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Bisc 132 Exam 1 Lecture Notes

by: randomchic12

Bisc 132 Exam 1 Lecture Notes BISC 132

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Lecture notes covering the material for exam 1
The Diversity of Life
Dr. Kyle Kemege
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This 15 page Bundle was uploaded by randomchic12 on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BISC 132 at Louisiana Tech University taught by Dr. Kyle Kemege in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see The Diversity of Life in Biology at Louisiana Tech University.


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Date Created: 02/24/16
Biological Sciences 132­ Diversity of Life December 2, 2015 Diversity of Life (Ch 26) ­Phylogenetic trees ­evolutionary trees ­inferred evolutionary relationships between groups of organisms ­based on physical differences and/or genetic differences  ­rRNA­ sequence changes slowly ­clades= complete branches  ­ancestor and all descendants feature Bacteria eukarya archaea introns N Y Some Organelles N Y N Nucleus N Y N RNA polymerase One Several Several peptidoglycan Y N n ­introns: sequences of DNA that are transcribed but are then spliced out of mRNA­ not translated ­Archaea: several characteristics in common with bacteria and eukarya  ­own, distinct domain ­prokaryote ­pro= before, preceding ­karyon= kernel ­does not have a nuclear envelope ­bacteria and archaea are both prokaryotes ­"cell type", not a domain ­4 kingdoms of eukarya (see table) trait Protista plantae fungi Animalia chloroplasts some y n n cell wall yes; various cellulose chitin n mode of nutrition photosynthetic Photosynthesis Absorption ingestion and/or heterotrophic multicellularity mostly no y mostly yes y nervous system mostly no some n n y, complex primitive ­Biological Taxonomy ­the science of classification of living things ­common names can be misleading ­binomial nomenclature ­2­word naming ­rules: always in italics or underlined in handwriting          ­first word is always capitalized; second word is never capitalized ­e.g. Homo sapiens ­8 levels of classification ­each level is a taxon ­taxa= plural ­1. domain D ­2. kingdom K ­3. phylum P ­4. class C ­5. order O ­6. family F ­7. genus G ­8. species S ­Dr. Kemege Please Come Over For Greek Salad ­some (not all) organisms have subtaxa ­final two taxa (genus and species) are the binomial name of an organism Viruses (Ch 27) ­virus traits ­viruses are not alive ­not composed of cells ­"parasitic macromolecules" ­DNA or RNA in a protein shell ­capable of evolution ­"obligate intracellular parasites" ­require a host to replicate  ­no ribosomes (translation) ­usually, no DNA or RNA Polymerase ­hijack host cell ­machinery (enzymes) and steal ATP (energy) ­harmful to host ­host range: a given virus will only infect a specific species or group of species ­tissue tropism: viruses target specific types of cells ­capsid: protein shell of a virus ­common capsid morphologies ­helical capsid ­hollow tube ­icosahedral capsid ­icosahedron­ 20 sides ­binal symmetry ­helical and icosahedral capsids ­some viruses are enveloped ­surrounded by membrane ­also have capsid inside December 4, 2015 ­bacteriophage: viruses that infect bacteria ­aka phage ­lytic cycle ­attachment: specific protein­protein interactions ­penetration: injection – capsid does not enter ­synthesis: proteins are synthesized, new genomes are made ­assembly: protein components come together to form capsid­ genome inside ­release: by cell lysis ­lysogenic cycle ­attachment ­penetration ­integration: phage genome sealed into bacterial chromosome ­phage gene expression is off ­prophage= bacterium w/ phage DNA in chromosome ­propagation: phage DNA replicated w/ rest of chromosome ­induction: stress triggers lytic cycle ­phage gene expression turned on ­synthesis ­assembly ­release ­HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) ­enveloped ­RNA genome ­host range: humans ­tissue tropism: T cells & macrophages (part of the immune system) ­causes AIDS= Acquired ImmunoDeficiency Syndrome ­HIV infection cycle ­attachment: protein­ protein specificity which ensures tissue tropism ­entry: endocytosis ­entire capsid enters cell ­reverse transcription­ brings from single stranded RNAdouble stranded DNA ­error prone (enzyme that does this) ­integration: in host chromosome ­transcription, translation of viral proteins ­one big HIV protein is cleaved into smaller functional