Psychology 121 Psychology 112
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Psych chapter 2 Action potential: move fairly slowly to fairly quickly from 2-200 mph measured in milliseconds -Neuron serve as decision makers -neurons receive electrical impulses Excitatory signals: tells neuron to ACT! Inhibitory signals: tells neuron to STOP! -all of none response (take in all information and they decide to fire or not) Strong stimulus: more neurons firing Threshold: minimum level of stimulation needed to trigger an action potential Sir Charles Sherrington (British physiologist) -neurons have meeting points between them: “synapses” (synapse) more then one place - a junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron -a synaptic gap of cleft is the meeting place of two neurons separated by less then a millionth of an inch. Neurotransmitters: chemicals that are released form sending neuron that travel across synaptic gap to a receiving neuron Reuptake: leftover neurotransmitters in the synapse are reabsorbed back onto the sending neuron 1 Action potential causes release of neurotransmitters 2 Cross synapse 3 Bind to receptor on dendrites or cell body 4 Unlocks tiny channels on receiving site 5 Electrically changed atoms flow in (either exciting/inhibiting neuron) 6 Reuptake How do neurotransmitters influence us? - Specific effect on behavior and emotions - Information conductors Endorphins -our body’s naturally produced an feel good drug Dopamine -influenced pathways in our brain that involved moving, motion, (could cause parkaseins and sketzafrenia) Serotonin -Involved hunger, sleep, and mood regulation and arousal Nervous system: the body’s speedy electrochemical communicator network -central nervous system: the brain and spinal cord -peripheral nervous system: the sensory and motor nervous connecting central nerves system with the rest of the body components of nervous system: Neurons -sensory neurons: that carry messages from sensory receptors to brain for processing -motor neurons: carry messages from brain to spinal cord, muscles, and glands -interneurons: live in central never system. Interpret sensory input and send instructions to muscles CENTRAL NEVER SYSTEM: -allows us to think feel and act Spinal cord: links the peripheral nervous system to brain Reflexes only happen in spinal cord (does not have to be interpreted) 40 million neurons 400 trillion synapses PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYTEM - controlled by brain/spinal cord - gathers info and transmits decision made by CNS to other parts of the body sub systems -somatic nervous system: controls body’s skeletal muscles -autonomic nervous system: controls glands and muscles of internal organs sympathetic: arouses the body to handle stress, mobilizes energy stores parasympathetic: calms the body to conserve body’s energy and not responding to stress ENDOCTINE SYSTEM: the body’s slow chemical communication involves glands who secrete hormones into the bloodstream hormones: chemical messengers that travel through bloodstream, affect other tissues (control food sex and aggression) influence growth reproduction metabolism and mood purpose: keep everything in balance whole body responds to stress exertion or its own thoughts usually stronger and more long lasting GLANDS - Pituitary gland: puberty and growing, master gland, controlled by the hypothalamus - Adrenal gland: located at he top of our kidney, keep us alert during times of stress, they release adrenaline and noradrenaline - Thyroid and parathyroid: regulates metabolism and calcium rate -Both secrete molecules that activate receptors -Both work together -Endocrine system is slower then nervous system THE BRAIN Older brain structure: Basic needs such as to eat, sleep, to reproduce -memory -emotions -basic drives Brain Stem: oldest part of our brain - core of the brain - begins where spinal cord swells - enters the brain The cross over point Medullas: -where spinal cord swells - controls essentials functions likeeee -breathing -blood circulation The Pons: -helps coordinates our movements -helps controls movements The Thalamus -above pons -sensory switch bored -takes in all information and sends it our where it needs to go -processes all senses except for smell Reticular formation: -within Thalamus -relays information into the brain about our arousal -regulates sleep wake cycle Cerebellum: -controls nonverbal learning and memory -helps us judge time -balance our emotions -discriminate sounds and textures -“little brain” -coordinate voluntary movement Limbic Systme: located below cerebral hemispheres(center of brain) -sits between of old and new part of brain -composed of -hippocampus -amygdala -hypothalamus -deals with our instinctual things like food, anger, sex, Hippocampus: processes episodic, explicit memories and sends them for storage processes our memories Amygdala: responsible for emotions like aggression and fear and processing emotional memories Hypothalamus: located below thalamus -coordinates our activities such as eating, drinking, and body temperature -linked to emotion and reward -keeps body in a constant state -pleasure center of the brain look at the older brain structure of the brain NEWER PARTS OF BRAIN Cerebrum Makes up 85% of our brain Perceiving Thinking Speaking Cerebral cortex Covers cerebrum Outer portion of brain Ultimate control and info processing center 4 lobes Lobes Frontal lobes Where we have reason and judgment Controls speaking muscle movement In the back there is the motor cortex Parietal lobes Behind frontal lobe and on top of head Receives information from the sense of touch Information on body position In the front there is the sensory cortex Occipital lobe in the back of the brain receives visual info from the sense of sight vision Temporal lobe Just above the ear Responsible for our auditory information o All lobes work together and some can do similar jobs as one another Motor Cortex Controls voluntary movement Sensory Cortex Registers and processes body’s touch and movement sensation The more sensory body region the larger the sensory cortex area devoted to that section Association areas: uncommitted areas that provide higher mental function such as memory speaking Found in all four lobes Frontal Lobe: Phineas Gage Judgment planning Processing new memories Parietal Lobes Math and spatial reasoning Temporal Lobes Lets use recognize faces Aphasia An impairment of language usually caused by left hemisphere damager either to Brocas area: controls language expression/ speaking (controlled by frontal lobe) Wernicke’s area: controls language reception/hearing ( left frontal lobe) Specialization: brain activity when hearing, seeing, and speaking words Plasticity: the brains ability to repair itself after damage The brain can reassign jobs Served neurons don’t regenerate Neurogenesis: when the brain makes new neurons in an attempt to repair itself Left Hemisphere: reading, writing, speaking, arithmetic, reasoning, and understanding Right Hemisphere: recognizing faces, creativity, making inferences Corpus Callosum: a brain structure that is connecting our two hemispheres allowing them to work together Psych Chapter 4 part 1 Developing through the life span: Developmental Psychology: the study of how people develop Physically