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GEOG 1114

by: Easton Rogers

GEOG 1114 GEOG 1114

Easton Rogers
OK State

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These are the notes over the material that is covered in the first lecture exam.
Physical Geography
Keeley Heise
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This 17 page Bundle was uploaded by Easton Rogers on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Bundle belongs to GEOG 1114 at Oklahoma State University taught by Keeley Heise in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Physical Geography in Science at Oklahoma State University.


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Date Created: 02/24/16
Physical Geography Lecture Notes CHAPTER 1: Introduction to Earth Youngest person to climb Mt. Everest: 13-year old Jordan Romero from California in 2010. He climbed each of the 7 summits by the age of 15.  What do geographers do? o Spatial relationships o Distribution o Locational studies o Interrelationships  All things can be related to geography o Economics o Disease o Renaissance festivals o Etc.  Two types of geography o Physical geography (natural science)  Landforms, rocks & minerals, water, weather & climate, plants, animals, soil o Cultural geography (social science  Population, economic activities, languages, religions, political systems, settlements, food  Life zone o 12.5 mile range from the highest point (Mt. Everest) to the lowest point (Mariana Trench) where life exists that geographers tend to focus  Scientific method o Ask a question o Form hypothesis o Design experiment o Predict if hypothesis will be supported or not o Conduct experiment o Draw conclusion based on observations  Four systems of physical geography o Lithosphere  Solid, inorganic portion of Earth. (soil, rocks, landforms) o Atmosphere  Gaseous envelope of air that surrounds earth (sky, air) o Hydrosphere  Water in all its forms  Cryosphere - Water frozen (snow & ice) o Biosphere o Encompasses all parts of Earth where living organisms can exist  Earth systems – collection of things and processes connected together and operating as a whole; interconnected flows and storage of energy and matter o Closed systems – effectively self-contained; don’t need any outside influences for its processes; independent & rare o Open systems – energy and matter that are exchanged across the system boundary through inputs and outputs o Equilibrium – balanced open system where inputs and outputs are the same over time and the conditions within the system stay the same o Interconnected systems – when one system affects the other  Feedback loops – outputs that feedback into the system, reinforcing change o Positive feedback loops – change within a system continuing in one direction o Negative feedback loops – inhibit a system from changing  Size of the Earth o Not perfectly round (oblate spheroid) o Highest point: Mt. Everest; lowest point: Mariana Trench o Eratosthenes was the first to measure the Earth 2200 years ago, off by only 6%  Great Circle – bisects sphere (cuts into two equal parts); largest circle that can be drawn on a sphere o Great circle arc – shortest distance between two points along the arc of a the great circle o Equator is a great circle o Small circle – lines of latitude, two unequal parts  Latitude – horizontal lines of a global grid o Northern/Southern Hemispheres o Equator is the baseline o 0 to 90 degrees o Parallels o Nautical mile – based on distance between each degree of latitude, slightly longer than a statute mile o Knot – 1nm per hour  Zones of latitude o Low: 0 to 30 o Middle: 40 to 60 o High: above 60 o Tropics: 23.5° N to 23.5° S o Subtropic: 25 to 30 o Polar: within a few degrees of the poles  Important lines of latitude o Arctic Circle: 66.5° N o Tropic of Cancer: 23.5° N o Equator: 0° o Tropic of Capricorn: 23.5° S o Antarctic Circle: 66.5° S  Longitude – vertical lines of the global grid o Eastern/Western Hemisphere o Prime Meridian is the baseline o 0 to 180 degrees o Meridians  Why is the Prime Meridian where it is? o Each country used to have its own o 13 prior to standardization in late 1880’s o US and Canada standardized time in 1883 - 4 zones of contiguous in the US - Federal law in 1918 - 1880: estimated 50 time zones o Global meeting in 1884 to do the same globally o Greenwich chosen because two thirds of shipping was based on Greenwich Meridian already  Locating Points on the Grid o Basic Cartesian grid o Degrees, Minutes, Seconds o Decimal Degrees - Rise of computer work created need for conversion - Hemisphere designation requires positive or negative o Longitude = x-coordinate, Latitude = y-coordinate. (Stillwater = x: 97.1, y : 36.1)  Movement of the Earth o Rotation: counterclockwise (west to east) o Carioles (Ch.3) traveling in