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Social Psychology - Notes from the beginning of the semester (1/27) to current (2/22)

by: Kayla VandeSande

Social Psychology - Notes from the beginning of the semester (1/27) to current (2/22) Social psychology

Marketplace > Ithaca College > Psychlogy > Social psychology > Social Psychology Notes from the beginning of the semester 1 27 to current 2 22
Kayla VandeSande

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These are all of the notes that have been taken so far in this course. They cover all the material for the first four quizzes.
Social Psychology
Adam Lueke
social psychology
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This 22 page Bundle was uploaded by Kayla VandeSande on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Social psychology at Ithaca College taught by Adam Lueke in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Ithaca College.


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Date Created: 02/23/16
Social Psychology Notes 1/27 Chapter 1 Social Psychology­ How we think, are influenced, and relate to one another and ourselves Common Themes:   Our perceptions often differ from objective reality o Example: feeling like referees in a basketball game are being unfair to  OUR team when they actually are being fair  Duel modes of thought: intuitive vs. deliberate o INTUITIVE: unconscious processing o DELIBERATE: conscious processing  Social situations influence our behavior o Example: talking with a friend vs. with a professor  Individual forces influence our behavior as well o Example: what you like  Hating heavy metal music even when you’re in a heavy metal club  because you love pop music (you don’t pretend to love the heavy  metal because your love for pop and hatred towards metal is too  strong)  Biology is a fundamental determinant in social behavior o Fight or flight response o Epigenetics and DNA o Drugs and alcohol o Testosterone and aggression *We try to apply these to the real world in hopes of solving problems and changing  human behavior (social psychology tries to discover why things occur and how we can  fix them)  Psychology (and science in general) is somewhat subjective – because human  beings are using it (different interpretations) o Language being used often swags one way or another Evolutionary Psychology – more dimensions than expected  Theory – Blanket statement that helps you create ideas to test o Example: Brands  Create their own personality  When we’re exposed to them, we take on that personality  Coca cola is about sharing and being friendly, so we are  when we drink it  Understanding and Prediction o Example: Animal Fairness (Cucumber vs. Grapes Monkey Study)  Hypothesis: If we give one monkey less for the same work, he will  protest  Variables: How they interplay with each other  Correlational Research o The strength of association between two variables o Correlation coefficient: ­1 to 1 o Closer to ­1 = Indirect relationship o Closer to 1 = Direct relationship o 0 = No relationship o Positive and Negative *Causation cannot be inferred from correlations  Third Variable Problem: an outside variable is creating the relationship o Example: ice cream consumption and murder  Third variable = time of year (summer is hot) (heat causes people  to eat ice cream and also causes people to get aggressive and  agitated)  Experimental Research o Can infer causation o Experimental group is actually exposed vs. control group is held constant o Independent variable = what has changes o Dependent variable = what is being measured  Random assignment and control are IMPORTANT o Confounding variable: one that varies along with the independent variable, which makes it hard to make any real conclusions 2/1 Chapter 2 The Self Self Concept (broad, umbrella term that contains the beliefs about ourselves)  Self Schema (what it means to be each of those individual concepts; ex: if you think you are athletic, you have a schema of what you believe it means to be athletic – can be very different depending on how you define yourself and the different faculties that go into your particular sport of athleticism) Social Comparison (you wouldn’t see yourself as athletic if you aren’t surrounded by other people that play sports) Culture (what we grow up in; effects almost everything about who we are - collectivism vs. individualism) Spotlight Effect (we essentially feel like other people are paying more attention to us than they actually are because we are the center of our own universe; we see the world through our own eyes so we see ourselves as more important) Illusion of Transparency (because we feel heightened attention on us, we think that our emotions/thoughts are more easily evaluated or guessed at by other people; basically our face is transparent and people can see inside of our minds and see how we are feeling or thinking) (when you’re public speaking, you believe other people can sense your nervousness and therefore makes you more nervous, so then they can tell) Self-Awareness and Presentation Self-Awareness  Public (being aware of how you look to other people; how you are coming across or being judged –chronic public self awareness can cause people to be more anxious and act less like themselves) vs. Private (becoming more conscious inwardly of your thoughts) (Seinfeld example)  The Looking Glass Self (imagining how we will be perceived by the public in the future when a certain behavior or situation occurs; imagining the reaction to help us determine whether or not we want to engage in a behavior or