Cognitively Socially Role of genetics (nature vs. nurture) Continuous vs. stages Development is more of a continuous process: our early traits change through out our life Life span prospective Conception: male sperm goes to female egg (sex) The sperm break down egg with digestive enzymes Once one sperm has entered egg no more can get to egg Male sperm and egg have 23 chromosomes Which is 46 chromosomes which is which tan adult has 1) Zygote: fertilized egg Two week processes of rapid division of cell Only half of zygotes survive through replication processes The cells who survive become specialized (brain cells, organ cells, etc.) 2) Embryo Stage: 2-8 weeks after conception - Zygote attaches to uterine wall - Inner cells of zygote become embryo - Outer cells become placenta 3) Fetal Stage: most intense stage, 9 weeks after sex fetus starts to look like human in born survival skills very prone to things going wrong such as women can not drink, ear fish, smoke, trauma 4) new born: has most brain cells it will in its life time? but has to build neural connections no knee caps babies have 300 bones but then after development get 260 5) Maturation Infancy: biological growth processes causing natural changes in behavior Not always due to environment Can be stunted or accelerated traumatic activities by brain stimulation activities Brain and motor skills develop Ages 3-6 rapid growth I frontal growth Which is our motor skills (roll over, sit up, crawl, stand, walk, run) And logic and movement Association and last to develop Our physical development and growth are more rapid in the first 15 months then any other time in our life span Infant Amnesia: only able to remember things when we are 3 or 4 6) child hood: Piaget: cognitive development- our mental activities associated with think, knowing and developing Our mind develops in stages Cognitive development of stages to make sense of the world around us Schemas: mental frameworks: make sense of the world (women look like women that’s how we classify them) Assimilation: interpreting new things that we learn into our current understand Accommodation: adjusting new information to interpret which forms new schemas Cognitive development 1- object permanence: aware that objects continue to exist even when hidden sensory stimulation birth-2 years’ babies act with environment to figure things our such as if I kick the crib my foots hurts. They learn not to do that anymore Stranger Anxiety: 8 months Children become fearful of unfamiliar people 2-6 or 7 year old preoperational stage Egocentrism: difficult taking on the point of view of other Want milk means they want milk More means they want more food They don’t make sentences but short says that mean things 3 mountain test ages 3-4 they develop Theory of mind: ability to relate to there thoughts to another persons thoughts (when children play together) 7-11 year old : concreate operational stage Conservation: quantity remains same regardless of shape: putting things in bigger and smaller bin even though they are the same Mathematical transformations: ability to comprehend basic math( addition and subtraction) 12- adult hood: formal operational: learn in abstract ways such as using hypothesis and comprehend if then statement this id call systematic reasoning teen years kids are able to point out flaws in the reasoning of other ( dress code) Piaget today: development could happen at a more broad stage of age But general time frames are similar SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT: Infancy: attachment to care giver Infancy: stranger anxiety( 8 months) the baby comes anxious when the care giver is gone Survival function (animals do this to ) Harlow’s monkeys: monkeys need nourishment’s but only driven by hunger would the baby monkey move to the wired mother for food Contact is essential for attachment A secure attachment comes from sensitive and responsive moms Insecure attachment comes form unresponsive and insensitive mothers Attachment influences - Temperament: inborn emotional state, very happy all the time and easy going or not very happy at all which causes issues in attachment - Parental role: both parents play equal role, kids who had fathers involved had an easier time with achievement - Basic trust: world is predictable and reliable, the world is predictable and the world will work out - Resilience: neglected kids can have emotional scarring, you can bounce back from a lot of negative experiences Parenting Styles: how parents control kids - Authoritarian: strict rules and harsh punishments - Permissive: make few demands, often give in and don’t punish - Authoritative: demand respect, yet are open/ responsive to child’s needs - Children with high self esteem and self reliance and social skills have Authoritative parents Chapter 4 section 2 Adolescence: Begins in puberty Ends with independence G. Stanley Hall ( 1904)- adolescence could be conceptualized as the “ storm and stress” period Adolescence is cultural In some cultures, teens are self-sustaining adolescence doesn’t exist The term teenager didn’t appear in common language until the early 40’s Many pre industrial countries have no concept of adolescence Psychical development Puberty: sexual maturity is reached and reproduction is possible Girls age 11 (breast development) st Boys age 13 ( 1 ejaculation) Surge of hormones Intensifies moods Triggers physical changes ( 2 year period) Menarche: first menstrual period in females Spermache: first ejaculation in males Sequence of physical changes more predictable (First signs of puberty) Males stronger more athletic built more popular and confident increased risk of alcohol use, premature sexual activity Females body not sync with emotional maturity can be targets of teasing and bulling Kohlbergs sages of development (moral) growing up means learning to think or behave morally three levels 1) Pre-conventional ( 3-7) - avoid punishment -obtain reward 2) conventional (8-13) - belong and be accepted -obey rules and regulations 3) post- conventional (adulthood) -make and keep promises -live moral imperatives Erik Erikson: proposed 8 stages of psychosocial development each stage has a psychosocial task to resolve issues ( continuous processes) adolescents: task to identify who we are and who we want to be social identity; our self concept as defined by social groups such as being a Latino or homosexual as a apart of who they are look at chart in book of Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development Lifespan development: emerging adulthood: late teens early 20’s - western culture concept - stretching out adulthood activities - we are marrying 4 years later - becoming financially independent later - later independence and earlier sexual maturity adulthood: mid to late 20’s -physical peak occurs mid 20’s -healthy habitats and choices during this time help offset if your getting older middle adulthood: around age 30 -muscle mass decreases -metabolism slows -body fat increase -gradual decline in fertility -menopause: biological sign that you cannot reproduce and no more period later adulthood: 60’s plus -decrease in psychical apprence -decrease in mental ability -decrease in sensory abilities -weakened immune system -loss of taste -decreased sex drive -exercise makes a difference