a straight line, but it looks like you’re not. o Tides o Diurnal changes between day and night - Tropical year: 365.25 (Leap Year)  Century year is leap year if divisible by 100 and 400 evenly - Elliptical orbit  Perihelion: 91.4 million miles close to the sun (closest)  Aphelion: 94.5 million miles far from the sun (farthest) o Inclination – how much the axis is tilted o Polarity – which direction the axis is pointing  Seasons o Change with revolution of Earth around the sun o Most obvious in mid and high latitudes o Subsolar point tells you where the sun is o Circle of illumination- cuts planet into daylight or night  June Solstice o June 21 (approximately) o Sun directly over tropic of cancer at noon o North of Arctic Circle has 24 hour daylight o South of Antarctic Circle has 24 hours of darkness o Longest daylight in North Hemisphere (summer) and shortest in South Hemisphere (winter)  September Equinox o September 22 (approximately) o Sun directly over equator at noon o 12 hour days and nights globally  December Solstice o December 21 (approximately) o Sun directly over tropic of Capricorn at noon o North of Arctic Circle has 24 hours of darkness o South Hemisphere has 24 hours of daylight o Shortest daylight in North Hemisphere (winter) and longest daylight in South Hemisphere (summer  March Equinox o March 20 (approximately) o Sun directly over equator at noon o 12 hours day and night globally  Seasonal transitions and patterns o Analema: graph showing annual change in latitude of direct rays of sunlight o North pole daylight between March and September and night between September and March o Opposite for South pole o Warming related to both lengths of daylight and solar angles o More direct radiation equals warmer temperatures  Time o 3 natural units of time (Malcom Thompson): - Tropical year (passing of seasons) - Lunar month (passing of phases of the moon) - Day (passage of the sun) o Solar moon – called meridian by the romans and used to make sundials o PM means past meridian o Rising and setting of the sun was important to ancient civilizations  Standard time o No standard time until mid-1880’s o Each zone is 15° wide with a central meridian o United Time Coordinate (Greenwich Mean Time): Prime Meridians basis for standard time o Daylight saving is -6 and -5 when there is no daylight savings o Noon at central meridian is the sun at the high point o Time zones bend to adhere (mostly) to political boundaries  International Date Line o Discovered by Magallanes crew o Approximately 180° Longitude o Not a straight line o Cross west to east: back 1 day (Monday to Sunday) o Cross east to west: forward 1 day (Monday to Tuesday)  Daylight Savings Time o Designed by Germany to conserve energy during world war 1 o US adopted it in 1918 but not universally o Uniform Time Act in 1966 - Some places exempted: Hawaii most of Arizona o Permanent in Russia so double daylight in the summer (2 hours ahead instead of 1 hour) o “Spring forward, fall back” CHAPTER 2: Portraying Earth The oldest known maps are preserved in Babylonian clay tablets from about 2300 BC.  Maps and globes o Globes are the only way to truly portray the world o Map: flat representation of a round world o Most have a purpose or “theme” o All maps have distortion - Most cartographers try to limit size and shape distortion - Amount depends on how much is shown and the scale in which it is shown  Mercator vs. Robinson o Mercator projection - Major size distortion in the higher latitudes (size at 60° is 4x the actual size, 36x at 80°) o Robinson projection - Minimal distortion  Scale o Graphic scale o Verbal scale (i.e. 1in = 1600 mi) o Representative fraction (i.e. 1:24000) - Unitless  Large scale vs. small scale o Large scale has a lot of detail o Small scale has little detail o Relative o The smaller the area the larger the scale  Map essentials o Title o Date o Legend o Scale o Direction o Location o Data source o Projection type o Not all are given on all maps  Isoline o Lines connecting points of equal value o Hundreds of types o Examples: - Contour lines (elevation) - Isotherm (temperature) - Isobar (atmosphere pressure) - Isohyet (precipitation amount) - Isogonic (magnetic declination) o First published isoline map credited to Edmund Halley in 1700  Drawing isolines o How to estimate unknown values o Closed lines (can’t guess where data ends) o Never touch or cross lines o Constant interval o Gradient tells how rapid the change  GPS o Global Positioning System o Developed in the 1970’s and 1980’s by Dept. of Defense o At least 24 satellites in orbit, minimum of 4 needed to get position o Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS): developed to increase accuracy for airlines o Made available to the public in 1983 o Used frequently in science to collect locational data o Not perfect and can have increased errors - Multipath error – takes longer to get signal  Remote sensing o any method of gathering information without actually being at the location  Satellites o Low arbile or geosynchronous o Visible infrared o Thermal infrared o Multispectral o Landsate – developed by NASA  Ariel photography o Photogrammetry – taking measurements from aerial photographs  Geographic Information Systems o Used to display and analyze spatial data CHAPTER 3: Introduction to the Atmosphere On September 9, 200 (and again on Sept. 24 2006) the Ozone Hole reached its largest extent since first being discovered… 11.4 million square miles in size.  