not) (Freaks n Geeks example) Self-Presentation (trying to project a specific image to other people about what we want them to believe about us) (need to use a lot of self control) Self Monitoring (high self monitoring: people who watch their behavior in the public eye consistently; tend to be more concerned about public presentation, fitting in, and acting in socially approved ways) (low self monitoring: not viewing your behavior in the public eye and acting like your true self regardless) Self Handicapping (ex: getting drunk the night before taking the SATs to give yourself an excuse for failing; building yourself up and giving yourself an excuse to tell others so it’s less about your intelligence and more about what you did last night) (procrastinating is also an example) Self Control (limited resource, you only have so much) (marshmallow TED talk; 1/3 showed self control and all of those were successful later on in life) (like a muscle – the more you exercise it, the stronger it gets) o Ego Depletion (using self control makes us less able to utilize it in the future; using self control to study will use it up so when we stop for a snack break we’ll grab cake instead of an apple because we’ve used our self control) 2/3 Inaccuracies of the Self  Predicting our behavior (thinking a homework assignment is going to take an hour when it really takes 5 hours) o Planning fallacy  Predicting our feelings (how we’ll feel in the future) (ex: you said a week before you were going to go to an event and then when it’s going to happen you don’t want to go anymore; “not in the mood”) o Impact bias (overestimate how long our feelings in the future will last for) (thinking that you’ll be happy forever if you find your soul mate or get a new job when generally that happiness will not last forever, for a little while it will though) Self Serving Bias (how we see the good things in our lives and the bad things in our lives) (we create the good things – internal characteristics – but we come up with excuses for the bad things that happen) (other factors generally attribute to the good things but we emphasize our internal factors, whereas with bad things we emphasize the external factors) Better Than Average Effect Unrealistic Optimism (unrealistic optimism about the future) (we tend to believe that “it won’t happen to me” – gives people an excuse to be more risky or reckless, behavior that has been known to have negative outcomes) o Defensive pessimism False Consensus/Uniqueness (tend to overestimate that a majority of people share our opinion; if more people agree with us, the more right it must be; if we have a general consensus, it must be right so we believe our side has more believers) (tend to believe we’re more unique or different from other people when it comes to our abilities – makes us feel more special, successful, better; individualistic society is very competitive, so we want to think that we are better than other people. Other people don’t’ do the good things that we do or aren’t as good at things as us) Self Esteem  Self Esteem (low self esteem tends to make people more depressed and anxious)  Explicit and Implicit Self Esteem (explicit = gaining your self esteem/self worth from the evaluation you get from others. Implicit = building your self worth based on the virtues and individual values that you hold, not based on what other people think) o Evaluation from others vs. inner self worth (more stable; better able to cope with life’s issues. Don’t believe foundation based on how others see them, but instead how they see themselves)  Self Esteem Threat o Narcissism (based on explicit self-esteem; tend to be very unstable and easily threatened. Tend to engage in more behavior that tries to build themselves and take away from the people around them; more likely to lie, steal, cheat, have an affair. “I am allowed to do these things”) (South Park example) Chapter 3 Social Beliefs and Judgment Automatic vs. Controlled (after you’ve been driving a long time vs. when you first learn to drive) (don’t know how you got there vs. hands on ten and two etc.) (Automatic happens because we only have so much brain power; helps us do multiple things at once or take less time to do them; makes us much more efficient)  Intuition purpose  Priming (when you become exposed to a particular concept, your brain creates a schema for all the information related to that concept; when that schema is activated, it will have you act related to that schema) (ex: being primed with the concept of old age, your schema of old age is being slower, makes you more likely to actually walk slower than other people after being primed) o Embodied Cognition (we can be primed based on language and physical sensations) (“cold” – person that’s emotionless, or temperature) (“warm” – friendly person, or temperature; drinking a cup of warm coffee on a date will make someone evaluate you as a more warm person [open and friendly] than if you were to go get ice cream) o Scripts (a sequence of events that are normal in a certain situation; ex- go to a restaurant you go to the hostess and get a table, sit down, get drinks, order food, get food, dessert) (when we enter a restaurant, this script is primed, we know it’s coming) Errors in Automaticity  Overconfidence o Confirmation Bias (tend to look for info that already confirms what we believe, and we disregard info in our environment what goes against what we believe) (we don’t have to make the effort to reconcile beliefs that go against our own)  Heuristics (tendency to use these mental shortcuts to evaluate the