basilica became a monument to Leo X’s papacy They paid for it by selling indulgences o Indulgences: lessens the length of time a soul spends in purgatory o Purgatory: is where souls go to burn off any sins o Indulgences could be bought for anyone (family members, significant others) Johann Tetzel: master seller MARTIN LUTHER 1483-1546 A professor of theology, offended by selling of indulgences NINETY-FIVE THESIS: Luther’s proclamation against the selling of indulgences o Nailed to cathedral wall o He only wanted to reform the catholic church but ended up starting the reformation instead Results: o Sola Fide: salvation by faith alone Cuts out the necessity of clerical hierarchy They were challenging the clergy and the pope o Sola Scriptura: salvation by scripture alone Every practice and belief must have basis in the bible This challenged the authority of the pope because the role of the pope is never specifically stated in the bible o Rejection of Papal powers: Challenges it for its immorality and corruption Breaking off from the church Accusing pope of being the anti-Christ Other challenges include: o Reduction in the number of sacrament o Rejection of the doctrine of transubstantiation (transforming of bread and wine to body and blood of Christ) o Rejection of obligatory fasting o They wanted the church service and the bible to be translated to vernacular language Ditched the latin so everyone could understand This stimulated education and literacy (you have to read the bible yourself, so you have to learn to read) o Rejection of clerical celibacy: let clergy marry o No more pilgrimages o Abolition of monasteries: they were totally eliminated in some countries Why were Luther’s ideas so successful? o He wasn’t the first to try to reform the church, others had failed before him o The printing press helped spread his ideas The Movable Metal Type Printing Press was fast, efficient, and cheap Johannes Gutenberg: innovator of the new printing press in the th late 15 century Before prints were hand written and for that reason, expensive Cheaper paper pamphlets spread and kept alive the Lutheran beliefs o The church was too late to strangle the reformation o Luther was protected by German princes and strong political patrons who hid him in their castles The reformation would give the princes more power by taking authority from the church They wanted control of the monasteries and nunneries (they could use them to enrich themselves) Which countries went protestant? Several German states Denmark (1536) Sweden (1527) England (1534) THE ENGLISH REFORMATION Henry VIII (r. 1509-1547): wanted a divorce but the church wouldn’t grant him one He is trying to get a son> and heir He was healthy, wealthy, and successful except for the lack of male heir He was originally a strong member of the church WIFE #1> KATHERINE OF ARAGON: was originally Henry VIII’s brother’s widow o Married Henry VIII to maintain political alliance (she was a Spanish Princess) o Only provided surviving females WIFE #2> ANNE BOLEYN: one of the ladies on Katharine’s court, Henry was attracted to her o Henry VIII wanted a divorce to separate from Katharine and marry Anne but church wouldn’t grant it o He breaks with Rome in 1534 and founds the Anglican Church which grants him the divorce Liquidates the land belonging to the church and helps himself and his supporters out (abolishes monasteries) o Anne gets pregnant, but the baby is a girl o She is later beheaded as a result of infidelity rumors WIFE #3> JANE SEYMOUR: bears Henry the male child he has been waiting for, but the child is sickly his entire life o Jane dies in child birth WIFE #4> ANNE OF CLOVES: she was never seen until the day of their marriage o Henry is told she is very beautiful, but in fact she is very ugly He’s fat and has syphilis… so get over it o Divorces her, but provides for her none the less WIFE #5> Kathryn Howard o Infedility rumors lead to her beheading WIFE #6> Katherine Parr o She survives him Henry VIII and Jane Seymour’s son takes the throne after his death, but dies shortly after QUEEN MARY “BLOODY MARY” (r. 1553-1558) Katherine of Aragon’s daughter Reinstitutes Catholicism in England Killed many protestants and protestant supporters QUEEN ELIZABETH (r.1558-1603) Anne Boleyn’s daughter Ends the restoration of Catholicism Solidifies Protestantism One of the greatest English Rulers THE CATHOLIC COUNTER-REFORMATION Catholic response to reformation They hold a church council to discuss the issues COUNCIL OF TRENT (1545-1563) o Co-opt reform message and reaffirm the validity of church dogma (The church did need reform they were going to try to fix it) Keep sacraments and papal authority Crack down on clerical corruptions Simony, nepotism, selling indulgences Properly educate clergy The Society of Jesus o Founded by St. Ignatius Loyolas o Sought to better Christian education o Globalizing Christianity Began a strict censoring and banning o Index of Forbidden Books: information control Banned several documents that went against the church Included literature courtesy of scientific revolution Snuffed out religious dissent ROMAN INQUISITION: courts and entities created to investigate and destroy dangerous thinking against the church o Galileo: silenced and sentenced to life-long house arrest WAR Religious wars ensued in France and in the German lands THE PEACE OF AUGSBURG (1555): uneasy acceptance o Treaty where the terms of “CUIUS REGIO, EIUS RELIGIO” was adopted “Princes region, princes religion” The Princes ruling over a particular region got to decide the religion of a particular region If you went against the Prince’s decision, change your mind or leave o DIDN’T SOLVE THE BATTLE BETWEEN THE TWO SIDES EDICT OF NANTES (1598) o Huguenots (French Protestants) were at civil war with the Catholics o Edict of Nantes allowed for the Huguenots to practice Protestantism freely o This policy lasted for over a century and brought peace to France The Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648): one of Europe’s