Psych 2 exam study guides
Psych 2 exam study guides Psych 002
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This 12 page Bundle was uploaded by Yasmine Gohar on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Psych 002 at University of California Riverside taught by Tom Sy in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Psychology 002 in Psychlogy at University of California Riverside.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory Attitudes NeoFreudian Psychoanalysts Persuasion Trait Theory Routes to Persuasion The Big Five Cognitive dissonance Learning approaches Attribution Processes and biases Social Cognitive Approaches Conformity Selfefficacy Groupthink Biological and Evolutionary Prejudice and Discrimination approaches Compliance techniques Humanistic approaches Obedience Methods for assessing personality Prosocial behavior Defense mechanisms Liking and Love Aggression Chapter 14 Prosocial behavior Types of stressors General Adaptation Syndrome Coping with stress Nature of stressors Consequences of stress Learned helplessness Effective coping strategy Primary and secondary appraisals Following medical advice Wellbeing and happiness Psych 2 Exam 2 Study Guide Study Guide Terms Chapter 15 Psychological Disorders 1. Abnormality 2. DSM 3. Schizophrenia 4. Anxiety Disorders 5. Mood Disorders 6. Somatoform Disorders 7. Personality Disorders 8. Childhood Disorders 9. Perspectives in Psychological Disorders 10. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Chapter 16 Treatment of Psychological Disorders 1. Psychodynamic Approaches to Therapy 2. Behavioral Approaches to Therapy 3. Cognitive Approaches to Therapy 4. Humanistic Approach to Therapy 5. Group Therapy, Family Therapy, and SelfHelp Groups 6. Biomedical Therapy: Biological Approaches to Treatment 7. Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) 8. Psychosurgery 9. Community Psychology 10. Choosing a Therapist Chapter 13 Industrial Organizational Psychology 1. Origins of I/O Psychology 2. Leadership 3. Performance Appraisal 4. Implicit Followership Theories 5. Meaning of Work 6. Management Styles 7. Employee Commitment 8. Transformational Leadership 9. Job Satisfaction 10. Ergonomics 11. Organizational Culture 12. WorkFamily Balance Personality o Personality Long-standing traits and patterns that propel individuals to consistently think, feel and behave in specific ways The pattern of enduring characteristics that differentiate people—those behaviors that make each of us unique Psychoanalytic approaches o Psychoanalytic theory Frued’s theory that our behavior is triggered by forces within personality of which we are not aware o Unconscious Part of the personality that contains memories, knowledge, beliefs, feelings, urges, drives, and instincts of which one is not aware Motivates much of our behavior Structuring personality o Id Raw, unorganized, inborn part of the personality Holds primitive drives Pleasure principle Immediate reduction of tension and the maximization of satisfaction o Ego Strives to balance the desires of the id and the realities of the objective, outside world Reality principle o Instinctual energy is restrained in order to maintain the safety of the individual and help integrate the person into society o Superego Represents the rights and wrongs of society as taught and molded by a person’s parents, teachers, and other significant individuals Includes “conscience” Prevents us from behaving in a morally improper way Ego-ideal Represents the “perfect person we wish we were Evaluating Frued’s legacy o Well accepted concepts: Unconscious Defense mechanism: unconscious strategies that people use to reduce anxiety by concealing the source from themselves and others Ex. Repression Childhood roots of adult psychological difficulties o Criticisms Lack of compelling scientific data Conceptions of personality built on unobservable abstract concepts View women as inferior Neo-Freudian Psychoanalyst (branched off of Freud) o Jung’s collective unconscious [humanity has a collective unconscious, experience that happened to one happened to others on an unconscious level] A set of influences we inherit from our own relatives, the whole human race, and even nonhuman animal ancestors from the distant past o Adler’s inferiority complex 2 Situations in which adults have not been able to overcome the feelings of inferiority that they developed as children Trait theory o Seeks to explain, in a straightforward way, the consistencies in individuals’ behavior Traits Consistent personality characteristics and behaviors displayed in different situations Allport’s Trait theory o Cardinal trait A single characteristic that directs most of a persons activities o Central trait The major characteristic of an individual o Secondary trait Characteristics that affect behavior in fewer situations and are less influential than central or cardinal traits Trait approaches o Cattell Factor analysis: a method of summarizing the relationships among a large number of variables into fewer, more general patterns Factors: combinations of traits Source traits Represent the basic dimensions of personality o Hans Eysenck: Extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism o The Big Five Personality Factors and Dimensions of Sample Traits (OCEAN) [Continuum—can be both sides 1,2,3,4,5] (factor analysis) Openness to experience 3 Independent—conforming Imaginative—practical Preference for variety—preference for routine o Tend to be higher in spirituality and virtues, substance abuse, less sha5saya o Investigative and artistic, liberalism Conscientiousness Careful—careless Disciplined—impulsive Organized—disorganized o High religious beliefs, live longer, less risky behavior, no substance abuse issues, high