Week 4; Day 10 - Chapter 2 (The Microbial World) and Chapter 3 (Beneficial Aspects Of Microbes: The Other Side Of The Coin).
Week 4; Day 10 - Chapter 2 (The Microbial World) and Chapter 3 (Beneficial Aspects Of Microbes: The Other Side Of The Coin). Biology 233
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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Becca LeBoeuf on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Biology 233 at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh taught by Teri Shors in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Microbiology survey in Biology at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Week 4 Notes: Chapter 2 The Microbial World: Some Basic Biological Principles: ● Cellfirst coined by Robert Hooke in 1665. ● CellTheory (Schleiden, Schwann and Virchow). ○ The call is the fundamental unitrganisms. ○ All organisms are unicellular or multicellular. ○ All cells are fundamental alike in structure and metabolism. ○ Cells only arise from preexisting cells (life begets life). ● Spontaneous eneration was eventually displaced by the notion that “life begets life”. MetabolicDiversity ● Cellular Organization: the cell is the basic unit of life; organisms are unicellular or multicellular. ● Energy Production: organisms require energy and a biochemical strategy to meet their energy requirement. ● Reproduction: organisms have the capacity to reproduce by asexual or sexual methods and in doing so pass on genetic material (DNA) to their progeny ● Irritability: organisms respond to internal and external stimuli. ● Growth And Development: organisms grow and develop in each new generation; specialization and differentiation occur in multicellular organisms. Requirement For Oxygen: ● Microbes have diverse requirements for O2. ○ Aerobes require O2 for metabolism. ○ Anaerobes do not use O2 for metabolism. Some can tolerate O2 but others are killed by it. ○ Facultative Anaerobegrow better in the presence of O2, but they can grow in its absence. ○ Bacteria suspected of being anaerobes must be transported and cultured under anaerobic conditions (GasPak). Genetic nformation ● Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) is the molecule used to store the genetic information of all cells. DNA acts as the hereditary material for cellular organisms (and DNA viruses). What Makes A Microbe? ● Microbe is a term of conveniencemicroscopic size and unicellularity are absolute characteristics of microbes like fungi (some bacteria are macroscopic). Prokaryotic And Eukaryotic Cells NOW THE DIFFERENCE, ON TEST! ○ Life Form: ■ Prokaryotes: Bacteria, Archaea. ■ Eukaryotes: All microbial cells (with the exception of bacteria, viruses, and prions) and all other cells. ○ Nucleus: ■ Prokaryotes: DNA chromosomes but not enveloped by membrane. ■ Eukaryotes: Chromosome present and enveloped by membrane. ○ Cell Size: ■ Prokaryotes: About 110 micrometers. ■ Eukaryotes: Over 100 micrometers. ○ Chromosomes: ■ Prokaryotes: Single circular DNA (two chromosomes in a few). ■ Eukaryotes: Multiple paired chromosomes present in nucleus. ○ Cell Division: ■ Prokaryotes: Asexual binary fission, no “true” sexual reproduction. ■ Eukaryotes: Cell division by mitosis, sexual reproduction by meiosis. ○ Internal Compartmentalization: ■ Prokaryotes: No membranebound internal compartments. ■ Eukaryotes: Organelles bound by membrane. ○ Ribosomes: ■ Prokaryotes: Smaller than eukaryotic cells and not membrane bound. ■ Eukaryotes: Membrane bound and free. *Prokaryotes (has a cell wall, no plasma membrane) lack a nucleus and other membranebound organelles common to ukaryotes(no cell wall, has a plasma membrane). Carl Woese’s ThreeDomain Classification System: ● Bacteri Eubacteria). *Need to know* ○ MembraneBound Nucleus? NO. ○ Cell Wall? Present. ○ Antibiotic Susceptibility? YES. ○ Characteristic: Large number of bacterial species. ● Archaea Archaebacteri). *Don’t need to know* ○ MembraneBound Nucleus? NO. ○ Cell Wall? Present. ○ Antibiotic Susceptibility? NO. ○ Characteristic: “Extreme” bacteria growing in highsalt environment and at extreme temperatures. ● Eucarya. *Need to know* ○ MembraneBound Nucleus? YES. ○ Cell Wall? Variable. ○ Antibiotic Susceptibility? NO (some exceptions in fungi). ○ Characteristic: Algae (most), fungi, protozoans, “higher” animals and plants. Introducing The Microbes: ● Measured in very small units of the metric system calmicrometers (um) and nanometers (nm). Viruses: ● Viruses (like HIV/AIDS, measles, rabies, Ebola, etc). ● Acellular. ● Genome RNA or DNA. ● Obligate intracellular parasite (needs living cell to replicate). ● Submicroscopic (need electron microscope to see them). Bacteria: ● Bacteria (like Escherichia coli, etc). ● Unicellular ● Prokaryotic. ● Microscopic (with few exceptions). ● DNA genome, replicate by binary fission (asexual). ● Cell wall (except mycoplasmas). ● Some motile (move) by one or more flagella. ● Metabolism, heterotrophs, and autotrophs. ● Important human pathogens, most beneficial or harmless. Protozoans: ● Protozoans (cause malaria, leishmaniasis, etc). ● Unicellular. ● Eukaryotic. ● Microscopic. ● DNA genome. ● No cell wall. ● Some motile (move) by flagella, cilia, or pseudopods. ● A few important human pathogens, most are harmless. Fungi: ● Fungi (yeasts or molds, etc). ● Unicellular (yeast) or multicellular (molds). ● Eukaryotic. ● Microscopic (yeast only). ● DNA genome. ● Cell wall. ● Usually harmless or even beneficial, but a relative few are pathogenic for humans. Chapter 3 Beneficial Aspects of Microbes: The Other Side Of The Coin: History of Pasteurization: ● Louis Pasteur andpasteurization (we use it for milk, orange juice, apple juice)of beer. ○ Hear at 63 degrees celsius for 30 minutes. ● Beer is brewed in the White House today! A Few Microbes ArePathogenic For Humans, But Many More Are B eneficial: ● Bacteria are the ancestors of all other life. ● Microbes are essential to the functibiosphere andbiogeochemical cycles. ● Microbes aredecomposers , recycling nutrients. ● Life can’t exist without microbes. ● Fermented foods require microbes. ● Microbes are essential to biotech industry. ● Microbes are used i ioremediation of the environment. Symbiosis living together, relationships, harmful or beneficial or neutral. Cow And Methane Production: ● Microbes In The News: ○ Farting cows blow up barn due to methane buildup. ■ Enteric Bacteria: from cows and other livestock produce nearly 20% of all methane gas in the world. ○ Methane gas is the 2nd largest contributors to greenhouse gasses (global warming). ■ Applications in progress to trap methane to use energy. Anatomy Of A Cow: ● Cows have 100 billion microbes in their 4 stomachs. ○ Methanogens. ● Allows them to digest food. ● The bacteria break down the tough fiber of the grass, producing methane gas. ● This process is called enteric fermentation. ● Cows produce 800 to 1,000 liters of methane per day. ● People make a half a liter to 2 liters per day. Microbes In Food Production: ● Bread Products: ○ Yeasts, liSaccharomyces cerevisia, ferment sugar, produciethanol and CO2 gas. ■ CO2 makes bread rise and the ethanol evaporates. ○ The types of microbes found in the starter culture determine the taste and odor palate of the bread.
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