Atmosphere o Supplies the oxygen for animals and carbon dioxide for plans o Insulates the surface o Shields planet from UV rays o Very thin (about 6,000 miles thick) in comparison to the planet. - Like a sheet of paper covering the Earth o 50% below 3.8 miles (elevation of Mt. McKinley in Alaska) above surface, 90% below 16 miles  Pressure o “WEIGHT OF THE AIR” - Average seas level pressure: 1012 mb - 3.5 miles asl: pressure drops to 50% slp - Drops exponentially with altitude o Pressure decreases exponentially as it the altitude increases  Composition of Atmosphere o Nitrogen (78.08%) and Oxygen (20.95 %) make up 98% o Argon almost 1% o Other gases less than 1% o Lowest 50 miles called homosphere - Gases layered about this point o Most water vapor within 10 miles of surface o CO2 levels measured on top of a volcano in Hawaii o CO2 first breached 400 ppm on May 9 2013 at its highest levels in at least 800,000 years. o Methane strongest gas, but only stays in the atmosphere for about 12 years  Atmospheric Layers o Troposphere - Varies with time and place - Average depth of 11 miles at the equator, 8 miles at poles - Tropopause o Stratosphere - Temperature inversion - No mixing - Average depth of 19 miles (11-30 miles asl) o Mesosphere - Average depth of 20 miles (30-50) o Thermosphere - Temperature inversion - No set upper boundary, starts ~50 miles asl - Northern Lights and other auroral events  Average Atmospheric Temperatures o Sea level: 59 F o Tropopause: -71 F o Stratopause: 28 F o Mesopause: -84 F o 125 miles asl: 120 F  Ozone Layer o Between 9 and 30 miles asl o Created by oxygen interacting with UV rays o 90% in the stratosphere (this is good) o Helps shield lower atmosphere from UV rays o Warms stratosphere o Thinning, “ozone hole” over Antarctic first observed in 1970’s - Primary cause is human-produced chemicals such as CFCs (accelerate the ozone breaking apart) - Arctic hole discovered since late 1980s  Breakdown of Ozone o Ultraviolet light hits a CFC molecule, breaking off a chlorine atom o The chlorine atom reacts with an ozone molecule, pulling an oxygen atom off it o The chlorine atom and the oxygen atom join to form a chlorine monoxide molecule o A free oxygen atom pulls the oxygen atom off the chlorine monoxide molecule o Once free, the chlorine atom is off to react with another ozone molecule  Ozone “Hole” o size varies seasonally but has gotten larger on average o Antarctic Polar Vortex - Polar regions cool during winter - Winds cut polar air off from rest of latitudes - Polar stratospheric clouds form - Chlorine collects on clouds - Clouds “melt” in spring - Ozone depletion accelerates o Same over the Arctic but less severe  Montreal Protocol o CFCs in aerosols banned in US 1978 o Montreal Protocol in 1978 o 189+ countries ratified o Worldwide CFC ban by 1996 o 2009 study: Montreal Protocol helped protect the ozone layer o (1 lb of CFC destroys 70000 lbs of ozone) Project Info!  DEFINE term o Book definition, or your own words  RELATE to your word o Not a super obvious way, advanced  WHY is it important?  Air Polition o Natural pollution (i.e. forest fires, volcanic eruptions, dust, pollen) o Man-man pollution (i.e. smog, car exhaust, plant fumes) o Reduces visibility and poses health risks o Most common over urban areas and under high pressure (stable air) - Temperature inversion causes pollution - Stable air cant disburse pollutants  Primary pollutants o Released directly into the ir o Carbon monoxide - Most plentiful o Nitrogen compounds - Lightning creates temporary nitrogen pollutants - Redish-brown air o Sulfur compounds - Mostly from natural sources - Volcanic eruptions and geysers - Hyrdrogen + Sulfer makes sulfuric acid (acid rain) o Particulates (aerosols)  Secondary pollutant – forms from a reaction from the primary pollutants (chemical process) o Form as a result of processes in the air o Photochemical smog - Gases react to UV rays - Nitrogen Dioxide and hydrocarbons biggest contributors - Ozone main component  Weather and Climate o Occur in the troposphere o Weather: short-term conditions in a specific area o Climate is your long-term average conditions - Minimum 