Intelligence in adulthood : 1) Crystalized intelligence: stored knowledge Increases up to old age 2) Fluid intelligence: quick abstract reasoning Decreases slowly up to age 75ish Declines rapidly ager age 85 3) With age: loss of quick recall and processing but gain in vocabulary and knowledge reserves 4) Terminal decline: noticeable cognitive decline in final 3-4 years of life Social development: 1) Middle life crises: early 40’s 2) Social clock: culturally defined as right time for “milestones” Usually these are activated by significant life events Adulthood: Intimacy Generatively: leaving a legacy Positive feelings increase, negative feelings decrease Successful aging depends on… - Genetic influences - Psychological influences - Sociocultural influences Death and Dying: Dealt with differently by culture Life satisfaction tends to drop during year of spouses death ( does not rebound) Erikson> integrity- feeling that one’s life has been meaningful and worthwhile Chapter 6 psych Sensation: physical energy> neural signals Perception: selection, organization and interpretation Bottom up processing: taking in details of a scene or experience first, then putting them together Entry level examination into S&P Top down processing: drawing from already had experiences and using them to interpret what we are sensing Absolute threshold: the minimum amount of stimulation needed to detect something 50% of the time We need absolute thresholds We use this for hearing tests Difference thresholds ( just noticeable difference): how different do two stimuli need to be to differ the difference. Constant proportion or minimum must be constant Turning up the radio Transduction: the transformation of stimulus energy and turn into neural impulses Receive Transform Deliver Sensory adaptation: becoming sensitized to a new or different sense Getting into a cold pool Hot tub Sensitive to new stimuli Adaptive Vision: out stimuli from the environment is light Light travels in waves Colors is determined by the wave of light We see only visible light (the rainbow) Longer waves are red shorter and purple Intensity: the amount of energy in a light or sound wave( brightness and loudness) Determined by waves amplitude Height ( amplitude and darkness) Eye: Corina: light enter Pupil: light passes through this Optic nerve: impulses delivered to visual cortex via this Lens: focuses light and prints it on the retina Dilated means it is darker because we need to take in more light Iris is the color part of the eye ( mine is blue) Rods: responsible for peripheral vision and takingin info about black, white and gray ( night time) Cones: color, concentrated in retina ( daylight and light) Fovea: clearest vison, focused Focal point in clear ( cones) Periphery blurry (rods) Blind sports: spot where the optic nerve leaves the eye gives us a blind spot We do not perceive a blind spot due to the constant and fast motion of the eye Light travels up the optic nerve which is in the thalamus which is in the old part of the brain the frontal lobe Receives and distributes information to cortex Info from left eye goes to right thalamus and vice versa Parallel processing: the brain doing a lot of different things at once Color Motion Shape Form Depth ( all at the same time in parallel) Young –Helmholtz trichromatic ( 3 colors) We have receptors of 3 colors – red, green, and blue Different combinations produce any color Opponent process theory: opposing retinal processes: red, green, yellow blue white black enable color vision Some neurons in the retina are turned on by red bur turned off by green and vice versa Color Blindness: Monochromatic ( one color) Dichromatic ( two colors) But not trichromatic Visual organization: Gestalt: organized as a whole Tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes Figure ground Perceiving any object as different from the surroundings Faces or vase Grouping: Proximity: group nearby objects together Continuity: perceiving smooth vs discontinuous Closure: fill in gaps to create a complete whole object Chapter 6 part 2 Binocular Cues: judging distance of nearby objects using both eyes (something disappears when you cover one eye) Monocular Cues: depth cues available to one eye (thinking things are smaller due to surrounding environment, railroad tracks) Vison: the major sense more cortex devoted then any other sense Priming: previous information impacts how we interpret information later on Hearing: highly adaptive, human voice is the frequency we hear best We hear using frequencies and vibrations (waves) Transduction: taking in waves and turning them into neural impulses Amplitude: determines loudness( and darkness of color) Frequency: number of wavelengths passing at any given point in a given amount of time (determines pitch) wave length also determines color for vision Decibels: how sound is measured How we hear: -something creates a sound wave - wave travels to ear and caught in outer ear -wave moves into ear canal -wave hits eardrum -eardrum vibrates -vibration rattles tiny bones in middle ear -tiny bones carry vibrations into cochlea -vibrations hit cilia hairs attached to auditory nerves -cilia stimulate auditory nerve signaling to the brain -brain processes signal into sounds we HEAR language happens in: the left hemisphere in the warmakeez loudness and speed: determined by how many hair cells vibrate how many cilia are vibration determines how loud it is sound location: intensity differs, indicating sound direction ( our two ears are located at different places) Doppler effect : perceiving sound differently as it travels( hearing am ambulance coming) Sense of touch: premature infants gain weight faster when they are held/touched Pain: gate control theory, small nerve fibers-feel pain ( gate opened) Large fibers- closes the gate (blocking pain) Pain: Psychological influences: distractions can limit the experience of pain Pain and memory: memories of pain focus on peak moments more than duration (remember at the worse, and when it was over) Pain: social and cultural influences: social contagion- empathy/mirroring, or a shared belief that an experience is painful Cultural influences- family, peer group, or culture sense of smell( olfaction) - Nose receptors that detect odor molecules - Signals sent to brain - We detect 10, ooo smells or more - Attractiveness depends on associations (developed from birth) - Powerful experiences associated with some smells - -chemical sense - odor molecules are big, many different receptors to detect them sense of taste -sweet -sour -salty -bitter -umami (meaty taste) taste of smell and feel go though sensory interaction producing flavor -taste if a chemical sense, our taste buds catch the chemicals on the food which turn into taste - old people, smokers, and alcohol make you lose your taste the wave length of light determines hue the opponent process theory is most useful for explaining a characteristic of just noticeable difference ( afterimages ) Chapter 7: Learning Learning: a relatively permanent behavior changes due to experience Adaptability: our capacity to learn, helps us cope, they way we change in hopes to change our outcome Associative Learning: what we need for survival, conditioning is how we learn brain Aerostatol, john lock links events together (learning through