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Psych 100

by: Ashley hughes
Ashley hughes
GPA 3.0

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These notes cover basic anatomy of the brain, neurotransmitters, sleep/ consciousness, dreams, sleep disorders, sensation and perception, learning, and development.
Intro to Psychology
Dr. Giza
75 ?




Popular in Intro to Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 12 page Bundle was uploaded by Ashley hughes on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSY 100 at West Chester University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Giza in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 348 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at West Chester University of Pennsylvania.


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Date Created: 02/23/16
Neurons: one of the major types of cells found in the nervous system, are responsible for sending and receiving messages throughout the body. Glial Cells: specialized cells of the nervous system. Involved in: mounting immune responses in the brain, moving wastes, synchronizing activity of the billions of neurons that constitute the nervous system. Neural communication Synapse- terminal point of axon branch, releases neurotransmitters. Dendrite- projection that picks up impulses from other neurons Myelin sheath- fatty coat that insulates the axons of some nerve cells, speeding transmission of impulses. Myelin speeds neurotransmission, insulates neurons from each other, and makes neurotransmission more efficient. Structure, support, and protection. Myelin speeds the movement of the action potential. Breaks in the myelin are nodes of Ranvier help the conduction of nerve impulses Axon- nerve fiber projecting from the cell body that carries nerve impulses Axon terminal- synaptic knob. Terminal butons swelling inside has neurotransmitters inside little packages called vesicles Axon hillock first place where you have an action potential. Cell body- materials needed by the neuron are made here _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Gradients When molecules such as sodium chloride or potassium chloride are in water they break apart to form charged particles callions. Ions will flow down a concentration gradient from areas of higher to lower concentration. Two types of gradients (when the ions break apart) interact to determine the concentrations of ions inside and outside the cell. They are chemical and electrical. Electrical Gradients- opposites attract, like charges repel Chemical Gradients- ions will flow down a concentration gradient from areas of higher to lower concentration Potassium overall will be more concentrated inside than outside. Sodium overall will be more concentrated outside than inside. Potassium that went out gets pulled back in, sodium that went in gets pulled out. Synaptic Transmission: 1. Synthesis and storage of neurotransmitter molecules in synaptic vesicles 2. Release of neurotransmitter molecules into synaptic cleft 3. Binding of neurotransmitters at receptor sites on postsynaptic membrane 4. Inactivation (by enzymes) of removal (drifting away) of neurotransmitters 5. Reuptake of neurotransmitters sponged up by the presynaptic neuron _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Neurotransmitters 1. Serotonin regulates sleep, apatite, and mood 2. Dopamine control of movement, reward seeking behavior, cognition, and attention. Important for movement and to the frontal lobe. 3. Norepinephrine memory, attention to new or important stimuli, regulation of sleep and mood. 4. Acetylcholine important for learning, memory, and muscle movement. 5. GABA inhibits brain activity, lowers arousal, anxiety and excitation, and facilitates sleep. 6. Glutamate excites nervous system, memory and autonomic nervous system reactions. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Clicker Questions: Basic parts of a neuron are dendrites, cell body, and axon. Glial cells provide structural support and insulation for neurons When a neuron is not transmitting a neural impulse, sodium ions are more concentrated outside the neuron and potassium ions are more concentrated inside the neuron. What event causes the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft? The arrival of the action potential at the terminal boutons If the occipital lobe of the brain is stimulated a person would be most likely to report seeing a flash of light Surgically disconnecting the cerebral hemispheres has its origins in the treatment of epileptics Studies on lateralization often present pictures to one or the other cerebral hemisphere. This presentation is usually very brief, say about 150 milliseconds. Why are the presentations so brief? To make sure that the participant cannot move his eyes when the stimulus is present, because moving the eyes could allow both hemispheres to receive the information. If a person who had received split-brain surgery briefly sees “boat x house” while