situation that you’re in) o Representativeness (works as a reverse stereotype; taking the characteristics of a particular person and assuming they belong to a particular group based on those characteristics) (long hair, tie dye, birks = hippie) o Availability (if it comes to your mind easy you think that the probability of it happening is high) (if something tragic happens, like a plane crash, you think the probability of it happening increases)  Counterfactual Thinking (mainly happens when something bad happens but could happen with positive things too) (example: on the podium at the Olympics, the bronze medalist is usually happier than the silver medalist. Why? Because the bronze medalist can easily imagine things going differently to not even finishing in the top three, but the silver medalist realizes how close he/she was to the gold. o In case of tragedy (if a loved one dies in an accident, you will often think about the what if’s surrounding the event … what if I would have talked with them for just a little longer this morning? They wouldn’t have hit the intersection at that point…  Hindsight Bias (the idea that everyone sees the past with 20/20 vision. Events (normally bad) that no one expected to happen beforehand now seem like they were inevitable after the fact; you basically come up with reasons after something happened for why it was obvious that it was going to happen. Beforehand these reasons were not obvious, otherwise they would have been addressed before) 2/8 Skewed and Illusion  Illusion o Illusory Correlation (correlations that we think exist but don’t really mean anything) (thinking that wearing the same jersey every game day unwashed will effect the game) (superstitions) (makes you feel like there’s a relationship between your behavior and something in the real world) (we’re set up to believe there are relationships in the world/feel like we have control over our environment) o Gambling (Believe they were so close when they lose, so they think that if they just keep going they’ll eventually win) (explain winning with “hot table”) o Regression Toward the Mean (the sophomore slump- having a great first year but then you’ll come back down to earth the next year) (whether it’s bad or good you tend to move towards the average of your ability) (think things will continue to be bad if they’re bad, things will continue to go good if they’re good) (middle ground)  Skewed (depending on what mood you’re in, everything changes) (when you’re in a good mood, your career is better, you love your friends more, life is happier) o Moods (change the mood, change the way you see yourself and everything around you) Beliefs Shaping the World We See Interpreting Events (shape ambiguous situations to incorporate it into your own belief system) (see the world in terms of our beliefs) o Sports/politics (refs are being unfair if they’re against your team) (you’re likely to believe your candidate performed the best in a debate because they’re your favorite)  False Beliefs and Memories o Belief Perseverance (our beliefs are often very endurant/persistent) (endure for quite a long time, even when shown to be wrong) (despite evidence that belief system was incorrect, they convinced themselves that what had happened supported them) o Misinformation Effect (presenting someone with a photo shopped picture with them in it, by the third time they’re exposed they create stories of it happening) (they try to describe memories from the event and still believe the memories are true) (brand new information creates memories that don’t actually exist) (memories are highly fallible) (great impact on eye witness accounts) Explaining our Social World to Ourselves  Misattribution of other’s behavior (misreading a romantic interest because you met them on tinder) o Spontaneous Trait Inference (inference of personality traits from behaviors)  Types of attributions o Dispositional (attribute a person’s behavior to their personality/disposition) (we’re very quick to come up with judgments for people and who we think they are and don’t take into account the situation) (labeling someone an asshole because they cut you off in traffic) o Situational (saying maybe something’s wrong and they need to get to the hospital and that’s why they cut you off in traffic)  Fundamental Attribution Error (we’re very quick to label a person’s behavior as indicative of who they are and completely discount the potential situation) (we are making our dispositional attributes based on a really small amount of information that we observe) (Louis CK example – what we saw in the last 20 seconds, and then getting the whole context) o Actor/Observer Bias (the difference of perspectives in the fundamental attribution error) (very quick to attribute our own behavior to the situation – if we get mad, we say it was based on the situation and we were provoked)  Confession tapes (when the video is centered on the person making the video, the people believe they had to have done it; when the camera is facing the interviewer, they believe the interviewer is pressuring the person to confess; intimidating, aggressive cop gives the impression of forcing the confession)  Culture When Beliefs Change Everything  Self Fulfilling Prophecy (our beliefs can make things come true) o Teacher/Student Attitudes (if you believe your teacher hates you, you’ll do things that might make them dislike you) (you start becoming more rude or off-putting) (your teacher believes you’re a good student, they’re going to engage in behaviors that facilitate that, spend more time explaining concepts