experience) - Stimuli, or behavior> consequences Classical conditioning: two stimuli (hears ice cream trucks, knows ice cream is coming) Operant conditioning: learning through experiences Observational Learning: learning from other experiences and examples ( observe other people and we behave like them) Behaviorist though psychology should be: - Be an objective science - Study behavior without reference to mental processes Ada Pavlov: foundation for learning research John B Watson: only observable behavior (the prediction or control of a behavior not introspection) People and animals behave from the same basic laws Conditioning: the process of learning “associations” -two stimuli - or consequences Classical conditioning: linking two stimuli together to link and get a result from the relationship -helps us expect and prepare for certain outcomes Pavlov: dog studies, -feeding causes salvation in dogs -dogs salivate when seeing food or food delivery person ( even dogs learn to associate) -his experiment: attached tubes to dogs salivation glands and separated them, noted when he presented food the dogs stimulated 1) Unconditioned Stimuli’s ( food) - No learning to salivate when you see food ( it is natural) - The thing that triggers a natural response Unconditioned response - Salvation - 2) Natural, unlearned response to stimulus Natural stimulus: causes nothing to happen (bell) -no response before conditioning -by paring the neutral stimulus with our unconditioned stimulus we still get our unconditioned response - the bell will now trigger salvation 3) conditioned stimulus: previously neutral stimulus, elicits response after conditioning conditioned response: learned response to previously neutral stimulus -we know this when just the bell is rung and the dogs salivate this means that it is conditioned ucs-mint ucr- reaches for mint/ bad taste ns- computer sound cs-computer sound cr-reach/ bad taste Classical Learning: basic form of learning -automatic association between stimuli -shows we can adapt -study learning objectively Advertising: every time you see a corona it is on the beach so you associate it with good times and the beach 1) Acquisition ( processes of being condioned) - Pairing our unconditioned stimulus with our neutral stimulus to trigger our unconditioned response - The strongest is when our neutral stimulus and our unconditioned happen simultaneously - Half second - Neutral stimulus first, unconditioned response after - Higher or second order conditioning: a new neutral stimulus ( add a new variable plus conditioned stimulus to make conditioned response and then eliminate original conditioned stimulus ) 2) Extinction: the diminishing of a conditioned response over time -when they figure out that the bell doesn’t mean food then the conditioned response goes away -Example (treating phobias of feathers and spanking which causes fear there for feathers equals fear) - so giving feathers to the person who’s afraid of them to show them that it does not mean you will get the unconditioned stimulus 3) Spontaneous Recovery: conditioned response can reappear suddenly after disappearing for a time -relapse of drug users 4) stimulus generalization: a stimuli similar ( but not identical) to the Conditioned stimulus elicits to the conditioned response -the generalization of the bell makes the dog salivate -if your afraid to walk in front of a car you are afraid of walking in front of a moving truck 5) discrimination: the difference between a conditioned stimulus and irrelevant stimuli -opposite of generalization - can determined very specifically that something is the conditioned stimulus Pavlov Legacy: -influenced others -classical conditioning that ignores cognitions often have limited success -biological predispositions -use a scientific approach to study psychology due to behaviorism Operant Conditioning: Associating a behavior with its consequences (goal is to increase good behavior and decrease bad behavior) Classical conditioning= automatic response(salvation) Operant conditioning=controllable behavior (coming to class, taking notes, studying) B.F. Skinner: father of operant conditioning Thorndike’s law of effects: rewarded behavior are more likely to continue The skinner box (the rat presses the lever and gets food) Shaping behavior: the process of reinforcing behavior that are close to the desired behavior (rewarding the rat when its near the lever, or paws on the wall) Unintentional shaping: whining kid gets what they want ( they learn that if they cry they get rewarded) Punishment is meant to decrease behavior reinforcement is used to increase behavior Reinforcement is always increasing a response Positive reinforcement= adding something (study for a test you get an A, you do a choir you get money) Negative reinforcement= removing something to increase the behavior (eating food to remove the feeling of feeling hungry, taking medicine to get read of headache) Trying to get read of a unpleasant situation reinforcements: Primary; things that are naturally reinforcing (food stops hunger, sleep) Secondary; conditioned reinforces learned through experience (degree to get job, money) Delayed reinforcers: a delayed gratification , sometimes have a stronger impact on behavior then immediate ones ( does not work for rats) ( the marshmallow test) Continuous reinforcement; reinforcing desired behavior every time it happens ( learning happens rapidly , but the extinction phase happens very fast as well Partial or intermittent: reinforcing sometimes but not always ( slower acquisition phase meaning to learn the behavior but the behavior will last longer, slot machines) Psych Chapter 7 part 2: Schedules of Reinforcement: -Continues: reinforcing desired behavior every time it happens (likely to acquire behavior very quickly but is going to take less time for extinction to happen) -Partial/ Intermittent: reinforcing desired behavior sometimes, but not always ( more time until extinction) ratio = number of behaviors interval= a length of time fixed= same variable= changes ( more consistent Reponses) 1) fixed –Ratio: set number of Reponses 2) variable ratio: unpredictable number of Reponses 3) fixed- interval: first response after fixed time period (rapid responding near time for reinforcement) 4) variable- interval: first response after varying time intervals (slow steady Reponses) Reinforcement: positive consequence to increase behavior but can be positive or negative Punishment: negative consequence made to decrease behavior Positive punishment: adding something in order to decrease behavior (speeding ticket in order to decrease your speeding) - the south park video ( the shocking is added to stop him from swearing) - spanking ( adding a stick to beat their children in order of them to listen) Negative punishment: removing pleasure ( giving a time out and removing the pleasure of playing with friends to limit you from hitting your friends) -spanking or physical pain does to destroy behavior but just suppressed it -may only suppress undesired behavior in certain settings -punishment can teach fear, and increase aggression disadvantages 1) unwanted side effects like fear aggression and rage 2) avoid the person delivering the positive punishment 3) punishment is more likely to just suppress the behavior