focusing on the X, the person would say he/she saw the word house A person with a severed corpus callosum reaches blindly into a bag with his left hand and feels a comb, but does not remove it from the bag. After removing his hand he will be able to point to a comb with his left hand, but he will not be able to say what he felt unless he sees his left hand pointing. Your friend Ruta Bega, who has recently had her eyebrow pierced and her corpus callosum sectioned, comes over to build a block castle with you. In the hope that you will work together better, you ask Ruta to use her left hand only. Which of the following is not a type of waking consciousness ? directed, flowing, daydreams, and divided. During sleep, there is selective awareness of external stimuli “GI Jane got out of bed and began doing c (3.) _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Know the external view of the brain and their functions: brainstem, cerebellum, temporal lobe, occipital lobe, frontal lobe, and parietal lobe. On the left side of the brain is where Broca’s area (producing speech) and Wernicke’s area (understanding speech) are located. (Production of speech) Temporal lobe: auditory cortex, Wernicke’s area, associations related to auditory stimuli. Occipital lobe: contains the visual cortex, associations related to visual stimuli. Parietal lobe: contains the somatosensory cortex, associations related to spatial orientation. Frontal lobe: contains control for speech production, thinking, planning, reasoning, impulse control, and reasoning. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Forebrain: Optic Nerve: extends the brain into the retina in each eye Corpus Callosum: connects hemispheres of the cortex Limbic System: the amygdala (emotional expression) septum, cingulate cortex Basal Ganglia: motor system Cerebral Cortex: 4 lobes. The outermost part of the forebrain involved in multiple higher functions, such as thought and language Thalamus: a critical sensory relay and integration station to the higher brain sensors Hypothalamus: controls appetite and homeostasis. Regulates ANS: 4F’s Pleasure Centers Pituitary gland: part of the endocrine system—connects to the hypothalamus, releases critical hormones. (the hypocampus—memory) _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Phineas Gage’s frontal lobe was destroyed in a blasting accident at the railroad. A rod went through his cheek up through his head. His ability to plan, limit impulses, and reason were destroyed. Right brain- has spatial and musical abilities as well as the ability to recognize familiar faces. Geometric pattern, emotional expression, nonlanguage sounds, music, tactual patterns, braille, movement in special patterns, emotional content, mental rotation of shapes, geometry, direction, and distance.  Slides and emotions—nudes and laughter (nervous laughter)  Cross-cueing and emotion--  Results from strokes re emotional responses Left brain- words, letter, language sounds, complex movement, ipsilateral movement, verbal memory, finding meaning in memories, speech, writing, arithmetic, and writing. Research has shown that differences between the hemispheres in these abilities are not large Sperry experiment Left field- cant name or describe; can identify by touch with left hand Right field- named with ease; can identify by touch with right hand _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Sleep What is consciousness? A state of awareness. Of the sights and sounds of the outside world, our feelings, thoughts, and sometimes even our own consciousness. In comes in more than the thinking wide awake variety. States of consciousness: read a book, daydream, drift off to sleep, dream, drug induced states, hypnosis (question from the book look it up), and meditation. Waking consciousness is the standard. Directed consciousness a single focus. Drink a coke, look at a flower, study for a test. Flowing consciousness most less focused, awareness drifts, flow of H2O in a stream, thinking about in last 2 minutes? Daydreams not bound by logic, many times/day. Freud… fantasy, we win the race, lost love returns, relaxing.. But what is real content? Often regret, sorrow, guilt, sexual... create tension. Divided consciousness drive a car The Electroencephalograph (EEG) - a reading of brain activity has been collected from a variety of electrodes. What we hear is the sound of brain activity and plotting it visually showing how the brain is operating at different levels of sleep. How many cycles per second? Know the highest activity and lowest frequency. (High amplitude on the graph is low frequency, low amplitude is high frequency) Sleep cycles are usually defined by the EEG Awake- low-voltage, high frequency beta waves Drowsy- alpha waves prominent Stage 1 of sleep- Theta waves prominent. heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen intake, muscle tone will all decrease and relax. Stage 2 of sleep- spindles and mixed EEG activity Slow-wave sleep (stage 3 and 