proteins ­by enzyme protease ­assembly ­exit by budding ­HIV drug targets ­entry: prevent attachment or fusion of proteins ­replication: blocks reverse transcriptase ­prevent integration ­block integrase enzyme ­prevent maturation (protease chops up proteins into smaller pieces) ­block protease ­problems with HIV ­no model organism  ­non­human organism on which to test drugs ­reverse transcriptase is error prone ­mutation rates are high ­changes faster than our immune system can adapt ­targets immune system cells ­most successful treatment: ­cocktail of drugs (3+) targeting different things ­neurological diseases ­Examples: ­bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) ­aka “mad cow disease” ­scrapie­ found in sheep ­kuru aka Creutzfeidt­ Jakob disease ­humans ­transmitted by cannibalism of brain ­not poison/ toxin­ is infectious  ­irradiate brain matter to destroy DNA & RNA ­still causes disease ­not bacteria, eukaryote, or virus ­caused by a misfolded protein called a prion C  ­we all have prion protein called PrP SC ­disease­causing protein called PrP ­when PrP comes into contact with PrP , converts it to PrP SC  ­PrP (either version) is required for disease December 7, 2015 Prokaryotes (Ch 28) Bacteria and Archaea ­prokaryotes are basically everywhere ­many (not all) archaea are extremophiles­live in environments of extreme heat, pH, or salt levels ­much more is known about bacteria than archaea ­3 common bacterial cell morphologies ­bacillus: rod ­coccus: spheres ­spirillum: corkscrews ­may or may not have: ­pilli: short extensions ­aid in movement or attachment to surfaces ­flagella: long extensions ­allow for motility (getting from one place to another) ­cells with spirillum morphology have endoflagella­ flagella inside of cell ­2 major groups of bacteria ­Gram positive bacteria are monoderms­ single plasma membrane ­thick layer of peptidoglycan on outside ­peptidoglycan acts as cell wall (structural support) ­Gram negative bacteria are diderms­ two plasma membranes ­inner membrane, thin peptidoglycan, outer membrane ­thin peptidoglycan & outer membrane form cell wall (structural support) ­Gram stain ­1. Purple dye binds to peptidoglycan ­2. Iodine fixes purple dye in place ­3. Ethanol washes away dye + iodine from G­ (Gram negative) because less total  peptidoglycan ­dye stays in G+ (Gram positive) ­more total peptidoglycan ­4. Red dye stains G­ ­so they can be visualized ­mistakes using Gram stain system ­G+ ­No iodine: misidentify as G­ ­No wash: no effect ­No red dye: no effect ­G­ ­No iodine: no effect ­No wash: misidentify as G+ ­No red dye: couldn’t see bacteria ­plasmids: extra chromosomal DNA ­circular ­smaller than chromosome ­non­essential genes ­often have genes for antibiotic resistance ­3 mechanisms for bacterial genetic exchange ­1. Conjugation ­direct transfer of plasmid DNA from one cell to another ­through conjugative pilus­ hollow tube ­replicates as it transfers ­allows antibiotic resistance genes to spread quickly through populations ­2. Transduction ­spread of DNA via phage ­phage infects bacterium, mis­packages bacteria DNA into phage particle ­can then inject bacterial DNA into new bacterium ­new bacterium may incorporate into genome ­3. Transformation ­bacterium takes up DNA from environment ­may incorporate into genome ­natural transformation: bacteria have own proteins that aid in DNA uptake ­not all bacteria transform naturally ­artificial transformation ­part of genetic engineering December 9, 2015 ­tuberculosis ­caused by bacterium mycobacterium tuberculosis ­thick, waxy coat: impervious to Gram Stain (G­) ­monoderm ­infects and destroys lungs ­spread through the air ­grows inside host cells ­grows very slowly ­years for disease to show symptoms ­can be active or latent ­diagnosis: skin test ­inject protein solution (purified from sterilized cultures) into skin ­if you have an immune response, you have been exposed to tuberculosis ­treatment: antibiotics ­chlamydia ­caused by organism chlamydia trachomatis ­sexually transmitted disease ­chlamydia ­infections are often asymptomatic (showing no symptoms but still spreading it) ­can cause infection of eye: trachoma ­uses type 3 secretion system to infect cells ­hollow molecular syringe and needle ­delivers proteins into host cell ­diagnosis: urine or swab ­treatment: antibiotics ­beneficial bacteria ­decompose dead organic matter ­produce O  2rom CO 2  ­photosynthesis ­fix nitrogen ­N 2 H 3  ­commensals (one benefits but other is