bloodiest wars o Enemy wasn’t honorable foe (they were not capable of salvation so it didn’t matter how they were treated) slaughter onset THE PEACE OF WEST PHALIA (1648): ends the 30 yrs war o Ends the British blood bath o Cements the religious dividing lines o State sovereignty LOSERS OF THE REFORMATION The pope lost a lot of power Both Catholicism and Protestantism suffered loss of power WINNER OF THE REFORMATION The state: augments powers by seizing and liquidating church land and affairs Science begins to grow and emerge THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLTION th th Mid 16 -17 centuries Science: precise knowledge of physical world based on union of experimental observation and mathematics o Tested information through the scientific method o Math became intrical AUTHORITY OF THE TIME The bible Aristotle: was the most knowledgeable man o Everything there was to be discovered was discovered by him Everyone trusted what they were told, not what they found to be true THE NEW SCIENCE FRANCIS BACON (1561-1626) o Invented the scientific method Scientific method is at the heart of all science and discovery Empiricism: knowledge that is gained through the senses (looking at the outside world) Inductive reasoning: starts with the particular and moves to the universal Also included: o Materialism: the only thing that exists is matter and things that can be toughed, measured, seen This theory challenges the existence of God and other religious doctrines o Mathematics: analytic geometry, calculus Essential Pan-European Phenomenon: the revolution is spread across the continent and world o Outside the medieval university system Universities used to teach only text and religious doctrines Both are against science o The printing press allowed the quick and easy spread fo new knowledge Latin became the langua frrdca o Langua franca: a 3 language that people who speak 2 different languages use to communicate (todays is English) o Latin was the language of the scientific revolution (religious to scientific) NICOLAUS COPERNICUS (1473-1543) Coined heliocentricism: the idea that the sun was the center of the universe not the earth o Profoundly troubling because it went against 1000 yrs of astronomical knowledge and authority o Ptolemy (90-168): coined geocentricism: the idea of the earth as the center of the universe This idea was widely accepted but didn’t conform to scientific abservation There was no physical, or empirical evidence o Copernicus calls BS Copernicus waited until he was on his death bed to publish his works o On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres (1543) Written in latin o He waited so he wouldn’t have to face the repercussions of going against the common idea Copernicus’s theory was shot done majorly o No one in an authority position (church mostly) accepted it o This idea made humans less important to the universe o Church tries to censor Copernicus’s ideas by putting his works on the list of banned books The Church couldn’t kill the idea once it has been released to the population GALILEO GALILEI (1564-1642) Famous astronomer who coined basic laws of motion found through experiment o Used math Outspoken supporter of Copernicus’s theory o Church needed to shut him up and they tried Galileo becomes one of the most famous victims of the Roman Inquisition in 1633 o He was threatened with excommunication and death o He backs down Galileo spends the rest of his life under house arrest and surveillance Church still can’t kill the idea Heliocentricism becomes widely accepted by the general population o Protestantism was wary along with the Catholic Church SCIENCE EMBRACED BY THE STATE The new science was saved by the state State funds for scientific schools The Royal Society (1660): British Entity that raises funds for scientific investigation State gets stuff from this o Military applications and advances o Technology revolution o Economic output and prosperity New technology> new goods> new tax opportunities ANDREAS VERSALIUS (1514-1564) New science started taking peeks at the human body Andreas Vesalius: founder of modern human anatomy o Understanding the human body and its organs Engaged in the dissection of human corpses o Tried to get rid of the dead authority approach o PROBLEM: The Human body is made in the image of God Dissection is a no no To get around this he used the cadavers of executed criminals On the workings of the human body (1543) o Showed humans reduced to their inner workings for the first time Tissue, muscle, skeleton Dissection quickly became a fad o Interested commoners would come to watch o Anatomical theatres (arenas) WILLIAM HARVEY (1578-1657) Outlined the circulatory system Uncovered the role of the heart THEY WERE BREAKING WITH TRADITION ANTON VAN LEEUWENHOEK (1632-1723) Dutch scientist Used microscope to uncover cellular biology Improved technology instrumentation for measuring physical world o Things were visible through microscope and telescope ISAAC NEWTON (1643-1727) One of the greatest minds Principia Mathematica (1687) Law of universal gravitation: discovered gravity New version of the world that is accepted today (structure and reasoning in the world Physical world is a law governed entity o Rational and consistent o Using the scientific method humans can uncover the laws and meaning of the of the universe o REVOLUTIONARY SET OF IDEAS THE ENLIGHTENMENT (18 THCENTURY) Methods of natural science should be used to understand all aspects of life, including human society Scientific method can be used to understand the natural world and the human world The enlightenment: “the age of reason” o New science! Everything subjected to rational, critical, scientific way of thinking o Accept nothing due to faith, tradition, authority o Believe only what can be proved Society governed by natural laws o Social sciences: classe systems/ social order o All have bases in scientific laws Progress: everything can be improved o Humans get smarter o Economies grow stronger o Societies