4 sleep) Progressively more delta waves REM Sleep- low-voltage, high frequency beta waves _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Reoccuring Dreams: all about vulnerability. Falling, flying, appearing naked in public, taking exams when unprepared. Men, overall a little more positive. Characters more socially restrained, less friendly, and less aggressively. When aggression, usually the victim. The meaning of Dreams Day Residue: an overview of your day before sleep. sleep lab, 50% have lab workers. Experiment with films (sleep after a film with violence, humiliation and despair or a neutral film. 1/3 had directly related images. Stimulus Incorporation: going on in the room while you’re sleeping. Have you ever heard the telephone or alarm? Jet experiment. 1/3 reported something to do with flying. Dream Interpretation: Manifest content is the story that you’ll report. Latent content E.g. young girl rides on a train and becomes frightened when entering a tunnel. REM vs. non-REM Content Activation-synthesis hypothesis --- No Consensus! Nightmares- Particularly vivid and disturbing dreams that occur during REM sleep Night terror- visual hallucinations for example someone will wake up screaming for example, they will see an animal in their room and freak out. Lucid dreaming is when you are aware that you are dreaming. You can teach yourself to control them in that case Stage 4 disorders: bed wetting, sleep walking, and night terrors. Circadian rhythms: one key brain structure is the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) Cells in the retina of the eye relay messages about light levels in the environment to the SCN The SCN then communicates these signals to the pineal gland Why do we sleep? Hypothesis 1: sleep evolved to conserve organisms’ energy. Hypothesis 2: immobilization during sleep is adaptive because it reduces danger Hypothesis 3: sleep helps animals to restore energy and other bodily resources. Narcolepsy sudden irresistible urge to fall asleep  Can happen while you’re tired or sympathetic arousal it doesn’t matter  Can happen while you’re driving Orexin (Hypocretin- regulation of sleep) used when talking about eating- stimulates appetite. Marijuana is an orexin factor Cataplexy- sometimes people will have cataplexy but not fall asleep. Being paralyzed but being awake. Often times this response happens in response to arousal. Maybe some head movement. Lasts short periods- a few minutes. REM Behavior disorder areas in the pons send everents to the muscles to cause paralysis Insomnia- can’t fall sleep/ stay asleep Sudo insomnia – you don’t think you’ve slept but you have Apnea temporary inability to breathe during sleep, many times associated with obesity. Areas of your medulla that regulate breathing, they’re sensitive to the amount of carbon dioxide in your blood, and triggers your respiratory centers to wake you. Linked to sudden infant death syndrome. Occurs less than a year old they stop breathing during their sleep. Medulla won’t wake a baby up because their respiratory centers are not fully developed. Restless legs syndrome: a persistent feeling of discomfort in the legs and the urge to continuously shift them into Somnambulism (sleepwalking): a disorder that involved wandering and performing other activities while asleep. Why do we sleep? Hypo 1: sleep evolved to conserve organisms’ energy Hypo 2: immobilization during sleep is adaptive because it reduces danger Hypo 3: sleep helps animals to restore energy and other bodily resources Thalamus regulates sleep. It’ll degenerate with lack of sleep (fatal familial insomnia) they’ll slip into a coma and die Sleep deprivation and sleep displacement One night: edginess, irritability, poor concentration the next day Multiple nights: often experience depression, difficulties in learning and attending, slowed reaction times. More than four days of severe deprivation: can hear voices or see things Clicker Questions Clouds appear closer to us than the sky. This is an example of figure and ground. Which gestalt law says that the closer objects are to one another, the more likely they are to be perceived as a unit? Proximity The process by which lower centers of the brain ignore or prevent conscious attention to stimuli that do not change is called sensory adaptation What property of light is reflected by the amplitude (or height) of a light wave? Intensity The retina forms the rear multilayer part of the eye and its function is the transform patterns of light into images that the brain can use Maturation is development that reflects the gradual unfolding of ones genetic blueprint After 40 CS-US pairings, presentation of the CS elicits 20 drops of saliva. The response is then extinguished so that the CS elicits no salivation. On the following day, the CS is presented. One may expect 10 drops of saliva to presentation of the CS . The initial stage of learning a response is called acquisition The continued presentation of the CS without the UCS will