infected) ­bacteria on skin, respiratory tract, digestive tract ­part of “human microbiome” ­don’t harm us but some can cause harm if they gain access to other locations of  the body ­e.g. get under the skin ­some can cause harm if they gain toxin genes  ­e.g. harmless E. Coli vs food poisoning E. Coli with gene for shiga toxin ­crowd out potentially harmful microorganisms ­gut flora help us digest food ­antibiotics: drugs that kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria ­e.g. penicillin [anything that ends in cillin was created from penicillin­ derivative] *binds to and inhibits enzymes that build peptidoglycan  ­prevents synthesis of cell wall ­no cell wall means no cell support death ­many derivatives of penicillin have been created ­called Beta­lactam antibiotics  ­contain lactam ring in structure ­resistance to penicillin (and all Beta­lactam antibiotics): ­evolution of enzyme beta­lactamase ­destroys lactam ring ­e.g. Tetracycline [anything that ends in cycline was created from tetracycline­derivative] ­bind to ribosomal subunits, prevent tRNA from binding­ shut down translation ­many derivatives have been created ­resistance to tetracyclines: ­use a membrane protein that actively pumps drug out of cell Protists (Ch 29) ­origin of nucleus & ER ­infolding of plasma membrane ­origin of mitochondria & chloroplasts ­endosymbiosis ­ “living together in close association” ­bacterium engulfed by primitive eukaryotic cell  ­overtime, became co­dependent ­evidence:  ­mitochondria & chloroplasts have own DNA ­sequences similar to bacteria (biggest piece of evidence) ­are same size as bacteria December 11, 2015 ­protists are an extremely diverse group of organisms ­protist traits ­cell surfaces vary ­some have cell walls, some do not ­cell wall not peptidoglycan ­move through a variety of mechanisms  ­flagella, cilia (like pilli) ­pseudopodia (false foot): temporary projection of cell, used for movement (temp  limb) ­filopodia: thin projections ­diverse nutritional strategies ­can be autotrophs or heterotrophs (or both) ­autotroph: get carbon, energy from inorganic sources ­phototroph: get energy from light ­heterotroph: get carbon, energy from organic sources ­phagotrophic: ingest particles by phagocytosis: engulf a solid  particle ­osmotrophic: obtain organic compounds directly through  membrane ­mixotroph: both autotrophic and heterotrophic ­can reproduce sexually and/or asexually ­almost all protists are unicellular ­multicellular protists are primitively multicellular ­clades of protists ­Diplomonads ­2 nuclei ­no mitochondria ­e.g. Giardia lamblia ­causes Giardiasis (infectious diarrhea) ­Euglenozoa ­most have 2 flagella ­one long and one short ­associated with mouth­like structure­ eat bacteria ­e.g. Trypanosoma brucei ­causes disease called African sleeping sickness ­transmitted by tsetse fly ­protists in blood stream can access entire body ­in brain, causes various neurological symptoms ­Dinoflagellates ­most have flattened vesicles under membrane, pressed to outer surface ­alveolar sac­ flattened vesicles ­for structural support ­Apicomplexans ­spore­forming parasites ­e.g. Plasmodium falciparum ­causes malaria ­transmitted by mosquitos ­complex life cycle, many different forms *requires time in mosquito for completion of life cycle ­not contagious from infectious humans ­grows in red blood cells ­destroys them, releases toxins ­loss of red blood cells can cause life­threatening complications ­transmitted back to mosquitos from infected humans *needs both human and mosquito hosts ­can be cured (not by antibiotics) ­special anti­malarial drugs ­no vaccine ­prevent/eradicate by killing mosquitos ­Ciliates ­covered in cilia for locomotion ­e.g. Paramecium  ­have gullet structure, aids in ingestion of food ­2 types of nuclei  ­macronucleus: required ­micronucleus: required only for sexual reproduction ­sexual and asexual reproduction ­Stamenopiles ­e.g. Brown algae ­not a plant! ­alternate between a multicellular haploid (1n) and multicellular diploid  (2n) forms ­play key role as producer in many ecosystems, like kelp forests ­e.g. Diatoms ­double shells of silica ­unique shapes ­Plasmodial Slime Molds ­were previously classified as fungi ­slowly moving/growing multinucleated mass ­when food/water is low, can produce spores that resist harsh conditions ­Choanoflagellates ­collared flagellates ­form colonies ­similar to sponges (animals) ­probable evolutionary link


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