can be perfect if they are based in the natural scientific laws o Human kind is at a never ending incline (unlike states) “reason is enlightened, illuminating a new dawn” PHILOSOPHES French for philosophers Key preachers of the enlightenment Not nobles, not clergymen o Educated middle class DENIS DIDEROT (1713-1784) o Popularized and promoted the enlightenment o Coined all f the knowledge of the new science o Banned in most countries dues to “dangerous” ideas that could lead to their loss of power CESARE BECCARIA (1735-1794) o Pioneer in ideas of crime, punishment, and law (his ideas became the basics for the most modern penal systems) o On Crimes and Punishment (1764) Rehabilitation, reintegration, clarity, equality, proportionality Criminals needed to be rehabilitated and reintroduced to society o Believed humanity was born innately good o Prisons should return man back to his innate good state, so he can re-enter society Every man should be judged by the same, understandable, written laws Punishment should fit the crime o Severity vs. fairness ADAM SMITH (1723-1790) o The wealth of Nations (1776) o Laissez faire: “leave the economy alone” State should not interfere in the affairs of the economy (don’t regulate it) Free market capitalism, free trade Will right itself if left alone MARY WOLLSTONECRAFT (1759-1797) o Challenges the patriarchal system o A Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792) Early gender equality activist Critic of European patriarchy o Women were seen as the dependent on men: less educated, less privileged REJECTION OF REVEALED RELIGION Deism: rejected idea of anthropomorphic god (looks and acts in human form) o Deist god wasn’t human-like and didn’t interfere in human affairs o Wrote the natural laws that govern all existence then let it be o “divine clock maker” ABSOLUTISM Thinkers of the enlightenment hated ignorance and irreason Attacked the Christian Church (catholic and protestant) for spreading irrational ideas They also hated absolutists ABSOLUTISM Ultimate authority in hereditary monarchy o Relatively new thing o Church had previously kept monarchy in check Reformation destroyed this power Nobility also previously power checked the monarchy Kings have unlimited, unchecked authority The divine right of king ship: argue that God gave the kings power by specifically appointing them o Church should support and obey these leaders and THEY DO These entities went against equality Bureaucratization: absolute monarchs use beaurocrats (educated urban population) to rule o Nobility was too entitled and felt they were powerful (makes them a no) o Beaurocrats have no leverage over the king so they obey easily Fired if they disobey Centralization: of king’s court and king’s authority o Bring everything closer to base Standardization: kill regionalism, in culture, language, and laws Weaknesses: o High expenditures vs. low revenue In debt Spent money on war, which is more expensive due to new technology o Tax structures: regressive taxation Tax the poor, not the wealthy You can only tax the poor so much Can’t tax nobles because they have leverage over kings and could rebel Can’t tax church they back up divine right No funds are raised o Burry themselves in debt by continuously borrowing Banks keep lending as long as they can roll over the bill to the next generation When the banks refuse the whole thing falls apart LOUIS XIV (r.1643-1715) “the sun king”: he was the “source of all light and good” Center of the French political system Policies o Intendants: centrally appointed bureaucrats (as opposed to nobility) who ruled the regions for the king They were loyal due to their lowly background They were rotated so they never got to powerful in one region o Unified and standardized state administration Eliminates local political power o Allow nobles to keep economic and social privileges Will not tax them, allow them to hold monopolies o Tried to grow the economy Couldn’t grow it enough to keep up militarily and economically o Mercantilism: state regulates and controls nearly everything o Protectionism: trade barriers used to keep other cultures out o Imperialism: colonies bring in trade for mercantilist Trade promotion The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685) o Reasserts catholic primacy o Protestants can flea or be arrested/killed Louis distances himself from peasant mobs and nobility by building the Palace of Versailles CONSTITUTIONALISM Lists the inalienable rights of citizens Outlines the limits of state power Absolutists hate the idea o They would lose power JOHN LOCKE (1632-1704) English Philosopher 2 Treaties on Government (1689) The people invest the government with limited powers in return for its safeguard of their innate rights (life, liberty, and property o Contract between the govt. and the people o If state violates this social contract, citizens must over turn the govt. MONTESQUIEU (1689-1755) The Spirit of the Laws (1748): Separation of powers, checks and balances Separate power so that no one group or individual holds the power o Each institution can check and balance the power of another ENGLISH PARLIAMENT Needed to give consent to new taxation Has power to successfully check the power of the monarch Charles I (r. 1625-1649) tried to refuse to recognize parliament and its power o Parliament revolted ensuing civil war o Parliament wins in the end, chopping off Charles I’s head James II (r. 1685-1688) tries to eliminate Parliament o Parliament revolts, chasing him off the throne William III and Mary II (r. 1689-1704) are invited by Parliament to assume the throne with conditions o Have to recognize BILL OF RIGHTS (1689) No laws enacted without parliamentary consent No taxation without parliamentary consent Free elections for parliament Free speech (within limits) o They agree and being the GLORIOUS REVOLUTION in 1688 End of the 18 century lead to series of Revolutions resulting due to absolutism clashing with constitutionalism
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