30-year record to be considered true climate o Elements of weather and climate (things you have to have to get weather and climate patterns) - Temperature - Pressure - Moisture - Wind  Controls of weather and climate o Latitude - Most fundamental o Land/water distribution - Ocean acts as temperature stabilizer o Atmospheric circulation - General wind directions  East to west in tropics, west to east in mid-latitudes o Oceanic circulation/current - Cool on west coast, warm on east coast o Altitude - Temp, pressure, moisture decrease with height o Topography - Mountains and hills divert winds o Storms - Create their own weather patterns - Frequent storms can change climate o Work together to create weather and climate - Rarely work separately  TABLE 3-1  Coriolis effect o First described in 1730s by George Hadley o Explained mathematically in 1830s by Gaspard Coriolis o N. Hemisphere: deflects to the right o S. Hemisphere: deflects to the left o Actually a “force”  Key points about Coriolis effect o Always deflects movement to right In NH and left in SH o Deflection strongest at the pols - Farther from the equator, stronger the deflection o No deflection at equator o Proportional to speed of the object (faster objects deflected more) o Influences direction only, no influence on speed  Consequences of ocean currents o wind patterns o upwelling in subtropical oceans o no influence on draining water, contrary to popular belief o study done in Australia 1992-1993 by Ted McKnight (note your textbook’s name!)  Transmission and the Greenhouse Effect o Transmission - Waves pass all the way through o Greenhouse effect - SW easily transmits, LW does not - CHG: CO2, water vapor, CH, others - “Trap” outgoing radioation - Keeps earth ~54° warmer - Average sea level temperature: 59  Conduction, convection, and advection o Conduction: transfer of heat through touch o Convection: transfer of heat through vertical circulation o Advection: transfer of heat through horizontal circulation (mostly with the wind)  Adiabatic Warming and Cooling o Cooling - Rising air expands o Warming - Sinking air shrinks o Latent heat - Change in state (solid to liquid or gas to solid, etc.)  Solar constant: 1372.  Variations in Isolation o Obstruction - Clouds, particulates, gas molecules - Radiation at surface ½ that at top of atmosphere - More atmosphere = more obstruction o Day length - More daylight means more insolation  Land v. Water o Low evaporation + no transmission + no molbility + low specific heat + - Land heats up faster and to higher temeperature than water o High evaportation + some transmission + high moboloty + high specific heat = Transfer of energy  Atmospheric circulation (chapter 5)  Ocean circulations o Driving by winds on the water surface o Influence of Coriolis gyres o Equatorial countercurrent (5 latitude) Ocean temperature  Warm currents: low latitudes, poleward moving currents (east coast)  Cool current: high latitudes, equatorward moving currents (west coast)  Western intensification o Gulf stream Misc ocean circulations  Arctic ocean  Upwelling: on west coast of continent o Most noticeable off south America  Global conveyor belt (more in chapter 9) o Full ocean current, surface to deeper end. o Key part of energy transfer Lapse rates  Vertical temperature change  Environmental lapse rates o Average of 6.5 C every 1000m (3.6 F every 1000ft) o Adiabatic lapse rates (chapter 6)  Soundings o Graph of temperature against height  Inversions o Increase in temp with height o Works as a lid or a “cap”  Surface inversion o Radiation inversion o Advectional inversion o Cold-air drainage inversion  Upper air inversions (very thick) o Subsidence inversion (happens because of shrinking air) Global temperature patterns  Controls: o Altitude (must be adjusted to sea level to compare) o Latitude (bigger controls, largest driver of temperature variation) o Land-water contrast o Ocean currents  Seasonal patterns o Winter hemisphere is always more tightly packed in the isotherms o Subtropics are the warmest during the summer o Temperature in the tropics doesn’t really change  Temperature range o Very small temperature range in the tropics o Temperature range on land is much larger o High latitudes have highest temperature ranges Climate change and global warming  2015, warmest year  9 of ten warmest years have happened this century Greenhouse gases  Carbon dioxide o ~280 ppm in 1750 o Up 40% o Keeling curve  Methane o Up more than 100% o 25x stronger than CO2  Nitrous oxcide o Up 18% IPCC  Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change  First report 1994  Newest report (AR5) released 2013-2015 o AR4 won the Nobel peace prize  2007: 90% confidence that 1951-2010 warming because of increase CHG levers by human activity  2013% 95% confidence yvp]\ CHAPTER 5: Atmospheric