rather then eliminate it 4) punishments is not teaching us expectable or appropriate behaviors positive punishment can be more effective it is used as a back up and or safety is an issue Operant conditioning: help shape behaviors to achieve goals and getting rewards (reinforcement) Ex. Work, school, sports, and home settings Cognition: motivation Intrinsic motivation: wanting to perform that behavior just for the sake of that behavior Extrinsic motivation: want to perform a behavior because we have been promised some kind of reward or threatened with some kind of punishment ( some kind of out side force) Extrinsic motivation can lower intrinsic motivation -Biological predispositions: learning associations that are naturally adaptive quickly - shock a pigeon to fly Skinner: -controversial ( criticized for dehumanizing by saying you can change the behavior of a human the same way you can train an animal) -importance of external influences -wanted to improve society by using conditioning to seek to promote desirable and beneficial behaviors ( didn’t care about thoughts and feelings on the behaviors Observational learning: learning by observing others (common for children) -copy behaviors that are unpunished -copy people who are successful -copy people who are like themselves (children copy children not their parents) -model what people say (child hears sear words they are likely to swear) -mirror neurons: frontal lobe neurons, fire when doing certain actions or observing another doing them -contagious yawing Albert Bandura: -children watched adults hit bobo doll -they later displayed aggressive behavior toward doll observational learning can teach us social behaviors -pro-social behavior is positive, helpful behavior - parents who read with their children means the child is more liley to like to read -parents who are nice to every tend to have nicer kids Anti-social: behavior is negative, goes against norms -children are exposed to violence on video games, news, and every where else -just correlational but can desensitize children to violence -learning to facilitated though multiple sources - we see and hear things that result in learned behavior - and this happens with nearly every behavior we engage in - we are constantly learning Chapter 8: memory Memory: persistence of learning over time through information storage and retrieval -we use to think we could remember everything we perceived information processing models: compare human memory to computer operation: encode> store> retrieve Encoding: moving info into long term memory Storage: retention of encoded info over time -hitting the save button rather the shutting down the computer Retrieval: process of getting info out of storage 3 stop model of memory formation ( Atkinosn and Shiffrin ) 1) Sensory Memory: very brief, records immediate sensory info 2) Short term memory: holds only a few pieces of info at a time: it is either stored or forgotten 3) Long term memory: relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system (we have no found the limit yet for how much info we can store) Working Memory: newer way to understand short term memory (active processing) - Actively and consciously processing of incoming visual, auditory, and spatial info - Uses new with old info in long term memory to solve problems Modified three stage model of memory formation External events>>>Sensory memory( very brief)>>> short-term memory(encoding)working memory(encoding)long term memory<<<retrieve - Some info goes straight from external events to the ability to retrieve it Sensory memory=iconic memory (pictures) -iconic memory: brief memory of visual stimuli ( a photograph that lasts only a few secs) Auditory memory=echo (sound) Echoic memory: brief memory of auditory stimuli -sounds you aren’t focused on can be remembered for 3-4 seconds encoding: the processing of information in the memory system Automatic; processing: very easy and no effort to memorize Effortful; processing: very hard to remember you have to try very hard to remember this information Automatic: ( 50 first dates) Efforlful: Implicit memories explicit memories Procedural memory moves info into long term memory storage Associations Space, time, and frequency AUTOMATIC PROCESSING: procedures ( learning how to ride a bike) - Once may seemed effortful like driving a car but once it becomes automatic processing - Classical conditioning associations: you get seaty palms when you are visting the dentist ( you don’t have to think about it it just happens) - Space: remembering where you left off reading ( remembering where your notes were but not what they say) - Time: retracing steps to find lost phone ( remembering things through out the day without even noticing) - Frequency: you tripped three times a day ( not even realing you walked past the same person three times that day) EFFORTFUL PROCESSING - Chunking: organizing stuff into familiar manageable units ( 7033275339 703-327-5339) if they are meaningful we remember them better, words mean more then letters - Mnemonics: memory aids often use vivid imagery and organizational methods ( PEMDAS, parenthaseis, exponents, multiplication, division, addition, subtraction ) taking - Hierarchies: organization of things from broad to specific ( when you take notes of the whole processes and break that into the processing inside the whole) To have better memory: Rehearsal: flash cards, saying things over and over again in order to remember things , practicing ( not effective if it is all at once) - Spacing effect: studying a little bit at a time every day Shallow processing: doing the bare minimum to comprehend information ( reading over notes) Deep processing: relating things to real life examples, deeper understanding of what the information is Encoding Meaning: we associate information with things we already know (schemas) -they help us learn the amount that we remembered depends on -time spent learning -meaningfulness implicit memory: automatic retention independent of conscious recollection -riding a bike -things you know your just not sure why ( the capital of Virginia) -habitats ( once were effortful but now are unconscious) Explicit memories: effortful, factual, experience based memories -Pythagorean theorem -grandmother’s birthday -stress hormones and memory -arousal: excitement from strong emotional events burn events into memory flashbulb memories: clear memory of emotionally significant events ( car accident, when they witnessed kennedy getting shot) measure memory through>>>> -recognition ( multiple choice or matching test, recognition info among other information) -recall ( fill in the blank test, or short answer, can you remember enough to explain it or wright it down , deeper processing) -relearning ( learn more quickly information that you have previously learned, cumulative exam studying, you just look over your past notes from other exams,) Chapter 8 continued: Information processing of memory ( like a computer ) 1) Recode 2) Store 3) Retrieve Recall: retrieving previously learned info into our conscious awareness Ex. Fill in blank Recognition: Identifying previously learned information Ex. Multiple choice test Relearning: learning something more quickly the second time we learn it Ex. Studying for exam and never forget how to ride a