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Week 4; Day 10 - Chapter 2 (The Microbial World) and Chapter 3 (Beneficial Aspects Of Microbes: The Other Side Of The Coin).

by: Becca LeBoeuf

Week 4; Day 10 - Chapter 2 (The Microbial World) and Chapter 3 (Beneficial Aspects Of Microbes: The Other Side Of The Coin). Biology 233

Marketplace > University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh > Biology > Biology 233 > Week 4 Day 10 Chapter 2 The Microbial World and Chapter 3 Beneficial Aspects Of Microbes The Other Side Of The Coin
Becca LeBoeuf

GPA 3.0

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About this Document

Here are week 4; day 10 notes! These notes include material from all of chapter 2 and it started chapter 3, but did not finish.
Microbiology survey
Teri Shors
#Biology #Bio233 #MicrobialSurvey #Chapter2 #TheMicrobialWorld #Chapter3 #BeneficialAspectsOfMicrobes
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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Becca LeBoeuf on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Biology 233 at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh taught by Teri Shors in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Microbiology survey in Biology at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh.


Reviews for Week 4; Day 10 - Chapter 2 (The Microbial World) and Chapter 3 (Beneficial Aspects Of Microbes: The Other Side Of The Coin).


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Date Created: 02/23/16
Week 4 Notes:    Chapter 2 ­ The Microbial World:    Some Basic Biological Principles:  ● Cellfirst coined by Robert Hooke in 1665.  ● CellTheory​ (Schleiden, Schwann and Virchow).  ○ The call is the fundamental unit​rganisms.  ○ All organisms are unicellular or multicellular.  ○ All cells are fundamental alike in structure and metabolism.  ○ Cells only arise from preexisting cells (life begets life).  ● Spontaneous​ ​eneration​ was eventually displaced by the notion that “life begets life”.    MetabolicDiversity  ● Cellular Organization: the cell is the basic unit of life; organisms are unicellular or  multicellular.  ● Energy Production: organisms require energy and a biochemical strategy to meet their  energy requirement.  ● Reproduction: organisms have the capacity to reproduce by asexual or sexual methods  and in doing so pass on genetic material (DNA) to their progeny  ● Irritability: organisms respond to internal and external stimuli.  ● Growth And Development: organisms grow and develop in each new generation;  specialization and differentiation occur in multicellular organisms.    Requirement For Oxygen:​  ● Microbes have diverse requirements for O2.  ○ Aerobes require O2 for metabolism.  ○ Anaerobes​ do not use O2 for metabolism. Some can tolerate O2 but others are  killed by it.  ○ Facultative Anaerobe​grow better in the presence of O2, but they can grow in  its absence.  ○ Bacteria suspected of being anaerobes must be transported and cultured under  anaerobic conditions (GasPak).    Genetic nformation​  ● Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) is the molecule used to store the genetic information of all  cells. DNA acts as the hereditary material for cellular organisms (and DNA viruses).    What Makes A Microbe?  ● Microbe is a term of convenience­­microscopic size and unicellularity are absolute  characteristics of microbes like fungi (some bacteria are macroscopic).      Prokaryotic And Eukaryotic Cells​ NOW THE DIFFERENCE, ON TEST!  ○ Life Form:  ■ Prokaryotes​: Bacteria, Archaea.  ■ Eukaryotes​: All microbial cells (with the exception of bacteria, viruses,  and prions) and all other cells.  ○ Nucleus:  ■ Prokaryotes​: DNA chromosomes but not enveloped by membrane.  ■ Eukaryotes: Chromosome present and enveloped by membrane.  ○ Cell Size:  ■ Prokaryotes​: About 1­10 micrometers.  ■ Eukaryotes​: Over 100 micrometers.  ○ Chromosomes:  ■ Prokaryotes​: Single circular DNA (two chromosomes in a few).  ■ Eukaryotes: Multiple paired chromosomes present in nucleus.  ○ Cell Division:  ■ Prokaryotes​: Asexual binary fission, no “true” sexual reproduction.  ■ Eukaryotes​: Cell division by mitosis, sexual reproduction by meiosis.  ○ Internal Compartmentalization:  ■ Prokaryotes​: No membrane­bound internal compartments.  ■ Eukaryotes: Organelles bound by membrane.  ○ Ribosomes:​  ■ Prokaryotes​: Smaller than eukaryotic cells and not membrane bound.  ■ Eukaryotes​: Membrane bound and free.    *Prokaryotes​ (has a cell wall, no plasma membrane) lack a nucleus and other  membrane­bound organelles common to ​ukaryotes​(no cell wall, has a plasma membrane).    Carl Woese’s Three­Domain Classification System:  ● Bacteri Eubacteria). *Need to know*  ○ Membrane­Bound Nucleus? ­ NO.  ○ Cell Wall? ­ Present.  ○ Antibiotic Susceptibility? ­ YES.  ○ Characteristic: Large number of bacterial species.  ● Archaea Archaebacteri). *Don’t need to know*  ○ Membrane­Bound Nucleus? ­ NO.  ○ Cell Wall? ­ Present.  ○ Antibiotic Susceptibility? ­ NO.  ○ Characteristic: “Extreme” bacteria growing in high­salt environment and at extreme  temperatures.  ● Eucarya. *Need to know*  ○ Membrane­Bound Nucleus? ­ YES.  ○ Cell Wall? ­ Variable.  ○ Antibiotic Susceptibility? ­ NO (some exceptions in fungi).  ○ Characteristic: Algae (most), fungi, protozoans, “higher” animals and plants.    Introducing The Microbes:  ● Measured in very small units of the metric system calmicrometers​  (um) and nanometers​  (nm).    Viruses​:  ● Viruses (like HIV/AIDS, measles, rabies, Ebola, etc).  ● Acellular.  ● Genome RNA or DNA.  ● Obligate intracellular parasite (needs living cell to replicate).  ● Submicroscopic (need electron microscope to see them).    Bacteria:  ● Bacteria (like Escherichia coli, etc).  ● Unicellular  ● Prokaryotic​.  ● Microscopic (with few exceptions).  ● DNA genome, replicate by binary fission (asexual).  ● Cell wall (except mycoplasmas).  ● Some motile (move) by one or more flagella.  ● Metabolism, heterotrophs, and autotrophs.  ● Important human pathogens, most beneficial or harmless.    Protozoans:​  ● Protozoans (cause malaria, leishmaniasis, etc).  ● Unicellular.  ● Eukaryotic.​  ● Microscopic.  ● DNA genome.  ● No cell wall.  ● Some motile (move) by flagella, cilia, or pseudopods.  ● A few important human pathogens, most are harmless.    Fungi​:  ● Fungi (yeasts or molds, etc).  ● Unicellular (yeast) or multicellular (molds).  ● Eukaryotic.​  ● Microscopic (yeast only).  ● DNA genome.  ● Cell wall.  ● Usually harmless or even beneficial, but a relative few are pathogenic for humans.    Chapter 3 ­ Beneficial Aspects of Microbes: The Other Side Of The Coin:    History of Pasteurization:  ● Louis Pasteur andpasteurization (we use it for milk, orange juice, apple juice)of beer.  ○ Hear at 63 degrees celsius for 30 minutes.  ● Beer is brewed in the White House today!    A Few Microbes​  ArePathogenic​  For Humans, But Many More Are B ​eneficial:  ● Bacteria are the ancestors of all other life.  ● Microbes are essential to the functibiosphere​ andbiogeochemical​  cycles.  ● Microbes aredecomposers​ , recycling nutrients.  ● Life can’t exist without microbes.  ● Fermented foods require microbes.  ● Microbes are essential to biotech industry.  ● Microbes are used i​ ioremediation of the environment.    Symbiosis​ ­ living together, relationships, harmful or beneficial or neutral.    Cow And Methane Production:  ● Microbes In The News:  ○ Farting cows blow up barn due to methane buildup.  ■ Enteric Bacteria: from cows and other livestock produce nearly 20% of all  methane gas in the world.  ○ Methane gas is the 2nd largest contributors to greenhouse gasses (global warming).  ■ Applications in progress to trap methane to use energy.    Anatomy Of A Cow:  ● Cows have 100 billion microbes in their 4 stomachs.  ○ Methanogens.  ● Allows them to digest food.  ● The bacteria break down the tough fiber of the grass, producing methane gas.  ● This process is called enteric fermentation.  ● Cows produce 800 to 1,000 liters of methane per day.  ● People make a half a liter to 2 liters per day.    Microbes In Food Production:  ● Bread Products:  ○ Yeasts, liSaccharomyces​  cerevisia, ferment sugar, produciethanol and CO2 gas.  ■ CO2 makes bread rise and the ethanol evaporates.  ○ The types of microbes found in the starter culture determine the taste and odor palate of the  bread. 


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