to you that helps you perform better) o Stereotyping (if you believe something and act in a way based on a stereotype, you can make that stereotype come true) (Crash example) o Zeeba o Parents and their children o Relationships (not trusting your partner can actually make them do untrustworthy things because you aren’t making them happy anymore) o Labeling (people feel a need to live up to their label) o Positive Thinking (if you generally think in terms of positivity, you are more likely to do things that bring positive things into your life) (beliefs are very powerful) Chapter 4 Attitudes Attitudes and Formation Attitudes (your mindset or feelings about a certain person, situation, thing) (we put our judgments on almost everything and everyone we come into contact with – I like this, I don’t like this, she’s nice, etc.) (Usually based on experience)  Classical Conditioning (if you have a natural liking to something and it is paired/associated with a neutral stimuli, you will like it more because it’s associated with something you already liked) (ex: commercials use celebrities in commercials because if you like the celebrity, their association with the product will make people want it) Operant (engaging in a particular behavior – if that behavior is rewarded, you are more likely to engage in it; if it’s punished, you are more likely not to engage) (can watch other people do it to see the consequence and decide to do it or not) o Observational (differences in the way people see rewards or punishment) (Tosh.0 example) (there may be a select group of people that find something rewarding in doing something reckless or stupid) Attitudes Affecting Behavior  The predictive ability of attitudes (we often act counter to our morals because it seems like it could be fun, we get curious, or it might help us) (attitudes often don’t predict our behaviors)  When It Does Predict (implicit tends to be more predictive of behavior or willingness to do things) o Social Influence (thrust us into opportunities to conform or not conform) (if we have an attitude that is contradictory to the prevailing one in a large group, we are less likely to show that attitude)  Dual attitudes (explicit = we are aware off, they’re more conscious) (implicit = deep down feelings we have towards things, groups of people, that can often run counter to our explicit attitudes) (ex: you might consciously believe that men and women should be treated equally, but deep down you might show an implicit bias for a certain sex over another) (“I fully believe in equality”, implicitly still has bias toward certain groups) (if explicitly you’ve always said something, you’ll be more consistent with that) o Aggregate Behavior (ex: baseball batting average; you will be able to predict the overall quantity of hits they’ll probably get, but not what is going to happen immediately while he’s up to bat) (more predictive in general situations than specific) o Attitudes are specific o Potency (availability of our attitudes in memory is more likely to make our behavior come in line with that attitude)  Automaticity and Self Awareness (behavior comes very in line with our automaticity) (smiling at someone we walk by) (putting someone in front of a mirror will make them act more similarly to their attitudes) (makes them more self aware)  Experience 2/17 The Other Way Around  Assuming a role (when you take on a particular role, you need to perform the particular duties of the role itself; it tends to change the way you think about yourself and how others think about you) o Prison experiment (guards began to abuse the prisoners after awhile because they really started to take on their role and change how they saw themselves/how people saw them) o Video games (aggression, risk taking, by taking on the role of a video game character)  Adjusting Messages to Audience, and Changing Accordingly (tend to tailor or message to the audience we’re delivering it to; may be more direct or soft in our words; the words that come out of our mouth we often start to believe) (behavior changing our attitudes) (the things we say can effect what we believe) (example: placebo effect – if you tell someone they’re going to be okay when they’re really sick, they’ll start to believe it and they will more often pull through if they don’t give up) (similar to the self fulfilling prophecy) Slippery Slope (consistency or adjustment in the way you view yourself/the world, and how you will behave afterwards) (we have a general notion that lying and cheating are bad, but if you engage in one of those ways, it’s likely to effect the way you view lying and cheating and stealing) (you’re likely to change your attitudes to go in line with your behavior) (Louis CK example: makes our lives easier to lie, which makes it more comfortable or makes us used to doing it) o Morally numb vs. upright o Favors Legislating Morality (can we make laws to make people less or more moral?) Forming loyalties (ex: saying the pledge of allegiance before school every day) (saying it just because they’ve been told to and it eventually changes attitudes towards the country and it makes them more loyal to the country because your behaviors are showing that) Behavior Shifting Attitudes  To appear consistent  Cognitive Dissonance (internal tension when our attitudes don’t meet our behaviors) (alter our attitudes to meet our behavior to get rid of this internal tension) (dissonance = behaving in a way that matches attitudes that we don’t agree with)  Selective Exposure (limit the amounts of kinds of information we’re exposed to in