EEMB 140 (Plant Ecology) Chapter 11,12,13
EEMB 140 (Plant Ecology) Chapter 11,12,13 EEMB 140
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Lecture 2 02/18/2016 ▯ EEMB 140 ▯ ▯ January 5 2016 th ▯ ▯ Plants characteristics: ▯ *Stationary (don’t move) ▯ It depends on environmental variability in time and spaces ▯ It adapts morphologically and physiologically to anticipate specific conditions ▯ E.G: summer: plant’s leaf is mostly green ▯ Fall: plant’s leaf is changing color (yellow, red, orange) ▯ ▯ *Underground structures ▯ *Green mostly ▯ *Autotrophic (self-feeders) ▯ It needs constant lights, nutrients, and water ▯ *Filled with water ▯ ▯ Plants function in community and ecosystem: ▯ *Abiotic is based on the environment ▯ *Biotic is based on organisms ▯ ▯ Distribution of plants in variety of regions ▯ *Cactus is only growing in the desert type of environment ▯ ▯ Three types of experiments: ▯ 1. Manipulative/Controlled experiment ▯ *Field: ▯ ▯ Advantages: ▯ *Natural environmental condition ▯ E.G: how to replicate the rain ▯ * Realistic: multiple factors ▯ E.G: not only soil but also bacteria ▯ ▯ Disadvantages: ▯ *Harder to control because environment doesn’t work as the expectation ▯ *It needs longer observation (based on not being able to control it) ▯ ▯ *Greenhouse: ▯ ▯ Advantages: ▯ * It can be controlled and test of variety topics ▯ *Replicates natural conditions ▯ *Reduced randomness error ▯ ▯ Disadvantages: ▯ *Numbers of size or space constraint ▯ *Not realistic (not as same as the real world) ▯ ▯ 2. Natural experiments: ▯ Field experiment is done in nature by taking advantages of natural phenomenon such as fire ▯ ▯ 3. Observational experiment: ▯ E.G: To measure the difference between the result after fire in the forest ▯ ▯ Why is there a distinction between plants in ecosystem? ▯ *Space: No topography changed but soil deposition ▯ *Time: Plants presence is different between spring, and summer ▯ ▯ SVV1: ▯ th ▯ January 7 2016 ▯ ▯ ▯ How do plants deal with energy? ▯ *Lights strike on leaf ▯ Type of lights: ▯ *Direct light: ▯ - Direct from the sun and has the highest energy ▯ *Reflected: ▯ - Bounces by clouds and objects and determined by albedo, which refers to reflectivity of an object ▯ *Scattered: ▯ - Bounces around by particles, molecules in the sky ▯ - Light changes its wavelength = 1/lamda^4, that is why sky is blue because blue is a short wavelength so it scattered ▯ ▯ What happened with the lights? ▯ *Transmitted: right thru (green) ▯ *Reflected: bounced back (green) because leaf doesn’t absorb green ▯ *Absorbed: Changes leaf energy budget ▯ ▯ The amount of lights used for: ▯ - Metabolism ▯ - Photochemistry ▯ - Changing leaf temperature ▯ ▯ Thermal Energy: Both terms maintain homeostasis of plants ▯ * Conduction: leaf energy into the leaf ▯ * Convection: leaf energy released ▯ * Boundary layers: an invisible air mass layer surrounded the leaf for gas-exchanged process ▯ - Wind speed increases, Boundary layer decreases, more gas exchanged ▯ - Leaf size or length increases, boundary layer increases ▯ ▯ Latent Heat Exchanged: ▯ * Water is undergoing phase transition: ▯ - It is thru stomata, and water forms into gas when leaving the leaf (forms the heat released) ▯ ▯ Total Budget: ▯ Energy into leaf – Energy out leaf = Energy storage (metabolism, photochemistry and changing temperature) ▯ ▯ How do plants use the light? ▯ * Photosynthesis < 0.02% of sunlight ▯ * Present level of O2 (21%) reached about 400 mya ▯ * Oxygen competes with CO2 in the second half of photosynthesis ▯ * Oxygen formed: ▯ - Absorbed by rocks ▯ - Forming ozone (O3) ▯ * 2 BYA: ▯ - UV light increases ▯ - Organisms decreases ▯ * Long wavelength absorbs by chlo a ( red, yellow, orange) * short wavelength absorbs by chlo b ( green light used for photosynthesis) * heat reaction requires photon - PSII: light harvesting complex, P680, ETC (ADP+ATP) - PSI: Light harvesting complex, P700, ETC (NADPH) Notes: ATP and NADPH used to convert light energy into water (gives electron to produce ATP and NADPH Calvin Cycle: * closed reaction * only need specific energy * to much energy can hurt plants * plant can manage the energy input Where does PS occur? * thylakoid stack (granum) where light reaction occurs * PS II 80% between thylakoids * PS I 80% in stroma (Calvin Cycle) * Electron Transport Change (ETC) - drives H+ inside - H+ released - Phosphorylation occur (ADP + P + ANDP) Overall reaction: Thylakoids: Photon + 2H2O + 3ADP + 2NADP + 3Pi = O2 + 2NADPH2 + 3ATP ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ SSV1: ▯ * Joseph Priestly ▯ * Gas playing with fire ▯ * Candle in a Jar and water, the fire goes out ▯ * Adding plant, candle lit ▯ * Mouse and candle, both go out ▯ * Mouse, plant and candle, all live ▯ * Gas exchanged process ▯ * Plant purifies the air to a better state, and it restores air (photosynthesis) ▯ ▯ SSV3: ▯ * Follow up study by Kremer and Coile ▯ * Can root growth account for water acquisition for transpiration? ▯ * Root growth rate is 3.1 miles/day ▯ * 2mm diameter rhizosphore is 1.6 liter of water per day ▯ * Transpiration rate is 1.3-2 litters water per day ▯ * The root can take up water from the soil alone to supply the water need ▯ ▯ SSV2: ▯ * Spines in cactus plant ▯ * Not for nocturnal acid accumulation ▯ * Not for CO2 uptake ▯ * Not for productivity ▯ * Only to prevent herbivore ▯ ▯ SSV4: ▯ * Additional preys in pitcher plant ▯ * when prey there N limited ▯ * when no prey P limited ▯ * Increase leaf biomass ▯ * Increase photosynthesis rate ▯ * Increase nutrient absorption for N and K ▯ * Pitcher turn over and capture every 10-14 days ▯ ▯ SSV5: Introducing wolves in the Yellowstone National Park ▯ * when wolves are nor present, elk population increases ▯ * Plants sp population decreases ▯ * Introducing the wolves’ population back into the park leads: ▯ 1. Higher risk of predation ▯ - Plant population increases and taller ▯ 2. Lower risk of predation, ▯ - Plants population is the same ▯ * Wolves have indirect relationship on increased plant population by creating fear for elk to eat the plants ▯ C3, C4, and CAM Plants ▯ ▯ * CO2 fixation: ▯ - CO2 fixed by Rubisco ▯ - 6ATP + NADPH, and 6ADP + Pi + NADP ▯ - Reduced 5G3P (1G3P=1/2 glucose) ▯ - Regeneration RUBP ▯ - 3ATP and 3ADP ▯ ▯ Limitation for Calvin Cycle; ▯ 1. Light Cycle level: ▯ - QY; CO2 uptake/# photon ▯ 2. Light Response ▯ - Light saturation: QY=0 CO2 is limiting agent ▯ - light compensation: CO2 ps = CO2 cellular respiration ▯ - negative number means cellular respiration process ▯ - green leaf needs less photon to get light compensation - lighter leaf needs more photon ▯ - the highest QY in the stiff slope ▯ - CO2 needs time to reach plants to process PS ▯ - Flux CO2: ▯ * summer: taking CO2 ▯ * winter : released CO2 ▯ ▯ Limitation CO2 uptake: ▯ 1. Leaf conduction: Rate of CO2 flowing into leaf depends on concentration different between in and out ▯ 2. Leaf Resistant: the Inverse of leaf conduction ▯ ▯ Why does water matter? ▯ * H2O diffused at 1.6 x CO2 rate ▯ * CO2 diffusion into a cell requires a wet surface ▯ ▯ Leaf Cells: ▯ 1. Cuticle: coating ▯ 2. Epidermis: outer layer cells ▯ 3. Stomata: pores for gas exchanged (0.4-2% leaf covered by stomata) ▯ 4. Palisade layer: perfectly oriented cells full of chloroplast ▯ 5. Spongy mesophyll: spongy cell inside the leaf ▯ 6. Guard cells: cell surrounded stomata (gate keeper) ▯ ▯ Adaxial: ▯ - low CO2 ▯ - High O2 ▯ - High H2O ▯ Abaxial: ▯ - high CO2 ▯ - Low O2 ▯ -Low H2O ▯ ▯ Rubisco can also fixed O2 with affinity: ▯ - CO2: 4, and O2:1 ▯ - requires energy but don’t produce anything ▯ ▯ RUBP: ▯ - use energy without breaking any Calvin Cycle ▯ - Getting away excess of energy ▯ - the area where light Intensity is high ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ C4 Photosynthesis: ▯ ▯ * Spatial separation and PEP fixation of CO2 ▯ * C4 Cycle: Mesophyll ▯ - CO2 ▯ - C4 compound (malate, aspartate): Intermediated Carbon molecules ▯ - C3 ▯ - PEP carboxylase: No affinity for O2 needs extra energy ▯ ▯ Calvin Cycle: Bundle Sheath ▯ - CO2 ▯ - 3PG ▯ -RUBP ▯ - Sugar molecule (vascular tissue) ▯ ▯ Why hasn’t C4 taken over the world? ▯ 1. It has higher max rate of PS than C3 ▯ - pop out more sugars ▯ - high light ▯ - isolated Calvin Cycle ▯ - Cost more energy ▯ 2. C4 light saturation is higher than C3 ▯ - more sugar ▯ - more light intensity ▯ - more energy ▯ ▯ 3. Low amount of Rubisco: higher N efficiency ▯ 4. High Water Use Efficiency (WUE) ▯ - CO2 uptake/H2O lost ▯ 5. Closed stomata ▯ 6. Better in extreme condition ▯ ▯ Why doesn’t take over? ▯ * Take additional energy to run C4 ▯ * At lower level, still requires more ATP than C3 ▯ * Temperature is 42 degree C where C3 only 23 degree C ▯ * Desert: ▯ - summer: C4 ▯ - Winter: C3 ▯ * 3% of all species of plants but no gymnosperm ▯ * 46% of all grass species ▯ * Plant can be facultative: ▯ - Eucalyptus can be C4 and C3 depends on light Intensity ▯ ▯ CAM ▯ * >7% of all plants ▯ * Temporal separation and PEP fixation of CO2 ▯ ▯ Day Cycle: ▯ - low malic acids (Rubisco cannot fixed malic acid but CO2 ▯ - release CO2 by malic acids ▯ - Calvin Cycle runs only operate day time ▯ ▯ Night Cycle: ▯ - Opens up stomata ▯ - CO2 enters ▯ - no ATP and ADP ▯ - Fixed by PEP ▯ - High malic acid production (into large vacuole) ▯ EG: Cactus ▯ At night: ▯ - high malic acid ▯ - more acidic ▯ - ½ process of PS ▯ Day Time: ▯ - less malic acid ▯ - high sugar production ▯ ▯ Three different variations of CAM: ▯ 1. Fixed CAM: Pinnaple ▯ - stomata closed preventing water loss ▯ - stomata opens at night ▯ 2. Fixed CAM ▯ - early morning slow closing stomata ▯ - intermediated ▯ 3. Facultative CAM ▯ - switches between C3 and CAM ▯ EG: Crystal Ice ▯ ▯ CAM Limitaion: ▯ 1. Vacuole size ▯ EG: Succulence ▯ - bigger vacuole: can pump more malic acid ▯ 2. Slow growth ▯ 3. Need a cool night ▯ - malic acid is a leaky substance so when stomata open and hot malic acid can be evaporated ▯ - prevent water and malic acid lost ▯ 4. freezing ▯ - cell can be exploded in this condition ▯ EG: cactus ▯ ▯ Distribution of C3, C4 and CAM ▯ C4: ▯ - hot, high light environment ▯ - Trophic ▯ - Area/region with a lot of rain ▯ ▯ CAM: ▯ - water limited region (desert and rain forest) ▯ - cool night ▯ - no freezing ▯ Epiphytes: ▯ - water from air (humidity) ▯ - grow in upper region without soil ▯ ▯ Sun Leaf: ▯ - small leaf area ▯ - thicker leaf ▯ - less light harvest ▯ - more stroma ▯ ▯ Shade leaf: ▯ - large leaf area ▯ - thin leaf ▯ - more