bike Retrieval cues: things that make you remember something -Priming: activating certain memory associations ( I have an Altima I notice all Altima’s) -context dependent memory: memories strongest when the environment is the same as when the experience originally happened (you can recall psych information better in your psych class room then in your biology classroom) -state dependent memory: what we learn in one state is more easily recalled when we return to that state ( if you studied high then you would have to be high during the exam to remember that information that you studied ) -mood congruency: if you are happy you will remember the good times, if you are crying you remember all the bad things that make you cry -serial position effect: the idea that we can more easily recall at the begging and the end of a list Forgetting: 1 Encoding failure: when we fail to encode info we sense Ex. Forgetting name right after introduction 2 Retrieval failure: failing to access encoded info Ex. Tip of the tongue phenomenon Influences Interference: conflicting info reduces memory accuracy -proactive interference: disrupting new information (having to remember a new password) -retroactive interference: disrupting the retrieval of old information (you remember your new locker combo but not your old combo from last year) Motivated forgetting: sometimes forgetting is self-serving (gamblers say they lost les then what they really did, saying you got a bigger fish then you did) Intrusion: often harder to forget traumatic memories ( trying not to remember but still do) 3 Anterograde Amnesia: inability to form new memories after brain injury but previous memoires are intact 4 Retrograde Amnesia: inability to re call memories from before a brain injury but we can remember new stuff How accurate are our memories? Memory is constructive: we automatically filter into and fill in missing pieces in our memoires (eye witnesses who is questioned) -world is more predictable -memory more efficient (usually) 7 sins of memory 1) Transience (over time our memory fades) 2) Absent mindedness (inattentive to details results in encoding failure ex. Putting your keys somewhere where you normally don’t) 3) Blocking (cant think of the actors name. its on the tip of the tongue) 4) Misattribution ( did you dream that or did it actually happen) 5) Suggestibility (information can have a lingering effect, leading question ex. Was the hoddie blue) 6) Bias ( our current believes influence our memories, ex. If you first met someone and they were a bitch but then not your best friends) 7) Persistence ( unwanted memories don’t seem to go away) Chapter 10 psych Emotions: A whole body response -body arousal -outward behaviors -conscious experience 1) what comes first? Physiological response or emotional experience 2) does cognition (thinking) precede emotion ( feeling)? Theories… James- Lange Theory: we response physical reaction becomes before the emotion (you cry and then you cry) Cannon- Bard Theory: physiological response distinct enough to elicit specific emotions (simultaneous emotions physic and emotional happen at the same time) Schachter- Singer theory: physio and cognition(thoughts) ( you interpret the situation which makes you react differently) a threat or not you could be excited or scared but your heart is still beating fast Sympathetic: arousing Parasympathetic: calming Lie detectors: -polygraphs -problems Physiological arousal similar among emotions They are wrong 1/3 of the time -change questions(only the answers that police know about crime) Cognition and emotion: how we interpret situation can determine our emotion - We are influenced by the people around us ( if we are in a happy person in a room we will be happy if we are in a room with a mad person then we will be mad) - Schachter and singer: the spillover effect - Lazarus- some cognitive appraisal even if we are not aware of it - Zajonc’s view: cognition is not always necessary for emotion Sensory input: directly to the amygdala ( via the thalamus) for an instant emotion reaction orrr To the cortex of analysis ( longer time) ( higher rode ) Chapter 11 Stress: a process of appraising and responding, (stressor) threating or challenging events 1) Stressor 2) Appraisal (challenge or threat) ( positive or negative) 3) Response(more focus and study more or failing is enviable) General adaptation syndrome (GAS) Cannons findings- three stages of stress 1) Alarm (increase heart rate ready for action) 2) Resistance (cope with stressor, hormones released, remaining at high level of arousal) 3) Exhaustion (energy is depleted, become vulnerable, more prone to illness) Personality and heart disease: friedman and rosenman Type A personality: competitive, hard driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger- prone (very aggressive) Type B personality: easygoing, relaxed People with more negative emotion and aggression are more likely to have heart disease and a heart attack Pessimistic people are more likely to get heart disease Coping with stress: dealing with stress (cry, exercise, etc..) Problem focused coping: feeling like you have some sort of control over the situation (directly address situation) Emotion- focused coping: can not have impact on situation or control situation, ignore stressor(avoid problems by parting, could be good for addicts) Three factors that influence coping 1 Personal control Learned helplessness: feeling hopeless when repeated by events happen (sexual abuse victims) Locus of control: internal locus of control (we control what happens in our life) external locus of control (anything outside of you that influences the outcome) 2 Explanatory style Outlook on life Optimism (positive outlook) Pessimism (negative outlook on life) 3 Supportive connections Social support from peers, family, promotes over all health Makes a strong immune system People with healthy marriages live longer Chapter 10 psych Emotions: A whole body response -body arousal -outward behaviors -conscious experience 1) what comes first? Physiological response or emotional experience 2) does cognition (thinking) precede emotion (feeling)? Theories… James- Lange Theory: we response physical reaction becomes before the emotion (you cry and then you cry) Cannon- Bard Theory: physiological response distinct enough to elicit specific emotions (simultaneous emotions physic and emotional happen at the same time) Schachter- Singer theory: physio and cognition(thoughts) ( you interpret the situation which makes you react differently) a threat or not you could be excited or scared but your heart is still beating fast Sympathetic: arousing Parasympathetic: calming Lie detectors: -polygraphs -problems Physiological arousal similar among emotions They are wrong 1/3 of the time -change questions(only the answers that police know about crime) Cognition and emotion: how we interpret situation can determine our emotion - We are influenced by the people around us ( if we are in a happy person in a room we will be happy if we are in a room with a mad person then we will be mad) - Schachter and singer: the spillover effect - Lazarus- some cognitive appraisal even if we are not aware of it - Zajonc’s view: cognition is not always necessary for emotion Sensory input: directly to the amygdala ( via the