Anthro 41A Notes and Final Study Guide Included
Anthro 41A Notes and Final Study Guide Included Anthro 41A
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Fall of Aztec and Inca Empires 1. Gave Europeans wealth 2. Spain became first European “superpower”-Emperor Charles was ruler 3. The reason Aztecs and Incas fell is because of disease, and because Spain made alliances with Tlaxcalans-the Tlaxcalans hated the Aztecs Hernando Cortés-1519 1. Left Cuba in search of trade route to southeast Asia-thought Cuba was in Southeast Asia 2. Arrived in Mexico in 1519. This was the same year that Quetzalcoatl was thought to return 3. The Aztecs thought Quetzalcoatl was God, so they sent him gifts 4. Cortez and the Tlaxcalans (149,000) killed the Aztecs- Reason for Aztec Conquest 1. The Aztecs did not immediately attack Cortez and his men. Instead, they gave him gifts 2. After Cortez and his men left the city, 75% of the Aztec population died of disease 3. When he returned, he and the Tlaca Can laid a siege to the city for 80 days. The Aztecs died of starvation Eurocentric Economy-Blaut 1. Europe has an economic advantage over other countries because it conquered the Americas. Europe uses this advantage to control trade centers in the Indian Ocean 2. The global economic trade is no longer in the Indian Ocean but in Europe Pro Capitalism to Capitalism-Blaut 1. The wealth from the Americas allows Europe to grow a middle class 2. They take political power for themselves 3. They start “capitalist states” Max Weber and the Rise of Capitalism 1. This wealth wasn't enough to end feudalism and start capitalism-Weber argues this and challenges Blaut 2. People in Europe deveop moral ideas to overthrow the kings and rulers and gain political powers for themslef 3. The transition form procapticalsim to capitalsim happened in Protestant states and later Catholic states-there must be something unique about Protestatns 3 Waves of Protestants 1. Martin Luther-Pope is not God’s represenative-People must protest his power 2. King Henry VIII- said England is no longer but Anglican-he said he is not subject to the Pope’s authority just so he divorce his wife. He became wealthy by taking the church property for himself 3. John Calvin-Very radical. Said Christians should obey God and disobey anyone esle who does not obey God. Said rising middle class were God’s elect and had right to political power The Hapsburgs Myths 1. Family from Austria that bribed electors 2. They said they were desitined to rule over all 3. They said they were decenednts of Troy, Julius Ceasrar, and Ceasre Agustus 4. They said they were chosen by God to prepare for God’s second coming 5. Emperor Fredrick’s motto was AEIOU: Austria will rule the world 6. He’s the great grandfather of Emperor Charles 7. Collected objects, including a spear 8. They thought when Charles would grow up, the 2nd coming would occur 9. They said astorlog supported thier claims to become global chrishian rulers Martin Luther- 1. On October 31st 1517, Martin Luther posted 95 thesis on the church of Wittenberg, Saxony- This started the Protestant Reformation 2. Protestant Reformation-political and social change that undermined feudalism and developed nation-state economic relationship based on capitalism 3. He was taken to the Diet of Worms(meeting between emperor and nobility where they discussed what they would do to Martin Luther) and was put on trial by emperor Charles. Charged for Hearsay. Refused to recant his criticism of pope and catholic church 4. Duke Frederick of Saxony helped Luther avoid punishment, but Charles made him an outlaw 5. Luther still had a lot of followers Duke Frederick of Saxony 1. He saved Martin Luther 2. He arranged for bandits to kidnap Luther and hide him from the emperor Charles and the pope the castle in Wittenburg for several years 3. It was here that Martin Luther translated the New testament in Germany and sent it out in mass publication Martin Luther’s Challenge 1. Challenged the sell of Indulgence and the doctrine of Transubstantiation 2. Emphasized Rationality over Mysticism and Faith & Conscience instead of Rituals and Sacraments. 3. Said that each person could directly communicate with God and there didn't need to be pope or clergy 4. He said preferred way of learning about church was through reading the bible 5. He was excommunicated from the Catholic Church 6. His followers were also excommunicated and became known as “Lutherans.’ Emperor Charles-Roman Emperor I and V 1500-1558(catholic) 1. Most powerful ruler in Western Europe since the fall of Rome in 476 2. Defender of Catholic church and tried to stop Protestant Reformation by Martin Luther 3. His princes sided with Luther 4. His aunt, Catherine of Aragon was married to Henry VII of England 5. Henry VII wanted divorce her, so King Charles put pressure on the Pope to deny Henry’s request to divorce her 6. Henry VII acted without the Pope’s approval. 7. The church of England split from Roman Catholic church. This spread Prostestian 8. The church of England became Anglican. Henry VII becomes head of this new English Church, and the English aristocracy becomes extremely wealthy because the Catholic wealth is now apart of the English Crown 9. Henry did this because he listed to Martin Luther 10. He renounced his throne in 1556 after signing treaty of Augsburg in 1555 11. He splits up his emperor and gives his son, Philip The Netherlands, Spain, Spanish-American Colonies 12. The eastern half of his emperor go to his other son Ferdinand Peasant's War 1524-1526-Caused by protestant Reformation 1. The German peasants listen to Martin Luther about authority, so they rebel 2. Luther said he didn't teach the peasant to do this 3. 100,000 peasants are killed Treaty of Augsburg 1555-Religious Tolerance After decades of fighting with nobility over Protestantism, emperor Charles V allows protestant princes to have religious freedom This is because he was defeated by french King henry 2. German protestant princes helped him because they were mad with his religious practices This treaty is effective in Roman Empire until fighting resumes in 1618 Guaranteed religious tolerance to Lutherans 30 Years War 1618-creates nation-states 1. Habsburg Emperors said they were told to defend the catholic church, so they persecuted protestants in the Roman Empire 2. Protestant nobility made a union called Evangelical Union Army. and fought against catholic league, catholic princes, and Hapsburg Emperor 3. 30 years war began In Holy Roman Empire and spread to rest of Europe, except for Britain, Ireland, and Scotland 4. Sultan Osman 2 of the Ottoman Empire gets involved-He helps the protestants and fights against the Catholics 5. The Habsburg Ferdinand wipes out the Protestants in the empire 6. War ends with Treaty of westphalia 7. Power of pope and emperor are reduced 8. 7 million are killed 9. 50% of men die. 10. the old feudal power is replace by sovereign nation-states The Peace of Westphalia-Ends 30 Year War 1. Establishes modern nation-states, each with their own rulers, and religious identity 2. Final blow to feudal system 3. Holy Roman Emperor loses political and economic power 4. Pope also loses political and economic power, so protestant European nations do not pay him taxes anymore Mercantilism-Pro Capitalism 1. Banking, trade, and finance because of growth in the middle class. 2. This is not really capitalism because the Bourgeois needed to gain political power for themselves. They needed to do what happened in the Dutch Republic Borguises 1. New rising middle class as a result of the wealth from the Americas 2. They listen to John Calvin and seek political power for themselves 3. Examples include English Civil War(Puritan Republic)led by Oliver Cromwell, Dutch Republic, and Glorious Revolution Fears of Money 1. Death of a Miser is a picture of images of hell. Money appears unnaturally 2. This new money challenged feudal social order 3. New wealth in middle class is viewed as immoral 4. The charging of interest is sinful King Edward VI 1537-Son of King Henry VII 1. He comes to the English Throne after his father dies 2. He was son of Jane Seymour, Henry’s 3rd wife 3. He kept England Separate from the Church of Rome and the Pope’s power 4. He maintained his father’s power by being recognized as the supreme head of the Anglican Church 5. He dies at the age of 15, and names his 17 year-old- cousin, lady Jane Grey to succeed him 6. Lady Jane Grey ruled only 9 days because she was overthrown by Edward's sister, Blood mary 7. Jane was executed at the tower of London for Treason. Mary does this Bloody Mary- Daughter of Catherine of Aragon 1516 She marries the son of King Charles, Philip II of Spain, and they bring back Catholicism into England Elizabeth 1-1533 Mary dies of Cancer and Elizabeth, daughter of King Henry VII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn, becomes queen of England She makes England Protestant again, despite King Philip II and the Pope trying to stop her. It is Protestant during her whole reign The Dutch(Netherlands)Republic-1581 1. They pulled apart from King Philip II