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NTR 241

by: Natalie Willins
Natalie Willins

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These notes cover what was on our first exam
Human Nutrition
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This 3 page Bundle was uploaded by Natalie Willins on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Bundle belongs to NTR 241 at Arizona State University taught by Miller in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Human Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Arizona State University.

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Date Created: 02/25/16
NTR 241 notes 1/27/16  Clicker question: Which structure receives signals indicating we are feeling hungry or satiated? o Hypothalamus  Clicker question: What system or organ controls all of the interrelated processes involved in digestion and absorption? o Neuromuscular system  Why do we want to eat? o Hunger: physiological drive for food  Nonspecific: can be satisfied by a variety of different foods o Appetite: psychological desire to consume specific foods  Aroused by environmental cues o Anorexia: physiological need for food yet no appetite  Eating isn’t all about the stomach o Hypothalamus: triggers feelings of hunger or satiation (fullness)  Integrates signals from nerve cells in other body regions and from chemical messengers  Special cells lining the stomach and small intestine send signals to the brain to indicate if they are full or empty  Senses rise/fall in blood glucose o Hormones: secreted into the bloodstream by endocrine glands to help regulate body functions  Ex: insulin and glucagon  Amount and type of food does matter o Foods have differing effects on our feelings of hunger  Proteins have highest satiety value  High-fat diets have a higher satiety value than high- carbohydrate diets (they take longer to absorb)  Bulky meals distend the stomach and promote a sense of satiety  Solid foods are more filling than semisolid foods or liquids  Food can stimulate all 5 of our senses; know examples for o Sight: marketing works!  We eat with our eyes first o Smell: contributes to our sense of taste o Taste: can be protective (ex: hot sauce, sour milk) o Texture (mouth and fee) stimulates nerve endings in mouth (texture can tell you if certain foods are ripe or not <green banana vs yellow banananas o Hearing: “crunch” or “fizz”: h  Food habits can be learned/moddeld o Social and cultural cues o Learned experiences o Tradition o Parent other examples  What happens to the food we eat? o 3 processes:  Digestion: large food molecules are broken down into smaller molecules, mechanically and chemically  Absorption: process of taking these produces through the intestinal wall  Elimination: undigested portions of food and waste products are _______ from the area  Digestion begins in the mouth o Cephalic phase: earliest phase of digestion  First thought of food- stimulates release of digestive juices o Mechanical breakdown- happens when chewing moistens food and breaking it into smaller pieces o Chemical breakdown: started by digestive juices in the mouth. Including saliva  Taste receptors on taste buds detect distinct tastes  Olfactory receptors in nasal cavity detect aromas of food  Components of saliva o Salivary amylase: digestive enzyme fouj in a saliva  Begins digestion of carbohydrates  Destroyed by stomach’s acidic environment o Bicarbonate: helps neutralize food o Mucus: moistens the food and oral cavity for easy travel down esophagus o Antibodies and lysozymes fight oral bacteria  From mouth to stomach Food allergy  Clicker question: an inflammatory reaction to food caused by an immune system hypersensitivity is called a o Answer: food allergy  Clicker question: due to the fact that some people clearly experience reactions to certain foods, the FDA requires all food labels to clearly identify what o Answer: foods that contain the 8 most common allergens  Clicker question: anaphylactic shock, the widespread inflammation that occurs when an individual has an allergic reaction, can be treated with o Answer: epinephrine, a powerful stimulant  Clicker question: food allergies _______ (a: cause an estimated 150 deaths annually in the US; b: can be life threatening; c: result in over 30,000 visits to the emergency room each year; d: all of the above) o Answer: all of the above


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