achievement, high ethnic culture identification o Higher fam satisfaction, higher romantic relation satisfaction o Performance success, more conservative political views, don’t commit as many crimes, not antisocial Extraversion Talkative—quiet Fun-loving—sober Sociable—retiring o Higher subjective well being, existential well being, long living, better coping at resilience, tend to not be depressed, tend to identify with majority culture when a minority, higher levels of friendship, more attractive, better status, show romantic relationship satisfaction o Volunteering, leadership 4 Agreeableness Sympathetic—fault-finding Kind—cold Appreciative—unfriendly o High levels of forgiveness, less heart disease, less personality disorders, minorities tend to identify with their ethnic culture, peer acceptance o Better job attainment, intrinsically motivated, high levels of leadership Neuroticism (not emotionally stable) Stable—tense Calm—anxious Secure—insecure o Lower subjective wellbeing, less existential well being, bad coping, higher anxiety and depression, low identity, bad humor, less fam satisfaction, less status as a male, more dissatisfaction abuse in relationships o Less job satisfaction, commitment, success, high antisocial criminal behavior Learning Approaches: we are what we’ve learned o B.F. Skinner’s behaviorist approach States that personality is a collection of learned behavior patterns [nurture] Skinner box: rewards and punishment Social Cognitive Approaches o Social cognitive approaches Emphasizes the influence of a person’s cognitions—thoughts, feelings, expectations, and values—in determining personality o Self-efficacy –Albert bandura 5 Belief in one’s personal capabilities o Self-esteem Component of personality that encompasses our positive and negative evaluations Biological and evolutionary Approaches o Important components of personality are inherited Humanistic Approaches o Emphasize people’s basic goodness and their tendency to grow to higher levels of functioning o Unconditional positive regard An attitude of acceptance and respect on the part of an observer, no matter what a person says or does o Self-actualization A state of self-fulfillment in which people realize their highest potential Assessing Personality o Psychological tests Standard measures devised to assess behavior objectively 6 o self-report measures o MMPI-2 A test used to differentiate people with specific sorts of psychological difficulties as well as predicting a variety of other behaviors Behavioral Assessment o Direct measures of an individual’s behavior used to describe characteristics indicative of personality Projective Methods o Projective personality test A test in which a person is shown an ambiguous stimulus and asked to describe it or tell a story about it o Rorschach test o TAT (Thematic Apperception Test) Discussion 1. F +1 19. F 2. T 20. F +1 3. F +1 21. F +1 4. F +1 22. T 5. T +1 23. T 6. F 24. T +1 7. T +1 25. T +1 8. T +1 26. ___________+ 9. F +1 27. 15 10. T +1 28. Self monitoring- 11. F controlling how you act 12. T in situations 13. F 29. The situation 14. F +1 15. T +1 dictates your behavior 30. *carefully survey 16. F every survey, look for 17. T clues, then adjust their 18. T +1 behavior accordingly 31. 7 32. Stress, Lifestyle, and Health Health Psychology o Investigates the psychological factors related to wellness and illness, including the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of medical problems Subbranch of psych where the mind and body are ‘married’ Stress o Process of perceiving and responding to the events that threaten or challenge a persons wellbeing Stimulus-based definition: characterize stress as a stimulus that causes certain reactions (looking at the stressors) Response-based: describe stress as a response to environmental conditions (how people respond to the eternal stimuli (stress)) Primary and Secondary Appraisal o When encountering a stressor, a person judges its potential threat (primary appraisal) and then determines if effective options are available to manage the situation. o Stress is likely to result if a stressor is perceived as extremely threatening or threatening with few or no effective coping options available 8 The General Adaptation Syndrome o General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) A theory that suggests that a person’s response to a stressor consists of the following three stages Alarm and mobilization stage o Become aware of the presence of a stressor Ex. An upcoming test Resistance stage o Adaptation to fight the stressor Ex. Study or watch tv and ignore Exhaustion stage o Negative consequences of the stress appear Ex. PTSD from soldiers that have been under stressful conditions for long periods of time Categorizing Stressors o Chronic (continuous) vs. Acute (mish continuous) o Traumatic Events 9 Events or situations in which a person is exposed to actual or threatened death or serious injury (earthquakes) o Life Changes Events or situations that require us to make changes in our ongoing lives and require time as we adjust to those changes (require adaptation) [marriage/divorce] o Background stressors (daily hassles) Minor irritations of life that we all face time and time again (waiting, traffic) o Uplifts Minor positive events that make one feel good (smiling at a stranger, random compliments) o Job strain Work situation in which a person experiences excessive job demands and workload with little discretion or control (too much stress and lack of control) Job Burnout A condition where a person experiences emotional exhaustion and cynicism about one’s job (exhausted, detached, diminished) o 3:1 ratio pos:neg interactions Discussion 10
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