light harvest ▯ - more grana ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Review: ▯ Heat Shock Protein (2013) ▯ * Binding a function of proteins ▯ * So it keeps plants in shape ▯ ▯ Adaptation Low lights: ▯ 1. Increasing lights ▯ * Solar tracking (sun flowers) ▯ - Pointing to East in the morning ▯ - Straight in midday ▯ - Pointing to West in sunset ▯ ▯ * Sun Flecks (Goldenseal around canopy) ▯ - Getting many dots direct sun light ▯ - Fast photosynthesis process ▯ - Fast harvest time ▯ ▯ * Leaf Iridescences (tropical forest) ▯ - Grows cuticles (super glossy) ▯ - Increases amount of energy ▯ ▯ * Large thin leaves ▯ - Need a lot of lights ▯ ▯ * Grana Orientation ▯ - In sun leaf, grana stacked in the same angle and direction ▯ - In shade leaf, grana stacked in many direction and angles ▯ - In this adaptation, plants have ability to move chloroplast shape ▯ ▯ ▯ Adaptation: High Light ▯ * Prevention ▯ 1. Increase reflection ▯ 2. Leaf orientation ▯ 3. Chloroplast can move ▯ 4. dispatching energy absorb by chlorophyll ▯ 5. Heat-shock protein by binding into functional protein to keep in shape ▯ 6. Fluorescent ▯ - when light hits P680 to energized electron in chlorophyll ▯ - P700 then emits the long wavelength ▯ - electron comes back to energy level ▯ - the higher fluorescent the higher plant stress ▯ ▯ Adaptation: Low light ▯ * Increasing light intensity ▯ 1. Solar tracking (sun flower) ▯ - pointing to East (morning) ▯ - pointing straight (mid day) ▯ - pointing West (sunset) ▯ ▯ 2. Sunflecks (goldenseal canopy) ▯ - many dots by getting direct sunlight ▯ - fast photosysntesis ▯ - fast light harvesting process ▯ ▯ 3. Leaf Iridescenes ▯ - Mostly in tropical forest ▯ - by growing cuticle (super glossy) ▯ - Increase amount of energy ▯ ▯ 4. Large thin leaf ▯ - Need too much light ▯ ▯ 5. Grana Orientation ▯ - multiple directions of lights ▯ - plants have ability to change the shape by the movement of chloroplast ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Why do plants need water? ▯ ▯ 1. Transpiration ▯ - 95% of water by product of gas exchange H2O= 1.6 x CO2 ▯ ▯ 2. Photosynthesis (PS) ▯ - 5% of water splitting of H2O in light reaction used for plant growth ▯ ▯ 3. Transport of nutrients and photosynthesis thates ▯ 4. Turgor pressure ▯ - to maintain cell shape ▯ - In cytoplasm water pushes cell from inside ▯ ▯ Animal cells: ▯ * Isotonic: ▯ - H2O moves in and out with the same rate ▯ - the cell is happy in this state ▯ ▯ * Hypotonic: ▯ - cell lysed ▯ - putting water into the cell ▯ - cell exploded ▯ ▯ * hypertonic ▯ - taking H2O out of the cell ▯ - cell is shrivel ▯ ▯ Plant cells: ▯ * Isotonic ▯ - cell flaccid ▯ ▯ * Hypotonic ▯ - Cell is turgid (normal) ▯ ▯ * Hypertonic ▯ - cell is plasmolyzed ▯ - they cannot fix itself ▯ ▯ How does water move thru plants? ▯ 1. Water potential ▯ - the ability for water to do work ▯ - plants have (-) pressure, pulling water out of stomata in dry condition ▯ - more evaporation ▯ - higher (-) tension ▯ - More (-) refers to less water potential (leaf) ▯ - Less (-) means more water potential (roots) ▯ ▯ 2. Gravimetric potential ▯ - gravity dependent process ▯ - the higher elevation the more (-) tension ▯ ▯ 3. Metric Potential ▯ - sponge: H2O moves in (passive energy) ▯ - Cohesion affinity: H2O and H2O ( keeps string attach) ▯ - adhesion: H2O and surface tension ▯ ▯ 4. Osmotic potential ▯ - water moves from higher concentration to lower concentration ▯ - from outside environment into cytoplasm ▯ ▯ * Xylem ▯ * leaves: ▯ * stomata: water potential=-4.5 Mpa ▯ * Air: water potential=-58 Mpa ▯ ▯ Hypertonic: stomata opened and guard cells are swollen (turgid) ▯ Isotonic: stomata closed and guard cells shrunken (flaccid) ▯ ▯ Stomata surrounded by guard cells become turgid because K+ enters guard cells so water potential decreased ▯ ▯ Leaves: ▯ H2O moves to less (-) to more (-) ▯ * xylem to cell wall Mesophyll cells ▯ * cell wall to inside the cells ▯ * inside cell to cell wall ▯ * cell wall to stomata (epidermis layer) then out ▯ ▯ Xylem Tissue: ▯ 1. Tracheids (on Gymnosperms) ▯ - 0.02 mm diameter ▯ - less flow ▯ - lower risk of breaking ▯ - dead cell ▯ - long, narrow ▯ - low embolism risk ▯ ▯ Embolism: gas formed and comes in the solution because of negative tension ▯ - When embolism formed, torus sealed and xylem compromised ▯ ▯ Cavitation: breakage in the tube ▯ - formed negative force outside and inside ▯ - game over for the plants ▯ - caused by wind stress and high water ▯ ▯ 2. vessels (only angiosperms) ▯ - Short and fat ▯ - High water flow ▯ - High risk of Embolism ▯ - Living cells ▯ ▯ 3. Fibers: (gymnosperm and angiosperm) ▯ - tough ▯ - non conducting structure of xylem ▯ - balanced embolism breakage and water flow ▯ ▯ Experiment on Embolism: ▯ - adding solute to water in xylem ▯ - osmotic more (-) ▯ - water potential less (-) ▯ - water forming inside embolism (they don’t know why water is formed) ▯ ▯ Roots: ▯ * two pathways (passive) ▯ 1. Apoplastic: water flow thru cell walls outside the cells ▯ 2. Symplastic: water flow thru cells ▯ ▯ Water in cytoplasm is controllable ▯ Water in cell wall is very rigid ▯ ▯ Casparian strip (suberin) ▯ - allows plant to control the water flow ▯ ▯ Wet soil is less (-) ▯ Dry soil is more (-) ▯ ▯ Where do