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Bisc 132 Exam 3 Lecture Notes

by: randomchic12

Bisc 132 Exam 3 Lecture Notes BISC 132

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Notes covering what will be on exam 3. This includes: -Additional Plant Topics (continued)(CH 38-40) -Animal Diversity (CH 33) -Invertebrates (CH 33-35) -Vertebrates (CH 35) Also includes some...
The Diversity of Life
Dr. Kyle Kemege
Biology, animal diveristy, plants, invertebrates, Vertebrates
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Date Created: 02/25/16
1 Bisc 132 Exam 3 Lecture Notes Additional Plant Topics (Ch 38­40) (Cont.) January 13, 2016 ­Symbiotic Relationships that involve plants ­Acacia Tree & Acacia Ants ­mutualistic ­tree provides shelter and food ­ants defend the tree against herbivores and other plants ­many species of plants and wasps ­mutualistic ­when a caterpillar eats a leaf it releases chemicals in to the air. The wasp reacts  to the chemicals by killing the caterpillar and laying larvae inside it. The action  against the caterpillar inadvertently protects the plant 2 ­Ethylene C 2 4 ­gas produced by many plants ­plant hormone for ripening ­rapid ripening can to spoilage of fruits meant for consumption ­genetic engineering:direct manipulation of an organism’s genome through biotechnology ­creates transgenic organisms ­scientists introduced an antisense copy of the ethylene gene. This gene is  transcribed to antisense RNA. This binds to the regular gene and bocks  translation, blocking production ­allows us to pick unripe fruit, distribute them, then ripen them for sale 3 Animal Diversity (Ch 33) ­animal traits ­heterotrophs­ all nutrients from eating ­multicellular ­no cell walls ­active movement ­sexual reproduction ­complex embryonic development ­tissues ­body symmetry ­radial symmetry­ any plane through the middle creates symmetrical halves (ex: see  anemone)  ­bilateral symmetry­ only one plane will make symmetrical halves (ex: humans) ­anterior­ head ­posterior­ tail/rear ­dorsal­ back/top ­ventral­ front/bottom 4 ­body cavity ­most animals are tubes ­hollow in the middle two open ends ­3 layers of cells ­ectoderm: skin ­mesoderm: skeleton, muscles ­endoderm: lining of the digestive tract ­3 body plans ­acoelomate: no coelom ­pseudocoelomate: cavity between mesoderm & endoderm       ­coelomate: has coelom: body cavity within the mesoderm  ­body cavity is space for stuff like organs 5 ­initial cell development is a sphere of cells. An indentation forms that will become the digestive  tract or “tube”. Whether that indentation becomes the mouth or anus is a determining  characteristic. ­deuterostomes­ becomes anus ­protostomes­ becomes mouth               ­colonial flagellate hypothesis ­proposed explanation for the evolution of animals from protists ­some protists from colonies (not ? multicellularity) randomly based off of availability of  fellow cells ­hypothesis: these colonial protists evolved a genetic program to multicellularity ­formation of specialized reproductive cells ­evidence: ­many sponges resemble primitive protist colonies ­DNA sequency shows that the sponges are close to the colonial protists 6 Invertebrates (Ch 33­35) ­parazoa: animals without specialized tissues ­ex: porifera (sponges) ­mostly marine ­lack symmetry ­sac bodyshape ­water enters via pores and exits through a mouth­like opening called an  osculum ­body strengthened by secreted proteins and minerals ­specialized cells ­ex: choanocytes: flagella on the inside of the sponge that propel water  through it and capture food particles at the same time ­no nervous system ­pores can close in response to stimuli ­can do asexual reproduction. Do do regular sexual reproduction ­eumetazoa: animals with specialized tissue ­will include all further groups we talk about January 15, 2016 ­cnidarians (C is silent) ­radial body symmetry; sac body ­no complex organs 7 ­no brain but have a lattice work of nerve cells to transmit sensory info ­many are carnivores ­use nematocysts to capture their prey (some release a paralyzing venom) ­there are two body plans/forms ­polyp: cylindrical; not motile (anchored) (ex: corals) ­medusa: umbrella­shaped; motile (mobile) (ex: jellyfish) ­both forms have a hydrostatic skeleton ­a skeleton made up of pressurized fluid in the body that provides  rigidity ­some polyps make a rigid exoskeleton because they don’t need to move  (coral) 8 ­ex: corals ­polyps that produce mineral exoskeletons ­dead corals provide the structural foundation for living corals. The reef  grows. ­grow very slowly (N ½ /yr) ­coral reefs ­exist where nutrients in the water are scarce ­survive by symbiosis with a photosynthetic protist that is housed  within the coral ­mutualist, obligate ­protist provides sugars, coral provides protection ­harbor great diversity of life ­very