with the act of "Act of Abjuration" 2. They wanted Elizabeth I to be their queen, but she said no 3. Set up a government without any monarchs or kings. This became a republic 4. Middle class and nobility became known as the states-general. They were Calvinists 5. the dutch republic was no democracy but a meritocracy, where rich white people could vote only based on merit 6. First stock market in Europe 7. was more capitalist than feudal, economic, or political society Spanish Armada 1. Spanish Navy sends ships to end Protests in England and the Dutch Republic 2. The ships are hit by a storm, and Queen Elizabeth has a navy that defeats the Spanish 3. England has the best navy system in Europe 4. England and Dutch Republic remain protestant during King Philip's’ s rule John Calvin-Calvinism 1. Born Protestant and at first listened to Martin Luther's. Major leader in Protestant reformation. Some of his ideas did not support Martin Luther Made something called Calvinism. These are his beliefs: 2. His teachings were popular among the middle class “(Bourgeoisie) ● Believed in predestination. God had chosen the “elect” ● Hard work and accumulation of wealth was seen as God's approval-THE PROTESTANT ETHIC ● Used the Parable of Talents for justification ● Wasn't against interest ● Said that people shouldn't listen to the “ungodly rulers” ● His teaching shaped modern nation-states and helped developed capitalism Calvinists Followers want to get rid of nobility French Calvinists- Huguenots English Calvinist- Puritans Dutch Calvinists Swiss Calvinists Massachusetts: Pilgrims Scotland: Presbyterians ... Huguenots 1. They were French Calvinists, who challenged the the French Catholic Monarchy 2. Many Huguenots fled after they were massacred in Bartholomew's Day Massacre. This massacre happened after King henry of Navarre(Huguenot) and Princess Margaret of France(Catholic) were married 3. Massacre lasted from August 22nd of 1572 to October 3rd 4. The massacre was approved by French Queen mother, Catherine Medici and her son King Charles XI of France 5. Philip II of Spain laughed at this massacre 6. Survivors went to the Dutch Republic King Henry of Navarre Became king Henry VI of France even though he had to renounce his Huguenots beliefs His marriage was supposed to bring peace between the French Huguenots and Huguenots and Catholics in France Puritans 1. (Puritans were unhappy with the Church of England(Anglican church) because it didn't follow the teachings of John Calvin and because it was powerful and corrupt 2. so they leave England, and some go to the Dutch Republic, but most go to America (Plymouth Rock) in 1620 and become known as Pilgrims English Civil War (Puritan Rebellion )1640-1660 1. Puritans who remain in England are upset at King Charles I because they want political power to go with economic power 2. So they go to war against the Anglicans 3. Oliver Cromwell leads this rebellion and they kill King Charles 1. Oliver Cromwell is now known as Lord Protectorate 4. The Protestant Ethic becomes law-theater and alcohol is abolished 5. King Charles II, son of King Charles I, becomes king again and the english monarchy is restored, hence the puritans losing power The Glorious Revolution 1688-Rule of Bourgeois 1. King James II becomes English King after his brother, King Charles II dies. 2. English bourgeois dislike him because he is a Catholic king 3. His protestant daugther Mary and her Husband William of Orange bring a dutch army to remove her had from the king 4. NO ONE likes James II, so even he flees to France 5. Mary and William rule Enlgand, but they are limited 6. They are England’s first “constitutional monarchs” meaning their rule is controlled by the parliment. 7. A bill of rights is passed by parliment that allows only the rich, white mento vote Max Weber Protestant Work Ethic- Calvinists believe in being frugal. It is bad to drink, party, ect. Accumulation of wealth Calvinist life is centered on working and going to church Capitalism Bourgeois gains political and economic power Capitalist Laws-Bourgeoisie favors the middle class and grants political and economic power. They don't do this for women and the poor First Example of European Capitalist nation was the Dutch Republic in 1581. Wasn't really a republic because it only granted rights to white men England also did this in 1688 after the Glorious Revolution Example of New forms of Nation-States is 1. English Parliament 2. Glorious Revolution’ 3. Dutch Republic 4. State-General-dutch
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