JOUR 312 Chapters 2-5 Notes
JOUR 312 Chapters 2-5 Notes Jour 312
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This 11 page Bundle was uploaded by Marisa Brazelton on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Jour 312 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Danny H. Eller in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Public Relations in Journalism and Mass Communications at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
Managers vs. Technicians • Public relations Managers Advisers, problem-solvers, and accountable for success or failure Found in organization with rapidly changing environments • Public Relations Technicians Prepare communications for plans created by others Found in stable, predictable environments • Some jobs contain elements of both Public Relations Duties • Several studies have come up with similar ﬁndings: Media relations Writing and editing Website and social media Marketing communications • In agencies and consultancies my practitioners keep detailed records of how they spend their time for billing purposes Where the Jobs Are • Corporations • Nonproﬁt organizations and trader or professional associations • Governments • Agencies • Independent consultancies Corporations • The greatest number and variety of public relations jobs • Corporate jobs often focus on speciﬁc publics These publics include employees, the media, government oﬃcials, the community, other business and investors • Boundary-spanning role + good pay, resources at your disposal - bureaucratic • Public-speciﬁc job areas include: Employee relations Media relations Government relations Community relations Business-to-business relations ‣ Dealing with business of buying or supplying your products Consumer relations Investor relations And more... Nonproﬁt & Trade Associations • Duties often similar to those in corporate public relations • Some speciﬁc duties not found in corporate public relations: Donor relations instead of investor relations Member relations Governments • Government public relations jobs exist at local, state, and federal levels • Key publics: voters, the media, employees, and special interest groups • "Public relations" term rarely used in government • "Public Information Oﬃcer" • *10 points extra credit for PIO certiﬁcation* (by end of the quarter) Public Relations Agencies • Agencies assist with the public relations activities of other organizations • Practitioners are often assigned to accounts • Size ranges from small, local agencies to huge international agencies Independent Consultancies • One-person operations • Consultants are sometimes specialists, sometimes generalists • The consultant alone bears the burden of success or failure Why History is Important • Both history and public relations are values-driven • Both are open to the interpretation of observers • Understanding the past can help us tackle the challenges of the future Pre-Modern Public Relations • Primitive agricultural extension activities (circa 1,800 B.C.) • Athens (circa 450 B.C.) Greek democracy • Vox populi (circa 100 B.C.) • Congregatio de Propagande Fide (circa 1600s) Modern Public Relations (these lead to the growth of public relations) • Growth of institutions • The expansion of democracy • Improvements in communication • The growth of advocacy Ex. Civil rights movements, immigration reform • The search for consensus Pre-20th Century America • The Boston Tea Party • Common Sense Rhetoric was for the common people, to reach out to everyone at once • The Federalist Papers • The First Amendment of the United States constitution The 1800s • A greater focus on public option • Amos Kendall, ﬁrst presidential press secretary Started war bonds • P.T. Barnum, father of press agentry • Jay Cooke, Civil War fund raiser The Seedbed Years • Mutual Life Insurance Company - 1888 • Westinghouse - 1889 • The Publicity Bureau - 1900 Considered the ﬁrst public relations company to help companies with angry employees (mediate relations between angry unions and defensive companies) • William Wolf Smith - 1902 • Parker and Lee - 1904 First steps towards lobbying Why Early Agencies Failed • They were doing something new • They lacked credibility Not trustworthy, sneaky, in it for the money • They faced stiﬀ resistance from newspaper publishers • They challenged Theodore Rooselvelt and lost Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919) • TR transformed relations among government, big businessman and voters • He used the White House as a "Bully Pulpit" Even opened the White House to the press • He was the father of the presidential news conference Ivy Ledbetter Lee (1877-1934) • Lee's "Declaration of Principles" (190) laid PR's ethical foundation Actuary, authenticity, openness, interest • Called "Poison Ivy" because his actions did not match his words • Work for German Dye Trust ruined his reputation War and Propaganda • A growing interest in media inﬂuence • Committee for Public Information (Creole committee) is the U.S. Answer to the Kaiser's propaganda To rally support for the war, passed out pamphlets • The "Four-Minute Men" go into action Edward L. Bernays (1891-1995) • Sigmund Freud's nephew • Coined the phrase "public relations counsel" • Self-proclaimed "father of public relations" • He and wife Doris Fleischman were the profession's ﬁrst "power couple" His wife was essential to the ﬂapper movement (establishing women's independence) • First to rebrand the tobacco industry Start a cultural movement that women should be able to smoke in public (from feminist perspective) • Helped Woodrow Wilson establish the League of Nations Helped U.S. Government impress European powers Why Bernays and Not Lee? • Both men deserve recognition • Neither man was a saint • Lee worked for the Nazis. Bernays did not. • Lee died before he could answer his critics. Bernays outlived his. The Post-War Boom • The Oﬃce of War Information becomes a training ground for new practitioners • The growth of public relations education • Public Relations Society of America, 1947 • International Association of Business Communicators, 1970 Post-War Social Activism • The New Industrial Age • The Age of Political Activism • "Railroad-Truckers Brawl" gives public relations legal standing • Advocates turn the tables on business and adopt public relations tactics The Information Age • The aging U.S. infrastructure and new computer technology lead to a restructuring of the workplace • In-house public relations departments downsized/eliminated, creating opportunities for agencies and consultants • Public relations takes a higher proﬁle The New Millennium • Public relations seen as a force for brining people together after the 9/11 terror a tracks • Subsequent disillusionment, scandals, and recession have many questioning the profession's values • The profession faces many of the same challenges today as it did at its birth • Have we learned the lessons of history? What Is a Public? • Public: Any group whose members have a common interest or value in a particular situation • Stakeholder: A person, or public, that has a stake (an interest) in an organization or in an issue that involves the organization The Value of Relationships • Everyone is resource dependent, needing resources others have • Relationships are consistent with values-driven public relations • They are also consistent with the two-way symmetrical model of public relations The Publics in Public Relations • Traditional and nontraditional • Latent, aware, and active • Intervening • Primary and secondary • Internal and external • Domestic and international Traditional and Nontraditional • Traditional Groups with which an organization has had ongoing, long-term relationships • Nontraditional Groups with which an organization is generally unfamiliar but which may evolve into traditional publics Latent, aware, and active • Latent - Publics whose values come into contact with those of an organization, but are unaware of the relationship • Aware - They recognize that their values intersect with those of an organization, but have not responded • Active - They recognize the intersection of values and respond to the situation Intervening • Publics to whom an organization communicates in the expectation that the message will be passed along to other publics • The news media are often targeted as intervening publics in an attempt to reach their audiences Primary and Secondary • Primary - publics that can directly aﬀect an organization's ability to achieve its goals Media is the best example (can directly aﬀect what we're doing-social media, legacy media) • Secondary - While still important, they have minimal capacity to aﬀect an organization's ability to achieve its goals *Traditional, active, primary publics* Internal and External • Internal - publics located inside of an organization Employees, Cal Poly students • External - publics located outside of an organization • The lines are often blurred, making it wise to treat some external publics are if they are internal Domestic and International • Domestic - Publics within an organization's own country • International - Publics beyond the borders of the organization's host nation What Do We Need to Know About Each Public? • How much can the public inﬂuence our organization's ability to achieve our goals? • What is the public's stake, or value, in its relationship with our organization? • Who are the opinion leaders and decision makers for the public? • What is the demographic proﬁle of the public? • What is the psychographic proﬁle of the public? • What is the public's opinion of the organization? • What is the public's opinion (if any) of the issue in question? Co-orientation • Discovering agreements and disagreements with key publics What is our view of this issue? What is the particular public's view of this issue? What do we think the public's view is? Do we agree with this reality? What does the public think our view is? Do we agree with this reality? Employees • Overall job satisfaction is high • Recession has led to job insecurity • Budget cuts threaten job security • Employees want better supervisors Persuasion • In a public relations context, an attempt to inﬂuence a person's action through an appeal to his or her self-interest • Successful persuasion attempts to generate some type of cognitive, aﬀective, or behavioral modiﬁcation in the target • People who want to sway options use a variety of persuasion appeals, and not all of them are