sensitive to changes like water temp pH ­global temp rising has led to the loss of coral reefs ­ex: jellyfish ­some species are dangerous to humans ­some are bioluminescent ­produce Green Flourescent Protein (GFP) ­this protein can be attached to other proteins and can be  put into other animals. Scientists have been able to make  many other species glow ­used to track protein location/expression ­bilaterian flatworms ­bilateral symmetry ­tube body plan ­acoelomate ­complex systems of cells 9 ­nervous system ­no brain, but centralized ganglion of nerve cells ­very simple eye spots that distinguish light and dark ­digestive system ­spansentive length, spreads nutrients so there is no need for a  circuatory system ­reproductive system ­hermaphroditic (has both male & female sex organs) ­many are free living (not parasitic) ­parasitic flatworms ­e.g. schistosomes ­cause schistosomiasis ­chronic illness that’s especially bad for children ­causes damage to internal organs ­e.g. tapeworms ­from improperly cooked meats ­attach to intestines then absorb nutrients ­Phylum mollusca­ mollusks ­aquatic. Mostly marine ­some terresterial such as snails, slugs ­common body features: ­mantle: thick (layer of skin) epidermal sheet that covers body and can  create a hard shell ­foot: usually used for locomotion ­most have an open circulatory system: ­no blood, no blood vessels 10 ­hemolymph fills coelomic cavity ­heart pumps hemolymph around cavity ­ex: chitons ­marine ­covered by hard plates (mantle) ­radula: rasping tongue used for feeding (mostly herbivores) ­ex: gastropods ­snails & slugs ­can be torrostrized (?) ­torsion: during development the digestive system twists and the anus  becomes anterior instead of posterior ­ex: bivalves ­clams, oysters, muscles, scallaps, etc ­aquatic ­burrow into the sand/(?) using their foot ­filter rexders (?) 11 ­ex: cephalopods  ­octopi, squids, nautiluses ­most are marine predators ­some have shell (nautiluses) ­modified foot is several tentacles ­can have hooks, suction cups, or neither ­not moved for locomotion but rather by expelling water through  the tentacles from the mantle cavity ­ex: vampire squid ­spined tentacles ­feeds on detritus (waste/debris of any kind) ­low O 2environment ­uses bioluminescence to evade predators January 20, 2016 ­Phylum Annelida ­Annelid worms 12 ­aquatic or terrestrial ­aka segmented worms ­each segment has own muscle, ganglion (nerve), reproductive organs ­can regenerate ­coelom forms a hydrostatic skeleton ­closed circulatory system ­have blood, blood vessels ­Class Clitellata ­earthworms, leeches ­clitellum: part of reproductive system ­harbors deposited sperm & eggs; serves as cocoon for young worms ­hermaphroditic (mate to cross­fertilize) ­leeches saliva has anesthetic & anti­coagulant properties ­nematodes­ roundworms ­pseudocoelomates ­tubular digestive system ­mouth & anus ­diverse: some parasitic & some free­living ­e.g. Caenorhabditis elegans (free­living) ­model organism: organism used to study processes that occur in humans  but these organisms are simpler & easier to work with ­every cell accounted for ­sequenced genome ­easy to grow ­robust system for genetic exchange ­forward genetics: mutate worms randomly, look for a specific phenotype; then identify  gene that was mutated 13 ­reverse genetics: disrupt a gene & observe phenotype ­e.g. Trichinella worms (parasitic) ­cause trichinosis ­found in pork & wild game ­proper cooking kills worms & eggs ­larvae hatch in stomach ­burrow to intestines, get nutrients ­migrate to muscle, heart, brain ­Phylum Arthropoda­ arthropods ­distinctive features ­segmented body (functional units instead of repeated units) ­head, thorax, abdomen ­or cephalothorax & abdomen ­anterior  posterior ­exoskeleton ­made of chitin & protein ­hard, protective outer shell ­downside: must molt to grow ­vulnerable during & after molt ­jointed appendages ­better control of movement ­modified to form: legs, antannae, wings, mouthparts, etc. ­open circulatory system ­no blood vessels, no blood ­internal cavity filled with hemolymph ­heart(s) pump to move hemolymph around ­nervous system 14 ­motor functions controlled by different gangella, along body ­respiratory system ­gills: in aquatic arthropods ­trachaed: small branched ducts that allow gas close to internal cells ­book lungs (spiders) ­leaf­like plates that increase surface area for gas exchange ­Subphylum Chelicerata ­spiders, ticks, scorpions, horseshoe crabs ­2 segments: cephalothorax, abdomen ­spiders ­important predators of insects ­many spin webs of liquid protein ­all have poison ­ticks: parasites ­can transmit diseases ­Subphylum Crustacea  ­crabs, shrimps, crawfish ­most have gills ­few terrestrial crustacea (pill bugs­ rolly pollies) ­Subphylum Hexapoda (hexa­ 6; poda­ feet­ 6 feet) ­insects: beetles, flies, grasshoppers, etc. ­3­segment