Bisc 132 Exam 1 Lecture Notes
Bisc 132 Exam 1 Lecture Notes BISC 132
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This 15 page Bundle was uploaded by randomchic12 on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BISC 132 at Louisiana Tech University taught by Dr. Kyle Kemege in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see The Diversity of Life in Biology at Louisiana Tech University.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
Biological Sciences 132 Diversity of Life December 2, 2015 Diversity of Life (Ch 26) Phylogenetic trees evolutionary trees inferred evolutionary relationships between groups of organisms based on physical differences and/or genetic differences rRNA sequence changes slowly clades= complete branches ancestor and all descendants feature Bacteria eukarya archaea introns N Y Some Organelles N Y N Nucleus N Y N RNA polymerase One Several Several peptidoglycan Y N n introns: sequences of DNA that are transcribed but are then spliced out of mRNA not translated Archaea: several characteristics in common with bacteria and eukarya own, distinct domain prokaryote pro= before, preceding karyon= kernel does not have a nuclear envelope bacteria and archaea are both prokaryotes "cell type", not a domain 4 kingdoms of eukarya (see table) trait Protista plantae fungi Animalia chloroplasts some y n n cell wall yes; various cellulose chitin n mode of nutrition photosynthetic Photosynthesis Absorption ingestion and/or heterotrophic multicellularity mostly no y mostly yes y nervous system mostly no some n n y, complex primitive Biological Taxonomy the science of classification of living things common names can be misleading binomial nomenclature 2word naming rules: always in italics or underlined in handwriting first word is always capitalized; second word is never capitalized e.g. Homo sapiens 8 levels of classification each level is a taxon taxa= plural 1. domain D 2. kingdom K 3. phylum P 4. class C 5. order O 6. family F 7. genus G 8. species S Dr. Kemege Please Come Over For Greek Salad some (not all) organisms have subtaxa final two taxa (genus and species) are the binomial name of an organism Viruses (Ch 27) virus traits viruses are not alive not composed of cells "parasitic macromolecules" DNA or RNA in a protein shell capable of evolution "obligate intracellular parasites" require a host to replicate no ribosomes (translation) usually, no DNA or RNA Polymerase hijack host cell machinery (enzymes) and steal ATP (energy) harmful to host host range: a given virus will only infect a specific species or group of species tissue tropism: viruses target specific types of cells capsid: protein shell of a virus common capsid morphologies helical capsid hollow tube icosahedral capsid icosahedron 20 sides binal symmetry helical and icosahedral capsids some viruses are enveloped surrounded by membrane also have capsid inside December 4, 2015 bacteriophage: viruses that infect bacteria aka phage lytic cycle attachment: specific proteinprotein interactions penetration: injection – capsid does not enter synthesis: proteins are synthesized, new genomes are made assembly: protein components come together to form capsid genome inside release: by cell lysis lysogenic cycle attachment penetration integration: phage genome sealed into bacterial chromosome phage gene expression is off prophage= bacterium w/ phage DNA in chromosome propagation: phage DNA replicated w/ rest of chromosome induction: stress triggers lytic cycle phage gene expression turned on synthesis assembly release HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) enveloped RNA genome host range: humans tissue tropism: T cells & macrophages (part of the immune system) causes AIDS= Acquired ImmunoDeficiency Syndrome HIV infection cycle attachment: protein protein specificity which ensures tissue tropism entry: endocytosis entire capsid enters cell reverse transcription brings from single stranded RNAdouble stranded DNA error prone (enzyme that does this) integration: in host chromosome transcription, translation of viral proteins one big HIV protein is cleaved into smaller functional proteins by enzyme protease assembly exit by budding HIV drug targets entry: prevent attachment or fusion of proteins replication: blocks reverse transcriptase prevent integration block integrase enzyme prevent maturation (protease chops up proteins into smaller pieces) block protease problems with HIV no model organism nonhuman organism on which to test drugs reverse transcriptase is error prone mutation rates are high changes faster than our immune system can adapt targets immune system cells most successful treatment: cocktail of drugs (3+) targeting different things neurological diseases Examples: bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) aka “mad cow disease” scrapie found in sheep kuru aka Creutzfeidt Jakob disease humans transmitted by cannibalism of brain not poison/ toxin is infectious irradiate brain matter to destroy DNA & RNA still causes disease not bacteria, eukaryote, or virus caused by a misfolded protein called a prion C we all have prion protein called PrP SC diseasecausing protein called PrP when PrP comes into contact with PrP , converts it to PrP SC PrP (either version) is required for disease December 7, 2015 Prokaryotes (Ch 28) Bacteria and Archaea prokaryotes are basically everywhere many (not all) archaea are extremophileslive in environments of extreme heat, pH, or salt levels much more is known about bacteria than archaea 3 common bacterial cell morphologies bacillus: rod coccus: spheres spirillum: corkscrews may or may not have: pilli: short extensions aid in movement or attachment to surfaces flagella: long extensions allow for motility (getting from one place to another) cells with spirillum morphology have endoflagella flagella inside of cell 2 major groups of bacteria Gram positive bacteria are monoderms single plasma membrane thick layer of peptidoglycan on outside peptidoglycan acts as cell wall (structural support) Gram negative bacteria are diderms two plasma membranes inner membrane, thin peptidoglycan, outer membrane thin peptidoglycan & outer membrane form cell wall (structural support) Gram stain 1. Purple dye binds to peptidoglycan 2. Iodine fixes purple dye in place 3. Ethanol washes away dye + iodine from G (Gram negative) because less total peptidoglycan dye stays in G+ (Gram positive) more