General Chemistry I: Chapter 2
General Chemistry I: Chapter 2 CHE 1101
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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Hannah Czajkowski on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Bundle belongs to CHE 1101 at Appalachian State University taught by Jennifer Cecile in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry1 in Chemistry at Appalachian State University.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Chapter 2 Organization Summary o Early versions of periodic tables Arranged by increasing atomic mass Mendeleev (Russian) and Meyer (German) in 1869 Noted repeating (periodic) properties o Modern Periodic Table Arranged by increasing atomic number (Z) Rows called periods Columns called groups or families Identified by numbers Group 1A o Alkali metals o +1 o Reactive, metals, in compounds with oxygen caustic and water soluble o Lithium, Sodium, Potassium Group 2A o Alkaline earth metals o +2 o Reactive, alkaline, limited water solubility in compounds o Barium, Magnesium, Calcium Group 6A o Chalcogens o -2 o Oxygen and Sulfur Group 7A o Halogens o -1 o Form diatomic molecules, reactive o Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine Group 8A o Noble gases o No charge o Inert, unreactive, monoatomic gases o Helium, neon, argon Transition Metals o B groups (shorter columns All are metals In center of table Begin in fourth row Te2+ to form3+ons with several different charges Fe and Fe Last three columns all have 8B designations o Inner Transition Elements All are metals At the bottom of periodic table Lanthanide elements (58-71) Actinide elements (90-103) are radioactive Three element categories o Organized by regions of periodic table o Metals are on the left hand side Luster, ductile, malleable, conduct electricity, solid at room temperature (except mercury) o Nonmetals are on the upper right hand corner Usually in compounds or mixtures of compounds, insulators o Metalloids are the diagonal line between metals and nonmetals Semiconductors Molecules and chemical formulas o Atoms combine into compounds o Useful to visualize atoms, compounds, and molecules o Atoms represent by spheres o Different toms have different colors o Molecules- atoms combine to form more complex substances; discrete particles; each composed of two or more atoms o Chemical formulas- specify compositions of substances; chemical symbols represent atoms of element present; subscripts given after chemical symbol represents relative numbers of each type of atom; helps with describing what takes place in a chemical reaction with a chemical equation Free elements- elements not combined with another in compounds; just use chemical symbol to represent Diatomic molecule- molecules composed of two atoms each; many elements found in nature; H, N, O, F, Cl, I, Br Nonmetal molecular compounds Ionic compounds- simple ionic compounds with a metal or nonmetal; transition metal compounds (varied charge metals); polyatomic ions Acids Model Representations of Molecules o Structural formula show bonds between atoms o Ball and stick model shows stick bonds between atoms o Space filling model shows relative atom sized depicted Counting atoms o Subscript following chemical symbol indicates how many of that element are part of the formula o No subscript implies a subscript of one o Quantity in parentheses is repeated a number of times equal to the subscript that follows With knowledge of molecules… Dalton's Atomic Theory o Explains Law of Conservation of Mass- chemical reactions correspond to rearranging atoms o Explains Law of Definite Proportions- given compound always has atoms of same elements combine to give two or more compounds o Predicted Law of Multiple Proportions- not yet discovered; some elements combine to give two or more compounds; whole number of atoms give Molecular Compounds- describe compositions of molecules; specify number of each type of atom present o Molecules are electrically neutral particles that consist of two or more atoms o Chemical bonds are attractions that hold atoms together; two atoms share electrons; group of atoms that make up molecule behave as single particle Binary Molecular Compounds- compounds formed from two different elements o Name the element furthest to the left of the periodic table first. If both elements are in same group the higher atomic number is first o Use the ide ending on the second element o Use Greek prefixed to indicate the number of elements present o Mono-1 Di-2 Tri-3 Tetra-4 Penta- 5 Hexa-6 Hepta- Octa-8 Nona-9 Deca- 7 10 Ionic Compounds o Ions transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to another and form electrically charged particles o Ionic compounds such as sodium chloride, are generally formed between metals and nonmetals and are made from ions o When atoms lose or gain electrons they become ions Cations on the left side of the periodic chart (positive) Anions on the right side of the periodic chart (negative) o Rules Cation given first in formula Subscripts in formula must produce electrically neutral formula unit Subscript must be smallest who numbers possible (divide by two if all subscripts are even) Charges on ions not include in finished formula unit of substance o Because compounds are electrically neutral, one can determine the formula of a compound this way The charge on the cation becomes the subscript on the anion The charge on the anion becomes the subscript of the cation If theses subscripts are not in the lowest who number ratio, divide them by the greatest common factor Transition metals/post transition metal charges o Can form more than one compound with same nonmetal if varied charges Nomenclature with polyatomic ions o Polyatomic ions- ions composted of two or more atoms linked y molecular bonds If ions are negative they have too many electrons If ions are positive they have too little electrons o Formulas for ionic compounds containing polyatomic ions Follow the same rules as ionic compounds Polyatomic ions are expressed in parentheses
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