result in the gradual disappearance of the CR. This phenomenon is known as extinction. Block breakdown enzymes bug poison= achase. It stays around and around, not effect on humans. Sensation: the process of detecting external events by sense organs and turning those vents into neutral signals Transduction: the process in which physical or chemical simulation is converted into a nerve impulse that in signaled to the brain Absolute threshold: minimum amount of energy or quantity of a stimulus required for it to be reliably detected at least 50% of the time it is presented. (Vision, hearing, smell, taste, touch) A difference threshold: the smallest detectable difference between stimuli Compared to people, dogs have amazingly low thresholds for detecting smells. Dogs have even been trained to detect tumors in people with various types of cancer. Signal detection: theory states that whether a stimulus is perceived depends on both sensory experiences and judgments made by the subject Subliminal perception: Processing of sensory information that occurs below the level of conscious awareness. We detect subliminal stimulus (activation in certain brain regions; effects are limited, only influence behavior) Selective attention: focusing in one particular event or task such as focusing studying, driving without distraction or attentively watching Divided attention: involves paying attention to several tasks or stimuli at once such as simultaneously playing a video game and holding a conversation Saturation: colorfulness or density Trichromatic theory: maintains that color vision is determined by three different cone types that are sensitive to short, medium, and long wavelengths of light Opponent-process theory: proposes that we perceive color in terms of opposite ends of the spectrum: red to green, yellow to blue, and white to black. Cones- allows us to see in color, sensitive to detail, require more light than rods Rods- enable us to see basic shapes and forms, allow us to see in low levels of light Nearsightedness: results when light is focused in front of the retina Farsightedness: results when light is focused behind the retina Gestalt Organizing Principles: figure and ground, proximity, similarity, continuity, closure. Figure-ground: animals and insects take color/ form of their surroundings to blend in. Familiarity- things form groups if they appear familiar or meaningful We can judge depth before we learn to crawl Binocular depth cues: distance cues that are based on the differing perspectives of both eyes  Binocular convergence (tension in your eyes, feeling the strain of the muscles)  Retinal (binocular) disparity Types of learning: Classical conditioning: forming associations with stimulus. A neutral stimulus such as a bell is paired with an unconditioned stimulus such as food. The neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus it elicits the conditioned response. A bell elicits a response in a dog. Discovered by ivan Pavlov. (dog thing) US, UR, CS, CR know those and apply those Elicit: to come forth Operant conditioning: a behavior is followed by a consequence of reinforcement or punishment. The behavior increases or decreases in frequency. A rat will press a bar 120 times per hour to achieve a reward or avoid punishment. Cognitive and observational learning: an observer attends to a model to learn a behavior. The observer learns a sequence of behaviors and becomes able to perform them at will. After watching tv violence, children are more likely to show aggressive behaviors. If you pair a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS or US) that already triggers an unconditioned response (UCR or UR) that neutral Extinction: means CS no longer triggers CR. Extinction has taken place when the presence of CS ceases to predict presence of UCS and the CR is eliminated. Doesn’t mean the response is forgotten. Spontaneous recovery occurs if a rest period follows extinction. Applications of classical conditioning Acquisition of fears and phobias Learned through classical conditioning (Little Albert) Biological preparedness: the biological predisposition to rapidly learn a response to a particular class of stimuli Development- development is a sequence of age related changes that occurs as people progress from conception to death. A. Biological Factors  Sensory development: Depth Perception.  Motor development: (Proximodistal- Core first, then extremities) (Cephalocaudal- upper body first head)  Temperament: characteristic mood, activity level, emotional reactivity. E.A.S scale (E- How stable are your emotions. Highly emotional early on is related to neuroticism. A- active S- sociability) B. Cognitive Development (Piaget) stage theory  4 stages with different though processes o Go through in same order o Progress through “assimilation” and “accommodation” o Beginning of symbolic thought 1. Sensorimotor coordinate sensory input and motor output. Key feature: develop object permanence. Full by 18 months 2. Preoperational: fail to do conversation problems  Centration: focus on one aspect (focus on height and ignore width of beaker)  Irreversibility: don’t think about pouring it back or change shape lump of clay.  