total peptidoglycan 4. Red dye stains G so they can be visualized mistakes using Gram stain system G+ No iodine: misidentify as G No wash: no effect No red dye: no effect G No iodine: no effect No wash: misidentify as G+ No red dye: couldn’t see bacteria plasmids: extra chromosomal DNA circular smaller than chromosome nonessential genes often have genes for antibiotic resistance 3 mechanisms for bacterial genetic exchange 1. Conjugation direct transfer of plasmid DNA from one cell to another through conjugative pilus hollow tube replicates as it transfers allows antibiotic resistance genes to spread quickly through populations 2. Transduction spread of DNA via phage phage infects bacterium, mispackages bacteria DNA into phage particle can then inject bacterial DNA into new bacterium new bacterium may incorporate into genome 3. Transformation bacterium takes up DNA from environment may incorporate into genome natural transformation: bacteria have own proteins that aid in DNA uptake not all bacteria transform naturally artificial transformation part of genetic engineering December 9, 2015 tuberculosis caused by bacterium mycobacterium tuberculosis thick, waxy coat: impervious to Gram Stain (G) monoderm infects and destroys lungs spread through the air grows inside host cells grows very slowly years for disease to show symptoms can be active or latent diagnosis: skin test inject protein solution (purified from sterilized cultures) into skin if you have an immune response, you have been exposed to tuberculosis treatment: antibiotics chlamydia caused by organism chlamydia trachomatis sexually transmitted disease chlamydia infections are often asymptomatic (showing no symptoms but still spreading it) can cause infection of eye: trachoma uses type 3 secretion system to infect cells hollow molecular syringe and needle delivers proteins into host cell diagnosis: urine or swab treatment: antibiotics beneficial bacteria decompose dead organic matter produce O 2rom CO 2 photosynthesis fix nitrogen N 2 H 3 commensals (one benefits but other is infected) bacteria on skin, respiratory tract, digestive tract part of “human microbiome” don’t harm us but some can cause harm if they gain access to other locations of the body e.g. get under the skin some can cause harm if they gain toxin genes e.g. harmless E. Coli vs food poisoning E. Coli with gene for shiga toxin crowd out potentially harmful microorganisms gut flora help us digest food antibiotics: drugs that kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria e.g. penicillin [anything that ends in cillin was created from penicillin derivative] *binds to and inhibits enzymes that build peptidoglycan prevents synthesis of cell wall no cell wall means no cell support death many derivatives of penicillin have been created called Betalactam antibiotics contain lactam ring in structure resistance to penicillin (and all Betalactam antibiotics): evolution of enzyme betalactamase destroys lactam ring e.g. Tetracycline [anything that ends in cycline was created from tetracyclinederivative] bind to ribosomal subunits, prevent tRNA from binding shut down translation many derivatives have been created resistance to tetracyclines: use a membrane protein that actively pumps drug out of cell Protists (Ch 29) origin of nucleus & ER infolding of plasma membrane origin of mitochondria & chloroplasts endosymbiosis “living together in close association” bacterium engulfed by primitive eukaryotic cell overtime, became codependent evidence: mitochondria & chloroplasts have own DNA sequences similar to bacteria (biggest piece of evidence) are same size as bacteria December 11, 2015 protists are an extremely diverse group of organisms protist traits cell surfaces vary some have cell walls, some do not cell wall not peptidoglycan move through a variety of mechanisms flagella, cilia (like pilli) pseudopodia (false foot): temporary projection of cell, used for movement (temp limb) filopodia: thin projections diverse nutritional strategies can be autotrophs or heterotrophs (or both) autotroph: get carbon, energy from inorganic sources phototroph: get energy from light heterotroph: get carbon, energy from organic sources phagotrophic: ingest particles by phagocytosis: engulf a solid particle osmotrophic: obtain organic compounds directly through membrane mixotroph: both autotrophic and heterotrophic can reproduce sexually and/or asexually almost all protists are unicellular multicellular protists are primitively multicellular clades of protists Diplomonads 2 nuclei no mitochondria e.g. Giardia lamblia causes Giardiasis (infectious diarrhea) Euglenozoa most have 2 flagella one long and one short associated with mouthlike structure eat bacteria e.g. Trypanosoma brucei causes disease called African sleeping sickness transmitted by tsetse fly protists in blood stream can access entire body in brain, causes various neurological symptoms Dinoflagellates most have flattened vesicles under membrane, pressed to outer surface alveolar sac flattened vesicles for structural support Apicomplexans sporeforming parasites e.g. Plasmodium falciparum causes malaria transmitted by mosquitos complex life cycle, many different forms *requires time in mosquito for completion of life cycle not contagious from infectious humans grows in red blood cells destroys them, releases toxins loss of red blood cells can cause lifethreatening complications transmitted back to mosquitos from infected humans *needs both human and mosquito hosts can be cured (not by antibiotics) special antimalarial drugs no vaccine prevent/eradicate by killing mosquitos Ciliates covered in cilia for locomotion e.g. Paramecium have gullet structure, aids in ingestion of food 2 types of nuclei macronucleus: required micronucleus: required only for sexual reproduction sexual and asexual reproduction Stamenopiles e.g. Brown algae not a plant! alternate between a multicellular haploid (1n) and multicellular diploid (2n) forms play key role as producer in many ecosystems, like kelp forests e.g. Diatoms double shells of silica unique shapes Plasmodial Slime Molds were previously classified as fungi slowly moving/growing multinucleated mass when food/water is low, can produce spores that resist harsh conditions Choanoflagellates collared flagellates form colonies similar to sponges (animals) probable evolutionary link
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