thalamus) for an instant emotion reaction orrr To the cortex of analysis ( longer time) ( higher rode ) Chapter 11 Stress: a process of appraising and responding, (stressor) threating or challenging events 1) Stressor 2) Appraisal (challenge or threat) ( positive or negative) 3) Response(more focus and study more or failing is enviable) General adaptation syndrome (GAS) Cannons findings- three stages of stress 1) Alarm (increase heart rate ready for action) 2) Resistance (cope with stressor, hormones released, remaining at high level of arousal) 3) Exhaustion (energy is depleted, become vulnerable, more prone to illness) Personality and heart disease: friedman and rosenman Type A personality: competitive, hard driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger- prone (very aggressive) Type B personality: easygoing, relaxed People with more negative emotion and aggression are more likely to have heart disease and a heart attack Pessimistic people are more likely to get heart disease Coping with stress: dealing with stress (cry, exercise, etc..) Problem focused coping: feeling like you have some sort of control over the situation (directly address situation) Emotion- focused coping: can not have impact on situation or control situation, ignore stressor(avoid problems by parting, could be good for addicts) Three factors that influence coping 1 Personal control Learned helplessness: feeling hopeless when repeated by events happen (sexual abuse victims) Locus of control: internal locus of control (we control what happens in our life) external locus of control (anything outside of you that influences the outcome) 2 Explanatory style Outlook on life Optimism (positive outlook) Pessimism (negative outlook on life) 3 Supportive connections Social support from peers, family, promotes over all health Makes a strong immune system People with healthy marriages live longer “ open heart therapy”- close relationships were you can share your feelings and emotions helps with stress Chapter 11 (continued) psych Managing stress: Aerobic exercise: increases heart and lung fitness decreases stress by release neural transmitters and helps cognitive abilities, promotes growth of new brain cells Relaxation and meditation: helps relieve head aces, lower blood pressure, and helps insomnia Meditation: clearing of the mind, helps reduce blood pressure Religion: increase life expectancy and higher level of immune functioning Life style modification Facial expressions are universal: we learn them at a very young age even if you are blind and are the same across different cultures - Gestures and expression of emotions change with culture - Biological, physiological, cognitive, sociocultural Anger: Wronged or hurt Something is not right to us of what’s going on Dealing with anger: Catharsis (kid playing videos games and brother killing him and making him mad) -fantasy - action (yelling) Best ways to handle anger: Don’t get chronically angry over every little thing Don’t rehearse reasons for anger in head Happiness: Happy people perceive the world as being safer More satisfied with life More cooperative Live healthier life, energized, Feel good, do good phenomenon (be more helpful if were already in a good mood) Money: more money does not make you happier (wealthier countries are not happier) -what matters is how we feel about what we have Adaptation level phenomenon: notice variations define by our previous generations( adapting to the way your life is weather its middle class or your rice) - If you live in your perfect world you are really happy - When you come back from utopia you will return to what use to make you happy Relative deprivation: comparing ourselves to others and feeling worse who are those that are better then you (rich and poor) Predictors of happiness -high self esteem -optimistic -good relationships -work and leisure that engage your skills -sleeping well and exercise Happiness can be inherited through genes: twins are more happier people -naturally negative -naturally happy -fluctuate between baseline happiness Chapter 12, personality continued Id: fueled by unconscious energy driven to satisfy sexual, aggressive urges -pleasure principle -instant gratification -smocking cigarettes because it feels good and we like it Ego: the mediator between the id and the super ego, -the executive personality -compromiser -reality principle it will feel good but also it is wrong Super ego: the moral compass, with angel within -judges if actions will lead to guilt or pleasure -smoking is bad for you so you feel guilty -someone with a low super ego will be a non well behaved person Freud psychosexual stages: each are focused on a erogenous zones(pleasure zones) - Deprivations or overindulges can have consequences - Fixation: instincts are focused on a particular theme (sucking thumb or smoking0 - Regression: a psychological retreat to an earlier psychosexual stage(may suck thumb in job interview) Oral: the mouth, sucking, swallowing (infants) Anal: the anus with withholding or expelling feaces Phallic: the penis and clitoris(masturbation) - During phallic stage boys seek genital stimulation - In boys, they develop the Oedipus Complex emerges - Jealous or father and think will punish them - So there for boys will identify the same traits as father - In girls they get the Electra complex - Unconscious sexual desires towards fathers - Hateful towards mother - We internalize some of traits of mother Latent: little or no sexual motivation Genital: the penis or vagina(sexual intercourse) Defense mechanisms: reducing anxiety by disguising threatening impulses as something else Repression: try to hide anxiety-inducing memories from our consciousness -underlies all other defense mechanisms -remove things from consciousness and put them in our unconsciousness Defense mechanisms: Repression: pushing a feeling out of unconscious Regression: reverting back, over indulging from sucking thumb at a young age, then sucking thumb in job interview due to over indulgent in psychosexual stage Projection: putting our thoughts, feelings, behaviors on to someone else (projecting onto someone else) -saying that Michaela is pissed off at macy, instead of me saying Im pissed off Rationalization: rationalize, justifying things ( you can have one beer while studying it wont get me drunk Displacement: putting feelings on someone else who didn’t cause you anger ( your mom yells at you so you yell at your friends) Denial: saying something did not happen Neo-Freudians and psychodynamic theories - Freudians concepts persist today - Personality structure ( id, ego, superego) - Still believe we will have an unconscious mind - Placing more emphasis on conscious mind - Do not use dream analysis to look into unconscious mind - Defense mechanisms : people still go through these - Alfred Adler, Karen Horney, carl Jung (psychodynamic theorists) Cristis - Repressed memoires- accurate? - Memories that we don’t remember that we don’t remember - Cognitive psychologist- believe slips of the tongue are not caused by unconscious mind - Defense mechansisums may not be a souly unconscious process to protect ourself from anxiety , but more very aware to protect our self image Take home - Laid ground work for todays psychological perspectives - But froad theories don’t