Pressure and Winds Highest pressure ever recorded: 1083.8mb in Agata, Siberia, Russia on December 31, 1968 Lowest pressure ever recorded: 870mb in the eye of Typhoon Tip west of Guam on October 12, 1979 (190 mph winds in this storm as well) Pressure and wind  Very closely tied together  Wind we can feel, pressure we cant  Pressure: force exerted by gas molecules on a surface, equal in all directions Ideal gas law  P=pRT o P=Pressure o p=density o T=temperature o R=gas constant Dynamic influences  Dynamic high: o high pressure that forms at the surface because of descending air  Dynamic low o (low pressure that forms atthe surface air because of rising air)  Thermal high: o forms because of cold temperatures  Thermal high: o forms because of warm temperatures Mapping Pressure  isobar  pressure gradient  measure in millibars  ridge  trough  Need to adjust for altitude Winds  Air is always moving  Horizontal movement only  Vertical movement has other names: o Updraft o Downdraft o Ascent (large scale upward movement) o Subsidence (large scale downward movement) Wind in z non-rotating frictional world  All wind has the same origin (uneven warming of the air)  Always flow from high to low (90 degree angles at all times)  Straight in and straight out The earth rotates and friction exists  Coriolis effect takes effect  Geostrophic winds o Only above friction layer (~3300ft)  Friction counteracts Coriolis a little bit Anticyclones: flow around a high pressure  North hemispheres: clockwise flow  South hemispheres: counterclockwise flow Cyclones: flow around a low pressure  North hemispheres: counterclockwise  South hemispheres: clockwise Vertical movement  Low pressure (ascent and updrafts) o Rising air forms clouds  High pressure (associated with clear skies) o Sinking air Wind speed  Proportional to pressure gradient  Average wind speed in N America is 6-12 kts  Windiest place: Cape Dennison, Antarctica with average speed of 38 kts Wind power  Electricity from wind since 1888  Fastest growing source of electrical power globally  Usually found on high ground away from trees  Positives: free, zero carbon footprint, economically competitive in windy places, power to rural areas  Negatives: possible hazard to birds and other fliers (but very minimal), aesthetic appeal;, wind inconsistent Headley cells  0 to 30 N or S  Air rises at the equator, sinks at 30 N or 30 S  Vertical convective cell  First described by George Hadley (1735) ITCZ  Convergence of trade winds  Shifts with the sun  Thermal low  High rainfall  Thunderstorms common Trade Winds  Between 25 S and 25 N  Dominate system  Easterly except Indian ocean  High moisture holding capability Subtropical Highs (Horse Latitudes)  Semi-permanent  Centered at 30 N and 30 S  Shift poleward in summer, equatorward in winter  Weather: clear, warm, no winds Westerlies  30 to 60 N or S  Less persistent  Interrupted by friction, topography, pressure systems  Jet Streams aloft predominantly from the westerly Polar components  Polar high  Easterlies  Polar front Monsoons  Seasonal reversal of winds  Causes: o Thermal low forming over land in the summer o Thermal high forming in the land in the winter o ITCZ o Himalayas  Why are they important? o Agriculture o ½ of world’s population lives in a monsoon region South Asian Monsoon  Summer monsoon, dominant phase for India Land and Sea Breezes  Convectional circulation  Day: low over land, high over water  Night: low over water, high over land Valley and Mountain Breezes  Conduction, re-radiation  Day: lower pressure on mountain slopes, higher in valley  Night: higher on mountain slopes, lower in valley Katabatic Winds  “Descending”  Originate in cold upland areas  Dense and cold  Common in Greenland and Antarctica Foehn and Chinook Winds  Foehn in the Alps, Chinook in the Rockies  Low on leeward side, high on windward side  “Snow-eater” winds Santa Ana Winds  Surface high pressure forms as cold air moves into the Great Basin  Air circulates clockwise around the high pressure center and into Southern California  The cool air in the high desert is forced up over the mountains by the northeast flow  Air compresses and heats up as it flows down the mountain slopes and into the valleys and coastal areas. El Nino  Abnormally warm waters of west coast of S America  Every 3-7 years  Strongest ones come every 15-20 years  Major events: 1982-83, 1997-98  FOR REVIEW: ask about damages el nino caused  Causes unclear and effects unpredictable Building an El Nino Event  Warm water builds up  Eventually the warm water shifts east  Kelvin wave  Subtropical high weekends, trade winds slow down, and sometimes reverse. Also causes and increase in sea level  Pressure over Indonesia goes up  Strong El Nino event can stop the monsoon in India


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