honest Ex. Nicotine and smoking, vaporized systems (not in your own self-interest) The Persuaders • Usage of words (rhetoric) can inﬂuence marketing • Marketers use extensive research/database for information about public Persuasive Appeals 1. Source: The originator of a message: the person or group or organization sending out the message/information 2. Message: The content of a communication that a sender attempts to deliver to a targeted receiver 3. Channel: The medium used to transmit a message: this is the means by which the message is sent. This can be: A. Oral - spoken B. Via electronic means - e-mail, website, & social media C. Telephone D. Paper based - letter, memo, poster, etc. E. Image/visual: Instagram F. Video - YouTube G. Sound H. Silent Communication - smell, touch, body language, color, how letters or numbers are presented 4. Receiver: The person or persons for whom a message is intended 5. Feedback: The receiver's reaction to a message: The source will not know whether the communication that they have sent has been successful unless they receive some feedback in the form of some action or changed behavior 6. Noise: Distractions that envelop communication and often inhibit it, can be both physical and intangible, and sometimes referred to as static Noise: Barriers to Communications Problems: 1. Communication is not as simple as this model would suggest 2. There are lots of diﬀerent types of medium to send a message in and the way that the receiver perceives the message might be very diﬀerent to that which the sender intended 3. Have you ever received a text message from a friend that you thought meant something diﬀerent to what your friend intended? 4. When messages are sent, the source has to understand what they are trying to say 5. This might be interpreted diﬀerently by the receiver 6. Messages are said to experience "noise" along the way - the more noise there is, the less likelihood there is of the message being received properly. 7. This represents a barrier to communication. Mass Communication Theories • The Magic Bullet Theory: Earliest of the mass communication theories: Belief that mass media wield great power, that just the right message, "the magic bullet," inﬂuence people to almost anything. MASS MEDIA ---> PUBLIC • Two-Step Theory First theory to recognize the role of intervening publics. Belief that mass media inﬂuence society's key opinion leaders who, in turn, inﬂuence the rest of society MASS MEDIA ---> OPINION LEADERS ---> PUBLIC • The N-Step Theory Recognized that diﬀerent people may be more credible in diﬀerent contexts and that opinion leaders may change from issue to issue • The Diﬀusion Theory Belief that the power of mass media is not so much as to motivate people as it is to inform them. People tend to inﬂuence other within their own peer groups. How Diﬀusion Theory Works: • People adopt an idea only after going through 5 stages: 1. Awareness: the individual has been exposed to the idea 2. Interest: the idea has to arouse the individual. 3. Evaluation: the individual must consider the idea as potentially useful. 4. Trial: the individual tries out the idea on others 5. Adoption: ﬁnal acceptance of the idea after having successfully passing through the four earlier stages. The Agenda-Setting Hypothesis: Most signiﬁcant and widely accepted view of how mass media interacts with society. Belief that mass media tells people not what to think, but what to think about. *Implications for PR practitioners -- Who tells the media what to think about?? ‣ ---> MASS MEDIA ---> PUBLIC Public relations practitioners attempt to inﬂuence the media agenda by proving news items for public consumption Uses and Gratiﬁcation Theory: Challenges the concept of the passive receiver. With the explosion in communications technology, the real power to pick and choose their sources of information rests with receivers. *Implication - Receiver serves a critical gate keeping role. Asserts that people are active users of media and select how they use it. Researchers have found that people use media in the following ways: ‣ As entertainment ‣ To scan the environment for items important to them personally ‣ As a diversion ‣ As a substitute for personal relationships ‣ As a check on personal identity and values Uses and Gratiﬁcation Theory: Implications for PR Practitioner: For public relations practitioners this means that not everyone will see or hear the bad news about a company or product. It also means you can’t count on people seeing or hearing the good news. Just because a message is available in some medium does not mean that people attend to it and remember it. Summary: • Mass communication theory appears to have undergone a complete reversal. It has evolved from a belief that people are powerless to resist the mass media to one that is an acknowledgement of the public’s supremacy over them. This suggests that persuasion, like communication, is a two- way process. Spinning/Framing: • Communicating an idea in such a way that the audience is inﬂuenced, either intentionally or unintentionally, by the way it is expressed. When done in an ethical manner, framing a message is a normal and accepted activity.
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