plants get water? ▯ 1. Roots ▯ - high absorbsion of water ▯ 2. foliar uptake ▯ - water moves from air (high concentration) into inside of leaf ▯ - most water goes into leaf cells ▯ EG: Endophytes (inside the leaf) ▯ - hyphae moves into the leaf by stomata ▯ - crack in the cuticle ▯ - epidermal cells ▯ - leaky stomata (nocturnal conduction) ▯ ▯ How does it affect plants? ▯ - foliar uptake is 90% in the species ▯ - widespread ▯ - drought in cloud forest ▯ * decreases transpiration ▯ * stomata closed ▯ * not much photosynthesis ▯ - Increased water content in some chaparral shrubs ▯ - maintain photosynthesis capacity in the morning to make sugar ▯ ▯ Root features: ▯ 1. root cap (meristem) is a new cell dividing ▯ 2. Zone elongation: cells get bigger ▯ 3. root hairs: high surface area/volume ratio site of water uptake ▯ ▯ Soil texture triangle: ▯ 1. sands: 0.05 mm to 2 mm ▯ - low nutrient holding ▯ - long water holding ▯ ▯ 2. slit: 0.002 mm to 0.05 mm ▯ 3. Clay: <0.002 mm ▯ - high water and nutrient holding capacity ▯ ▯ 4. Loam: mixture ▯ ▯ Diagram: when there is low water potential, leaf will wilt ▯ ▯ Plant and extreme adaptation: ▯ 1. Low water adaptation: ▯ - drought tolerant ▯ - leaf level mechanism: ▯ * stomata crypts: having reses cavity (stomata inside), low boundary layer ▯ - change osmotic potential ▯ physical: ▯ - having cuticle ▯ - sclerophyllous leaves ▯ - small service area of leaf and ratio volume ▯ - C4 and CAM storage mechanism ▯ * cactus can expand the pleat for malic acid in vacuole ▯ Root and low water ▯ - preatophytes ▯ - root die back in cactus ▯ * map out root during rain ▯ * died out during summer ▯ - secondary thickening of periderm (middle part of root preventing water loss) ▯ ▯ ▯ Lecture 7: Elemental Composition and Requirement of Plants ▯ ▯ * Chlorophyll contains: ▯ - Carbon (all over the place) ▯ - Oxygen, Hydrogen, Mg at the center, and Nitrogen ▯ ▯ Rubisco: ▯ - the most common enzymes on earth ▯ - Amino acid (phenylalanine) on C3 plant ▯ ▯ RUBP: ▯ - Phosphorous ▯ - Mg in the center ▯ ▯ Where do plants get nutrients? ▯ - CO2 an H2O from soils ▯ ▯ Soil structure: ▯ - Clay has (-) charge ▯ - clay can bind cations ▯ - Al>H> Ca>Mg>K>Na ▯ - clay is smaller particle than sands ▯ - more weathering ▯ - Filtering toxic from water and hold nutrient in the soil ▯ - soil pH influences nutrient availability ▯ - Acidic: Fe, Manganes, Boron, Cooper, and zinc ▯ - Alkaline: Nitrogen, phosphorous, Potassium, sulful, Ca, Mg ▯ ▯ Serpentine soil: ▯ - low plant growth ▯ - high heavy metals ▯ ▯ Diagram availability: ▯ - Nitrogen increases thru time (100,000 years) ▯ - Phosphorous decreases thru time (10,000 years) ▯ ▯ Cation Exchange Capasity (CEC) ▯ * soil capacity that can hold cation that present on the soils ▯ * increasing fertility ▯ * Requires energy to wash out cation from clay ▯ ▯ Stoichiometry: the number of nutrients availability for plants ▯ 1. Climates ▯ - leads to diversity of plants morphology and nutrients availability ▯ 2. Soils: ▯ - CEC ▯ - organic matters ▯ - pH ▯ 3. Plants: ▯ - different species produces different compounds ▯ - different age of plant can hold nutrients ▯ - the number of leaves (nitrogen) ▯ - reproductive growth (phosphorous) ▯ ▯ Plant physiological responses; ▯ - nutrient uptake ▯ - CO2 uptake ▯ - resources (roots vs shoots) ▯ - defense ▯ ▯ Acid rain: ▯ - decreasing pH (more acidic) ▯ - low nutrient availability ▯ ▯ How do plant acquire nutrients: ▯ * active process ▯ - plant has high concentration ▯ - particle goes to: ▯ > root hairs ▯ > membranes ▯ > releases to the other site ▯ - needs energy (proton, ATP) ▯ - high H+ (outside) and low H+ (inside) creates proton gradient ▯ - big particles need protein to transport across membranes ▯ ▯ Mechanism: ▯ 1. co-transport (anion) ▯ 2. proton pump (breaking up ATP) ▯ 3. Cations (+) using transport protein and binding it then send across membranes ▯ ▯ Nitrogen Cycle: ▯ * Nitrogen (triple bonds) fixed by lighting ▯ * washout into the soil by rain etc. ▯ * in soil bacteria decomposer fixed NH4+ to NO3- (Nitrofication) ▯ * Mineralization: process of Nitrogen formed that fixed into inorganics matter ▯ * legumes have Rhizobia spp (bacteria) ▯ * Actinorhizae have Frankia spp (bacteria) ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Herbivory and Plant Defense: ▯ ▯ Review: Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) ▯ The number of exchangeable cations per dry weight that soil is capable of holding and that are available for exchange with the soil water solution at a given pH. ▯ E.G: Ca2+ refers to 2 binding sites ▯ Clays hold more cations than sands ▯ ▯ A. How does herbivory affect individual plants? ▯ * herbivory leads for plants to lose things (leaves, flowers, stems etc.) ▯ ▯ Type of herbivory: ▯ 1. Granivores: Seed predators (taking the most nutrients from the plants, which are seeds ▯ 2. Grazers: Grasses and forbs (no grass as well no woody plants) predators ▯ 3. Browsers: Woody plants predators ▯ 4. Frugivores: eating fruits (energy, nutrients, and dispersion of seeds) ▯ 5. Root herbivores: eating roots (Nematodes-invertabrates) ▯ ▯ Note: 50% of all herbivory influence the circle of nutrients and carbon ▯ Direct and Indirect effects of herbivory: 1. Missing leaves - no photosynthesis (no sugars production, no water and no gas exchanged) - no transpiration - no nutrients 2. Missing flowers/seeds/fruits - decreasing propagation - less contribution of gene pool - decreasing dispersal (restrict distribution) 3. Stems or trunks - decreasing stem flow of phloem and energy availability for growth and reproduction 4. Roots - No access to water and nutrients - less structural stability Note: it is depending on timing and type of herbivory B. How do plants defend against herbivory? 