order to help this) (expose yourself to information that already affirms what you believe because it’s much easier and doesn’t take as much effort) (information confirms your attitude) (conscious deliberation is involved when you hear information that doesn’t confirm your attitude) (helps keep dissonance at bay)  Insufficient Justification (we tend to change our behaviors if we don’t have enough justification for why we have those attitudes) (being paid $1 vs. $20 to lie about the funness of the tests they took part in previously, then were asked to rate how fun the tasks were) (people for $1 changed their attitudes because they needed another reason to justify why they lied because the money’s not enough) o Effort Justification o Post-Decision Dissonance (making a decision between two really appealing options; creating a pro and con list) (after you make your decision, you’re wondering if you made the right choice [dissonance]) (take the cons of the opposite thing and focus on those and focus on the pros of the thing you did choose) o Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivations Behavior Shifting Attitudes  Self Perception  Facial Feedback (your brain picks up on the position of facial muscles, making particular faces that are well established to certain emotions) (you will start feeling those emotions based on the contour of your face) o Body Feedback (the way that we posture ourselves can effect how we evaluate ourselves and how other people can evaluate us) (taking on certain postures can change how you feel about yourself- example: standing up and putting your shoulders back will make you feel more confident and assertive) (slouching will make you feel more shy or anxious) 2/22 Chapter 5 Genes, Culture, and Gender Biological Similarity  All begin at a common place o Migration changes use  Takes on new cultures for new groups  Almost genetically identical o Natural Selection (Traits that help a species survive and reproduce are passed on and selected for – become much more prevalent in that species – and the rest are eliminated) (survival of the fittest)  Evolutionary Psychology o Physical, psychological, and behavioral o Fear (common fears = heights, the dark, mortality) (help us survive and reproduce by keeping us safe) o Social Groups (have a need to connect and belong within our groups) (meeting people to reproduce with) (strength in numbers to protect against outside dangers and survival) (better access to food with coordination of hunting together or gathering) o Tastes (sugar and fatty foods) (we have a preference for these tastes because they were once scarce) (high energy types of food so they were very valuable back in our evolutionary history) Culture’s Influence  We evolved to be diversely cultural o Nature/Nurture Interaction – epigenetics (our genes can be activated or turned off or kind of turned on based on the environment we are around) (unlimited possibilities for the way that we express ourselves) (these possibilities come together to form different types of culture  Cultural Diversity (you find comfort in the culture you are brought up in) (cultures are often in conflict and unable to coexist due to differences) (when trying to adjust to a new culture, it can be very uncomfortable because it’s so different than “normal”) o Language (everyone uses it, but they are all different) o Etiquette (the ways to be polite and interact with each other) (Persian examples) o Eating (the way you eat the food – hands, chop sticks, forks/knives) (tipping – they don’t do it in Paris, but always do in the US) (taking food to go or not)  Restaurants Cultural Norms  Norms (what is acceptable in your culture) o Collectivism vs. Individualism (focusing on the group/ how can I help make the group better vs. every man for himself/competitiveness) (eastern culture vs. western culture) o Expressiveness (how you relate to other people) (how animated or talkative or friendly you are) (Italians are very loud and friendly; British are stand-offish and more quiet) o Norm Violations (collective = more punitive when norms are violated) (individual = norm violations are more acceptable because it is seen as uniqueness or individuality) o Personal Space (Seinfeld example: close talker) (countries more towards the equator allow themselves less personal space) (involves norms within our own country – keep distance with strangers and allow people we’re closer with to be physically closer to us) o Punctuality (US has a very on time culture compared cultures like Spain, but also relaxed compared to cultures like Germany) Cultural Similarities (things that don’t vary much across cultures)  Friendship (hanging out in a group atmosphere like a party) (you respect someone if you’re friends with someone – help them) (being trustworthy)  Traits  Expressions (people show the same facial expressions for emotions) (fear, contempt, disgust, anger, sadness, happiness, surprise) o Evolutionary advantage (a way to communicate through non-verbal kinds of speech when you don’t speak the same verbal language) (portraying how you feel) (being able to express danger in the environment is beneficial for everybody)  Status Norms o Words for status (designation for formal and informal “you” in different languages) (we tend to show respect for people who are higher status than us, and people who are lower status than us we tend to be more comfortable, friendly, and involved – don’t feel the need to keep a distance and worship) o Intimacy  Incest (taboo in almost all cultures)


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