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Cognitive Psychology 200

by: Kayla Jackson

Cognitive Psychology 200 PSY 200

Marketplace > Michigan State University > Psychlogy > PSY 200 > Cognitive Psychology 200
Kayla Jackson
GPA 4.0

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Chapter 1 and 2 reading Notes from "Cognitive Psychology. Connecting Mind, research and Everyday Experience" Edition 4. Reading notes for Midterm 1.
Cognitive Psychology
Jan Brascamp
Psychology, Braschamp
75 ?




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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Kayla Jackson on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSY 200 at Michigan State University taught by Jan Brascamp in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at Michigan State University.

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Date Created: 02/23/16
Cognitive Psychology Chapter 1- Reading Notes Definition: The branch of psych concerned with the scientific study of the mind.  The mind is controlling and creating mental functions o Perception o Attention o Memory o Emotions ALL COGNITION o Language o Deciding o Thinking o Reasoning  The mind is a system that creates representations of the world so that we can at and achieve our goals.  Operation  FransicustDonders (1868) o 1 pscy experiments o How long does it take to make a decision? o Reaction time- simple vs. choice.  Mental responses cannot be measured directly, but must be inferred from observing behaviors  Wilhelm Wundt (1879) (abandoned in early 1900’s) o Structuralism o Experience is determined by combining sensations o Periodic table of the mind o Analytical introspection- trained subjects describe experience  Hermann Ebbinghaus (1885/1913) o Memory o Quantitative method for measuring memory o Savings= original learning time- relearning time o Savings cure – forgetting levels off after 2 days after originally learning  William James (1890) o Observations of his own mind o Thinking, consciousness, attention, memory, perception, imagination and reasoning  John Watson (1920) o Behaviorism o “Little Albert Experiment” o Classical Conditioning o Influenced by Ian Pavlov- food/salivation/bell  B.F. Skinner (1983) o Operant Conditioning o Skinner Box o Positive and negative reinforcement  Both Watson and Skinner focused solely on determining how behavior was stimuli controlled  Edward Chance Tolman (1938) o Rat in a maze experiment o Cognitive maps  Noam Chomsky o Language development as being an inborn biological program that holds across cultures.  Information- processing approach traces sequences of mental operations involved in cognition.  John McCarthy (1950’s) o Artificial Intelligence o Downfall of behaviorism o Logic theorist (as well as Simon, Newell and Miller)  Behaviorism- study of the mind = cognitive revolution  Beilock’s working memory – people perform better in low reassure situations and worse in high-pressure conditions.  High vs. Low working memory o HWM people loose the advantage in high pressure situations.  Structural Models- which brain structures control which functions.  To simplify  Process Models- process involved in cognitive mechanisms Input  Sensory Memory  Short Term Memory  Long term Memory  Episodic Memory- events in your life  Semantic Memory- facts and quantitative items  Procedural Memory- Physical actions  Encoding and Retrieval Cognitive Neuroscience Chapter 2- Reading Notes  Physiological basis of cognition  Levels of analysis- each approach contributing our understanding o “What is going on under the hood?”  Neurons- create and transmit information about what we experience and know  Nerve Net- complex pathway for conducting signals. o Uninterrupted through the network (continuous)  Neuron Doctrine; Ramon y Cajal; cells transmit signals in the nervous system and the cells are not continuous. (Contradicts the nerve net)  Dendrites receive, axons transmit  Resting potential- electric signal is even when no signal is transmitted  Nerve Impulses- transmitted during action potential  Neurotransmitter- chemical signal  The closer together the impulses the more sensation from the experience  Electrical signals are representing the intensity of the stimulus   KEY CONCEPT Principle of neural Representation: Everything a person experiences is based not on direct contact with stimuli, but on representations in the person’s nervous net. Representation: Feature detectors; neurons that respond to specific stimulus features Visual Cortex- Simple Stimuli and oriented bars Temporal Lobe- Complex geometrical stimuli and faces  Hierarchical Processing; Progression from lower to higher areas of the brain  Sensory code and specificity coding  Population coding- pattern of firing a large # of neurons  Sparse coding- pattern of firing of small # of neurons  Neuropsychology- the study of behavior of people with brain damage.  Broca’s Area- Producing Language  Wernicke’s Area- Understanding Language  Prosopagnosia- inability to recognize faces o Double Dissociation- one is present while the other is not. Organization:  MRI and fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging) o Create brain images and show which areas are active o Blood flow increases in the area if activation o Voxels (small units of measurement) o Fusiform Face; Para-hippocampal place; extrastriate body  Distributed representation- specific cog. Functions activate many areas.  Every lobe of the brain in involved in memory storage and recall  Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)- detection of how water diffuses along the length of the nerve fiber  Episodic Memory (Tulving)- Personal Experiences  Semantic Memory- stored knowledge and factual memories.


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