1. Physical * Leaves - producing tough leaves so it must be hard to chew and decreasing water loss * Hairs (trichomes) - increasing boundary layers - prevent water loss - hard to chew * Color (leaves age) - Young leaves don’t look tasty to consume - Young leaves contains higher Anthocyanins (red and yellow) - Photosynthesis occurs with the present of another pigments * Trichomes on leaves; E.G: Stinging nettles - having silica structure in grass (phytoliths) making it hard to eat and providing structure for the plants * Indirect and structural - Ambrosia sp (Mojave desert) - facilitate the growth of different species, which is Larrea sp - provide protection for Larrea sp as “nurse plants” * Residual Adaptation - Having a huge torn on the trunks - It used to be eaten in the past - extinction of the animals leaves the torns 2. Chemical * Primary compounds: DNA, sugars, and amino acids - They are essential compound for life * Secondary compound: defense mechanism and pollination - phenolic - alkaloids (ring compound with N) - Latex - Hormonse analogs two classes of compound 1. constitutive: * phenolic (tennins) - tennins bind to animal proteins and recudes digestive ability of the animals Graph: - High tennin produce low digestible rate of animals - high tennin also cuases low rate of breeding of animals * Lignin - produce hard structure that organisms cannot digest lignin * Latex - Oligosaccharides (sticky) - produces natural rubbers - laticifer cell contains latex - Latex sometimes in leaves or stems 2. Induced * Alkaloids - bitter taste - it is effective in small concentration - require ATP and N - it has huge diversity in plant specific 3. Constitutive or Induced * Hormone Analogs - Mimicking animal hormones (phytoestrogens) - reduces reproduction in Quails * anti-juvenile hormone in invertebrates - accelerates metamorphosis - speed up from caterpillar stage to butterfly stage - by speeding up caterpillar stage, the leaves don’t be eaten by caterpillars Note: - some hormones induce by stress - secondary compound “ricin” in castor bean can be fatal to adult human when they consume about 8 beans (delayed response) Chemical or physical trade of on board: > Theoretical tropical leaves development: * young leaves - higher anthocyanin - higher herbivory rate - higher N - low in tennin * Mature leaves - higher tennin (tougher) - high in chlorophyll and Rubisco - high in defense rate C. How does herbivory affect plant’s population? * biodiversity microhabitat * mortality * Range limitation - slugs (herbivory) prevent plant to disperse * massive die off - by bark beetles eating on phloem ▯ How do exotic plants affect herbivory? ▯ * exotic means non natives ▯ - species outside of native range (by human help) ▯ EG: ▯ Native species consume native plants ▯ Non-native introduces and also will consume the same source of plants ▯ ▯ * Naturalized: ▯ - established outside of range by itself with no help ▯ ▯ * Weed: ▯ - Undesired species ▯ - It could be native plant but it removed with a reason ▯ ▯ * Invasive: ▯ - Exotic spreading into native communities ▯ EG: CA poppy is considered invasive in Chile ▯ ▯ * Transformer: ▯ - Plants that have negative impact into native species ▯ ▯ Note: ▯ Transformer plants are invasive plants while invasive plants are exotic plants ▯ ▯ EG: ▯ A. Exotic herbivore (rabbit is Ausiie) ▯ - Enemy Release Hypothesis ▯ * No enemy for rabbits ▯ - Increased rabbit population ▯ - Rabbits create desert ▯ Solution: ▯ - building rabbit proof fence ▯ - Relased myxoma virus as bio control ▯ ▯ B. Exotic plant in CA ▯ * Tamarisk ( salt cedar ) From Asia ▯ - Takes over water ways increasing fire ▯ Solution: ▯ - Bio control by releasing beetles that eat foliage of plants ▯ Results: ▯ - No PS ▯ - No water transpiration ▯ - Reduced the density of plants ▯ - Plant mortality is not easy to measure ▯ ▯ Plant Growth and Development: ▯ ▯ Plant Life Form: ▯ 1. Woody ▯ * Heartwood: died structural (could be inside or outside) ▯ * Sapwood: Xylem (dead cell) ▯ * Vascular cambium ▯ - Living dividing cells ▯ - Source of Xylem (Inside) and Phloem (outside) ▯ ▯ Phloem is moving down (living cells conducting PS) ▯ ▯ Xylem is moving up bringing raw nutrients (N, Ca, K, P) from root to xylem ▯ ▯ Periderm: bark (dead cells) ▯ - Cork cambium ▯ - Cork ▯ ▯ Girdling of trees: ▯ - Cutting the bark so the phloem is exposed (get disrupts) ▯ ▯ 2. Woody shrubs: shorter stem (woody) ▯ ▯ 3. Herbaceous: ▯ a. Graminoids ▯ - No woody ▯ - phytoliths (structural, anti herbivory) ▯ - monocot (grasses) ▯ ▯ b. Forbs or fines ▯ ▯ 4. Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) ▯ * no vascular tissues ▯ * no xylem or phloem ▯ * closed to water source ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ How do plants grow? ▯ * cell division ▯ - roots; ▯ 1. root cap: to protect new cells ▯ 2. meristem: site of cell division (where cell grows divided) ▯ 3. Elongation: cell gets bigger ▯ 4. Apical meristem: site of cell division on the top of plant ▯ ▯ * vegetative growth ▯ 1. Stolon: branches near the surface that grows new plants (from nodes) ▯ EG: strawberry; grows away from the parent plants ▯ 2. Rhizomes; underground stems, and they can store energy ▯ EG: Ginger (stem tissue) : grows next to the mature plant ▯ 3. Fragment: a piece of mature plants that can grow root, stem and leaves ▯ EG: willow trees (good for restoration) ▯ - wash out by water ▯ - break the fragment ▯ - fragment grows ▯ 4. Adventitious growth; growth in unusual place and not meristematic ▯ EG: English Ivy ▯ - grow for structural purpose ▯ - root grows from leaves ▯ - leaves grow from root ▯ 5. Ramet: Individual stem of clonal plants ▯ - grow underground and form another plant ▯ - it is difficult to distinguished each individual ▯ ▯ How do plants require pollination? ▯ - changing gametes between male and female ▯ - same plants same structure ▯ - same plants different structure ▯ - diecious plant: species with separated sexes (different plant, different structure) ▯ - EG: Coyote Brush ▯ ▯ Plant cannot move so to do outcrossing, they need some help: ▯ - winds ▯ - animals ▯ - insects ▯ - selfing: when plant pollinate itself ▯ * benefits: ▯ - easy ▯ - less energy ▯ - guarantee ▯ * caused: ▯ - lower fitness ▯ - lacking diversity ▯ - inbreeding depression ▯ ▯ How to avoid selfing? ▯ * separation on male and female plants ▯ * Timing ▯ EG: water lily ▯ - female opens at day time letting beetle come in ▯ - male opens at night letting beetle out so it can go to another female flower ▯ * spaces: ▯ - palm tree by wind ▯ - female on the top ▯ - male on the bottom ▯ - blow away from parent tree ▯ ▯ How do plant accomplish pollination? ▯ Pollination syndrome chart: ▯ ▯ 1. syndrome: wind ▯ * plant level: ▯ - lots of pollen ▯ - no nectar flower ▯ * ecological ▯ - dry condition ▯ - windy ▯ - temporal gap between male and female ▯ ▯ 2. syndrome: wasp ▯ * plant level ▯ - complicated flowers ▯ - pollinia (pollen package) ▯ * ecological ▯ - restricted range ▯ - specialized ▯ - guarantee outcross ▯ - Inconsistent ▯ ▯ 3. syndrome: hummingbird ▯ * plant level ▯ - tubular red flower ▯ - a lot of nectars ▯ * ecological ▯ - subject to nectar theft ▯ ▯ 4. Syndrome: bats ▯ * plant level ▯ - large white flower ▯ - a lot of pheromones and nectar ▯ * ecological ▯ - low density ▯ - long distant pollination ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ What are seeds? ▯ * are embryonic plants with a time delay ▯ * reduced metabolism (low or very long time) ▯ * able to move from individual to another ▯ * moves the seeds away (two selective pressures) ▯ 1. selective pressure away from the adult ▯ - microclimate ▯ - higher interspecific competition ▯ - predators and pathogens ▯ ▯ 2. selective pressure toward the adult ▯ - microclimate ▯ - better habitat condition (more nutrients, pollinators) ▯ ▯ Seed bank: temporal aspect to dispersal ▯ - seeds can survive in the soil for very long time ▯ EG: date palm (Jerusalem) ▯ - found underground in 2015 (2000 years ago) ▯ - it still is germinating ▯ - seeds can wait and germinate when the best time for them to grow ▯ ▯ How does a seed bank function? ▯ Cycle seed dispersal: ▯ 1. temporal aspect ▯ * seeds dispersal ▯ * Dormant (hibernation state) ▯ - can shift by hormones ▯ - Abscisic Acid (ABA): maintain dormancy ▯ - Gibberellins (breaks dormancy) ▯ - seed predation ▯ ▯ * non-dormant (start germinating) ▯ - pathogen and decay ▯ ▯ * Both can germinate or die ▯ * both can germinate and live ▯ * lucky maturation process occurred ▯ * seeds dispersal ▯ ▯ Note: ▯ Things that break dormancy: “CUES” (sometimes there is time delay) ▯ * rainfall (water), winter (cold), animal guts (acids), coastal habitat (salt) ▯ * wild fire (smoke, heats charcoal) ▯ ▯ Scarification: a process that makes seeds permeable to H2O and gas ▯ * most seeds are next to the adult ▯ * less seeds away from the adult (seed shadow) ▯ ▯ Seed dispersal trade off for seed size: ▯ * number of seeds vs seed size ▯ - energy necessary to make seed (large=less, and small=more) ▯ * distance vs seed size ▯ - small seeds travel faster/farther than larger seeds ▯ * germination vs survivor vs competition ▯ - larger seeds have higher energy reserves than smaller seed ▯ - smaller seeds are most likely outcompete with other organism ▯ ▯ Mechanism: ▯ 1. Abiotic: wind, water ▯ * Wind: anemochory ▯ - seed: small and many because it is blown by the wind, gliding, floating, aerodynamic adaptation ▯ - ecological: need wind, dry condition, open spaces, good dispersal, but bad competitors ▯ ▯ * water: hydrochory (mostly within water movement) ▯ - seed: float (light weight), hydrophobic coating, ▯ - ecological: need access of water (restrict range) ▯ - access to water it doesn’t have to constant ▯ ▯ Video: Mangrove: ▯ * seed germinate by getting nutrient from the branch ▯ * seeds fall and wash away by the high tide ▯ ▯ 2. Biotic: zoochory ▯ * epizoochory: external ▯ - seed:hard seeds, physical attachment mechanism (sticky etc) ▯ - ecological: rare syndrome, tend to occur in open and disturbed habitat ▯ ▯ * epizoochory: burial ▯ - seed: has to be really hard seeds ▯ - ecological: dispersed in clusters (all seeds are in one spot) ▯ - masting: when particular trees produce ton of seed to overwhelmed of predators ▯ ▯ * endozoochory: internal (seed passes thru gut from animal and survive) ▯ - seed: need seed coat to protect from animal gut ▯ - needs to reward for dispersal (taste good) ▯ - Ecological: common in tropic ▯ - a lot of co-evolution with dispersal (if animal extinct , seed cannot dispersed) ▯ - very dependent on dispersal ▯ - The farthest away from parent trees ▯ ▯ Video: endozoochory: ▯ - seed avocado bird swallow it ▯ - three minutes out from the bird ▯ ▯ - Misteltoe (parasitic plant) dispersal by bird ▯ ▯ 3. Autochory: Ballistic ▯ - Seed: mechanism for launch: pressure, and temperature ▯ - Ecological: not relying on dispersal or wind or water ▯ ▯ * Barochory: gravity ▯ - Seed: gravity, and so heavy ▯ - ecological: often coupled with secondary dispersal ▯ - clustered dispersal ▯ ▯ Seed dispersal and habitat fragmentation: (from multiple plants with different seed size) ▯ - dispersal seed is depending on the environment ▯ - forest recovery depends on regrowth and colonization ▯ ▯ * larger seeds are not disperse to forest edge ▯ - tend to be disperse by animals ▯ - animals like to take into interior forest for safety ▯ ▯ * smaller seeds tend to make it to the edge forest ▯ - it might be because of so light it is better to spread around the edge of forest ▯ ▯ Seed dispersal and non-native species: ▯ * White-tailed deer dispersal: ▯ - eating plants and disperse the seed ▯ - selectively picked by the deer ▯ - deer tends to eat plant in the open habitat 85% ▯ - the origin of the plants are 95% seeds that deer disperse are from non-species plants ▯ - deer tends to disperse small seed 81% ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ What is natural disturbance in ecology: ▯ ▯ * disturbance in ecology: ▯ any relatively discrete event time that disrupts ecosystem community or population structure and changes resources, substrate availability or the physical environment ▯ - removing substrate (acid rain will not fit this description) ▯ - tornadoes, wild fire, flooding, volcanoes ▯ ▯ How does disturbance affect ecosystem: ▯ ▯ * disturbance regime: ▯ - special and temporal characteristics for a given ecosystem or location ▯ - disturbance influences many types of ecosystem ▯ - all aspects of disturbance ▯ ▯ * seasonality: ▯ - In Aussie: ▯ - wild fire occurs in different season between northern and southern part ▯ - this results in diversity and different type of species that live in both regions ▯ - In Santa Barbara: ▯ - gap fire in July 2008 ▯ - tea fire in November 2008 ▯ - Jesusita fire in May 2009 (whole summer of drought) ▯ ▯ * return interval: ▯ - how the disturbance frequency is more likely to occur ▯ - the frequency changes might lead to the abundance of species in the ecosystem ▯ ▯ * size and continuity ▯ - dead plants surrounded by life plants (affected by fire) ▯ - fragment regions effects by fire ▯ > this fragment would recover faster ▯ > seed dispersal is more likely more dispersed ▯ ▯ * intensity vs. severity ▯ - Intensity: magnitude of energy released (it related to severity but it is not correlated) ▯ - Severity: amount of organic matter lost (tends to have slower recovery when it is very high percentage) ▯ ▯ * type: refers to the type of disturbance tends to be different based on regions ▯ - as measurement to level of intensity or severity ▯ ▯ How are plants adapted to disturbance ▯ ▯ Resistance vs. Resilience (ways dealing with disturbances) ▯ ▯ * Resistance: living thru it whether physical/physiological adaptations (tolerance) ▯ - can plants hold on after disturbance ▯ * Resilience: they may die but they persist in other form ▯ - seed bank or seed dispersal (more avoidance in population level) ▯ ▯ What is about IDH? (Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis) ▯ determining disturbance regime: ▯ * time period (what is historic or when was historic) ▯ > before or after Native American ▯ > pre-European or pre-Historic ▯ * Time frame: ▯ > frequency based or slice of time ▯ > number of disturbances for century or decade ▯ * variability in the disturbance itself ▯ > multi year pattern (questionable) ▯ * the context has changed ▯ > Based on the new normal ▯ > based on humans and the environment ▯ ▯ ▯ * the number of species increases when the disturbance is intermediate ▯ - in the graph: missing of Intensity (there is no record how much energy of disturbance (seasonality, severity, and types) ▯ ▯ * Evidence of IDH: ▯ - diversity: no relationship with disturbance ▯ - more disturbance is more species ▯ - different relationship between species diversity and disturbance ▯ - it depends where we are ▯ - weak evidence of IDH ▯ - does not occur everywhere ▯ - consensus is that high species diversity occurs with disturbance closest to historic disturbance regime ▯ ▯ Flooding Disturbance in SW USA ▯ * historic flooding ▯ - seasonality/ frequency: once a year (springs) ▯ - Intensity: high ▯ - ecology: ▯ > hydrochory timed for flood ▯ > movement of sediment ▯ * Control of flooding ▯ - Seasonality/frequency: throughout the year ▯ - Intensity: low ▯ - ecology: ▯ > homogenization ▯ > exotic invasion ▯ > buildup of sediment that could reduced habitat ▯ ▯ Graph: ▯ * before dam: ▯ - high intensity of plants ▯ * after dam ▯ - low intensity because plants cannot adapt well to the new environment ▯ - buildup sediment (a lot of nutrients for plants species stucked) ▯ ▯ How do we interact ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ What influences fuel condition? ▯ ▯ 1. Structure ▯ * Surface area/Volume Ratio ▯ - comparing thick branch vs. thin branch ▯ - thick branch has small SA/volume ▯ - thin branch has large SA/volume (easy to catch by fire) ▯ * Packing Ration ▯ - thin branch has lower packing ratio ▯ - thick had tightly packing ratio ▯ - thin has plenty of O2 ▯ - thick has less O2 ▯ ▯ 2. Chemistry (Eucalyptus trees) ▯ * Volatiles/oils ▯ - oil plays important role for the tree can catch by fire ▯ 3. Water content ▯ * Live Fuel Moisture (ratio of water weight/ratio dry weight) ▯ - nothing will burn unless all water is gone (evaporate prior to combustion process ▯ - it is important where fuel is a limiting factor region/area ▯ ▯ What happens to fuel in a fire? ▯ 1. Drying: when H2O evaporated by heat so the material becomes dry ▯ 2. Pyrolysis: heat no air to biomass to charcoal and Tar ▯ - happens spontaneously ▯ - it has to be dried ▯ 3. Combustion: O2/air to tarry gas or charcoal to fire (H2O and CO2) ▯ ▯ Wood contains gas that leaks by heat so the fire burns the gas first before burns the wood ▯ ▯ Fire as a local disturbance: Tower Fire phenomenon ▯ Fire also as global phenomenon: natural fire as well human made for deforestation ▯ ▯ Human and Fire Disturbance: ▯ 1. Historical sources of ignition ▯ * lighting ▯ 2. Human as the source of fire ▯ * To clear the vegetation (open the land) ▯ 3. Anthropogenic ignition along with WUI (wild land urban interface) ▯ * Intersection of wild land and people ▯ * People move closer into the wild land putting them into high risk to face wild fire phenomenon ▯ ▯ Human and Fire Management: ▯ 1. Fire prevention 1900s to 1970s ▯ 2. Modern Fire Management ▯ * Prescribed fire: purposely set fire ▯ - to reduce the plants that are not used so the good plants are increasing ▯ - making the line and predict the wind direction ▯ * fire breaks: tends to be set for access for fire fighting ▯ - create border line ▯ - to prevent fire to another sides ▯ - it could be destructive process into the ecosystem ▯ ▯ How does fire affect ecosystem? * Fire Regime 1. Seasonality: - summer plants still wet (no air fire) - fall plants are dry out (more area burned) 2. Fire return Interval - fire frequency is higher around human - Fire frequency is low around natural area 3. Size and continuity - Chaparral ecosystem in San Diego: Large continuous fire - Mojave Desert: rare, small, and patchy fire - more people and more non-native species: Large continuous fires 4. Intensity and Severity - the higher the flame the higher energy (high Intensity) - the less the flame is the low energy (low Intensity) EG: shrubs fire tends to be hotter than grass fire - some fire burns a lot of material (high severity) - less burns organic matter (low severity) Three types of Fire 1. ground fire - could happens under ground depends on O2 level * duff refers to dead plant litter and organic material - low intensity - burn slowly 2. Surface Fire: fire burns on the surface (staying low under story of plants) - variable speed and medium intensity - the don’t reach the canopy 3. crown fire - when fire gets up reaching the canopy - EG: Chaparral is crown fire - all plants - variable speed - high intensity ▯ How fire affects ecosystem? ▯ 1. Soil and water ▯ * fire type and duration ▯ - soil is great insulator ▯ - dry soil good insulator ▯ - wet soil: water heats up so it is better conductor than air from the surface don’t into the soil ▯ - 2.5 cm and 5 cm lines are much more higher because water heats increases the soil temperature ▯ - In CA, fire in may (higher water concentration in soil) can increase the above ground soil temperature ▯ - it affects ground seed to germinate ▯ ▯ Graph: x: time, y: soil temperature ▯ - 700 soil temperature in thin soil ▯ - 2.5 cm soil around 150 soil temperature ▯ - 5 cm soil has less soil temperature ▯ ▯ * Water repellency or hydrophobic layer ▯ a. pre-fire ▯ - slightly hydrophobic (resin, waxes and organic materials) ▯ - soil surface ▯ - hydrophobic layer ▯ b. post-fire ▯ - soil surface ▯ - concentrated hydrophobic layer (moves down based on gravity) ▯ - heat moves down so below the surface becomes very concentrated ▯ - rain comes creates land slide ▯ - Recovery of after fire depending on the level of land that left ▯ - less land is hard to recover ▯ - more land is easy to recover ▯ ▯ 2. Nutrient dynamic; ▯ * volatilization of mineral (blows away) ▯ - Nitrogen and sulfur are the nutrients that are first to blow up when the fire occurred ▯ - Phosphorous and Potassium the second ▯ - Chaparral soil temperature is 700 degrees Celcius ▯ - Mg, Ca, Mn are staying in the soil ▯ - these are nutrients that plants are used ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯
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