Egocentrism: see world from own view. (ex. The mountain w/ doll on the other side?)  Animism: lifelike qualities to inanimate objects. Wind-angry; Ocean- rest. “Car thirtsy” 1. Concrete Operational: Master reversibility and decentration (focus on more than one aspect. There are several ways to look at things. 2. Formal Operant Period: Ponder abstractions as justice, love, free will. Graduate to actual thinking mode. C. Moral Development (moral reasoning) 1. Preconventional- external authority. Wrong if- punishment 2. Conventional- rules need to preserve order. Internalize them. Want to win approval 3. Postconventional- (adolescence and…) personal code of ethics Loneliness is a personality trait You ask a three-year old why the sky is blue; she says it is because blue is her favorite color. This answer reflects theegocentric thinking that is typical of preschoolers. Water is poured from a short, broad beaker into a tall, skinny beaker. Is there more or less water now? A child answers that it’s the same amount, only it’s taller. The child is in which stage of cognitive developmentConcrete operational . Which of the following statements is true? There is no convincing evidence that skin-to-skin contact between mother and newborn immediately after birth leads to healthier attachment later on. Dr. Wilmark prescribes “medical marijuana” for her chemotherapy patients, even though it is in violation of federal law. She believes it is morally wrong to cause unnecessary human suffering and, if necessary, she is willing to serve time in jail rather than watching others suffer needlessly. Dr. Wilmark’s reasons for her actions reflect post conventional moral reasoning Five Factor Model- openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism. According to Gordon Allport, most of us can be described by five to 10 influential but not overwhelming: central traits Factor analysis Is a statistical procedure used by researchers to identify closely related clusters of variables Two major aspects of people that are studied by personality theorists are consistency and distinctiveness Id is to pleasure principle as ego is to reality principle The id can be best described as having which of the following statements as its motto? If it feels good do it Which level of awareness contains material just beneath the surface of awareness that can easily be retrieved? Preconscious In Jung’s theory, emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning are called archetypes Albert Bandura’s concept of reciprocal determinism is best summarized as “Environments shape humans and humans shape environments” Which of the following is/are not criterion for determining whether a behavior should be considered abnormal? Whether the behavior is statistically unusual, whether the behavior is maladaptive and if it causes personal distress, whether it is labeled abnormal in the individual’s society, and whether there is some degree of perceptual or cognitive distortion. The study by Rosenhan (1973) our mental health system is biased toward seeing mental illness in all potential patients. Diagnosis is to etiology as what is to why The major classification system for abnormal behavior is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Defense Mechanisms Repression: motivated forgetting of emotionally threatening memories or impulses Denial: resistance to perceiving distressing external experiences Regression: the act of returning to psychologically younger age Reaction formation- transformation of an anxiety provoking emotion into its opposite Projection: unconscious attribution our of negative qualities to others Displacement: directing an impulse from a socially unacceptable target onto a safer and more socially acceptable target Rationalization: providing a reasonable sounding explanation for unreasonable behaviors or for failures Intellectualization: Psychodynamic Perspectives focus on the unconscious mental forces. All theories include the concept of the unconscious and the idea that there is conflict. Levels of awareness: conscious, preconscious, and unconscious. Structure: Id, ego, superego. Unconscious battles—anxiety—resolve through defense mechanisms Contemporary Perspectives- focus of study of particular trait Humanistic perspectives- self concept: Rogers Criteria for judging whether behavior is normal 1. Statistically unusual 2. Maladaptive: hampers ability to function, personal distress 3. Labeled abnormal in the individual’s society 4. Often some degree of perceptual or cognitive distortion Agoraphobia: fear of open space leads to panic attacks. 60% of all phobias Obsessive-Complusion: unwanted thoughts and rituals Phobia: persistent irrational fear PTSD- may remain for decades without treatment


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