predict behavior ( they come up after something happens) - His explanations are all after the fact and explanatory instead of predictive Humanistic Perspective: focusing on individual and healthy personal growth - Reponses to our immediate conscious experience of our self and our environment - Maslow - Rogers Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: 1) Physiological: breathing, water, good, sex, sleep, homeostasis, excretion 2) Safety: security of body, employment, resources, morality, the family, health, property 3) Loving/belonging: friendship, family, sexual intimacy 4) Esteem: self esteem, confidence, achievement, respected of others, respect by others 5) Self-actualization: motivates you to be the best you can be Rogers: people are naturally good ( needs these three things to achieve self- actualization) Genuineness: are people genuine Acceptance: do you feel like me like me no mater what Empathy: the ability to put ourselves in someone else’s shoes Allport: personality defined in traits -trait perspective is to describe traits rather then explain them THE BIG FIVE Openness: curious, original, intellectual, creative, and open to new ideas Conscientiousness: organized, systematic, punctual, dependable Extraversion: outgoing, talkative, sociable, and enjoys being in social situations Agreeableness: addable, tolerant, sensitive, trusting Neuroticism: Person-situation Controversy: - Traits are stable, but behavior changes slightly depending on environment - Behavioral instability calls into question validity of personality tests - You may be an introvert but since family is there you interact more, but you still rather be alone Bandura, Seligman SOCIAL COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE: -behavior results from an interaction of traits cognitions(thoughts) social environment ( all of these are all determine eachother) -behavior learned through conditioning and observing/modeling others behavior Reciprocal determinism- the idea that our traits, cognitions, and environment determine each other Spotlight effect: our tendency to believe that people are more attentive to us the they actually are -you think that people will notice our embarrassing moments and that everyone knows - but in reality no one really is paying attention self esteem: feeling high or low selwork about how we feel aobu tour selfs narcissisum: excessive self love self serving bias: accept reponsibiliy for our success or blame others for failuurs Personality: enduring, distinctive pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting Personality perspectives: Psychodynamic Humanistic Traits Social cognitive -studying personality is the most popular to study especially people out side of psychology Psychodynamic: Sigmund Freud, controversial Austrian neurologist ( studied neurologic disorders) Focused on unconscious mind Proposed the unconscious mind One of the most famous psychologist in history Personality comes from a conflict between impulses and restraint We want satisfaction with out guilt Ex, you could smash the computer if it is not working which is your impulse, but then you would have to pay for it which is your restraint Psychoanalysis: the techniques used to see what was going on in our unconscious mind Unconscious mind: holds unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories Free association: patient relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how embarrassing ( what comes to mind when I say a random word) -suppose to be something from your unconscious mind Dream analysis: underlying motives / thoughts we try to censor come out in dreams 3 levels of awareness 1) Conscious - Current contents of your mind that you actively think of - What we call working memory - Easily accessed all the time 2) Preconscious -contents of the mind you are not currently aware of - thoughts, memories, knowledge, wishes, feelings - available for easy access when needed 3) unconscious - contents kept out of conscious awareness - not accessible at all -processes that actively keep these thoughts from awareness -Freudian slip ( slip of the tongue, of our unconscious coming out, they video we watched when the news reporters would say penis accidentally) Social Psychology ch. 13 Social psychology: study how we think about influence, and relate one another - Social behavior_ arises from attitudes, schemas, expectations we have about others behavior - We like being able to predict other people behaviors Attribution Theory: something is the result of something else - Fritz Heider - Attribution theory: we attribute behavior to either - Disposition: stable, enduring traits ( unfriendly) OR - Situation: external influences ( stressful ) - Fundamental attribution error: tendency to blame others behavior on disposition, rather than situation - Underestimate power of the situation - Overestimate impact of disposition - Attribution error: We to wrongly associate peoples behaviors to who they are as a person rather then the situation they are in ( you don’t know what is going on in their life) Attitudes and actions - Attitudes affect actions and actions affect attitudes - Attitudes: feelings that cause us to react to situation in certain ways Foot in the door phenomenon - Foot in the door phenomenon: tendency for people who first agree to a small request to later agree with a larger request - Can lead to attitude change - Doing becomes believing, especially when repeatedly asked to go against our beliefs - People agreeing to doing things (tend to agree to large request if we agree to something small) Roles affect attitudes: - Roles: expectations or norms that define how people in certain positions should behave - (college students, spouse, manager) - when adopting a role we strive to be that role - remember the Stanford prison experiment?( the prisoners took their roles, and the guards were taking their role very seriously) When attitudes and behaviors clash - we like consistency in perceptions, beliefs - cognitive dissonance: discomfort when behavior conflicts with attitudes, can lead to attitude changes - to reduce dissonance/discomfort, can change - attitude: justifying, blaming, denying - behavior: changing behavior, which can change behavior - cognitive dissidence: we are uncomfortable with that role the power of social influences: we think and influence on another (conformity, obedience, group pressure, and groupthink conformity: social pressures - behavior is contagious - Chameleon effect: we tend to mimic others, helps us relate - Not always a good thing- mob mentality - Conformity: changing thinking/ behavior to match that of the group - Solomon Asch ( line study) ( conformity) ( if most of the group says the wrong answer then you agree more likely to also give the wrong answer) - SIN (strength, intensity, numbers) Why do we conform - Normative social influence: comes from desire to gain approval/ avoid disapproval - Going against norms has a price - If your friends jump off a bride, would you?- this type of influence suggests YES - Informational social influence: comes from willingness to accept others opinions about reality - Groups provide us with info, we tend to listen ( you like the football team that your family likes Obedien
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