body plan ­most have compound eyes ­gives wide view angle ­mouthparts modified for different functions ­may undergo metamorphosis  ­complete (butterfly) or simple (roach)­ series of molts 15 January 22, 2016 ­Subphylum Myriapoda ­centipedes, millipedes ­numerous repeating segments ­1 or 2 pairs of legs per segment ­Phylum Echinodermata (spikey/spiked skin) ­echinoderms ­mostly marine­ aquatic ­e.g. starfish ­bilateral symmetry as larvae but pentaradial symmetry as adults ­pentaradial symmetry­ branches radiating out from center ­contains nervous system­ no brain ­endoskeleton ­skeleton on inside made of calcium carbonate ­flexible collagen ­can regenerate ­most reproduction is sexual Vetebrates (Ch 35) ­Phylum Chordata ­chordates (all vertebrates are chorded) ­4 traits ­1.) single, hollow nerve cord beneath dorsal surface ­2.) flexible notocord below nerve cord ­3.) pharyngeal slits/pouch at mouth ­can develop into gills ­4.) postanal tail ­tails extends past anus 16 *some features may be lost during development but are present in embryo ­most (not all) chordates have an endoskeleton that forms around nerve cord 2 protect it ­2 subphyla of chordates that do not have an endoskeleton ­nonvertebrates ­e.g. lancelets ­marine, fish­like ­no bones, scales, head, brain ­e.g. tunicates (look like hearts) ­sea peaches ­larval forms have apparent chordate features, lose most as an adult ­immoblie filter feeders ­Subphylum vertebra ­spinal column ­well­defined head ­internal organs ­endoskeleton made of cartilage and/or bone ­fish (several classes & traits) ­traits: ­jaws & paired appendages ­some fish today & many extinct fish lack jaws ­gill arch evolved into jaw­ hinged, attached to skull ­internal gills: filamentous (lots of individual filaments) tissue rich  in blood vessels to extract O2 from water ­closed circulatory system ­single­loop blood circulation blood is pumped from heart to gills, then body, then back to heart ­nutritional deficiences  ­cannot make certain amino acids 17 ­shared by all vertebrates ­class chondrichthyes ­sharks & rays ­cartilage & calcium carbonate to form a strong, lightweight skeleton ­early form of teeth ­hardened scales ­easily lost, readily replaced ­interal fertilization ­sharks born live instead of hatching out of egg ­most must move frequently to expose gills to new oxygenated water ­bony fishes (e.g. ray­finned & lobe­finned fishes) ­bone skeletons ­heavier than sharks ­swim bladder ­helps heavy fish stay at correct deepth inflate/deflate using gas from circulatory system to control bouyancy ­gill cover: hard plate that covers & protects gills ­muscles move gill cover to pass new water over gills ­do not have to move frequently ­ray­finned fishes ­most fish alive today ­fins moved by muscles in body ­lobe­finned fishes ­most are extinct ­fins are more complex, have own muscles *closest relatives to amphibians ­bones & muscles in lobed fins evolve into arms & legs 18 January 25, 2016 ­Class Amphibia ­frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. ­features: ­legs: key adaptation to survive on land ­lungs: to extract 2  from air ­gills too delicate out of water ­not as efficient as lungs of higher vertebrates ­cutaneous respiration: gas exchange through the skin ­supplements lungs ­double circulatory system:  ­loop 1­ pumps deoxygenated blood from heart to lungs,  back to heart ­loop 2­ pumps oxygenated blood from heart to body, back  to heart ­partially divided heart ­partly seperates oxygenated & deoxygenated blood —mingle some—inefficient! ­problem: usually need to live near water to not dry out; need to  lay eggs in water because they dry out otherwise & die ­Order Anura ­anura: “no tail” ­frogs & toads ­frogs: more aquatic, smooth skin ­toads: dry environments, rough skin ­both have tadpole form ­eggs in water ­sequential hermaphroditism 19 ­in some species of frog an individual born as one sex  chancges to the other sex ­Order Caudata ­salamanders ­long, smooth bodies ­live in moist places ­Order Apoda ­ “no legs” ­caecilians ­limbless burrowing amphibians ­poorly understood ­Class Reptilia ­features: ­amniotic egg ­amnion: encases embryo in fluid­filled cavity and allows  eggs to be laid on dry land ­dry skin, covered with scales—protects & prevents drying out ­thoracic breathing: a more efficient way of breathing where the  entire chest moves, not just the throat ­allows larger animals to survive ­double circulatory system ­fully divided heart ­oxygenated & deoxygenated blood do not mix—fully  seperated in different chambers ­more efficient ­allows for bigger animals ­ectothermic: “cold blooded”; obtains heat from external sources ­Dinosaurs ­first land vertebrates to “rise to dominance” 20 ­5 orders, all extinct ­leading extinction theory: meteor impact caused atmospheric  changes, cooling temps kiled large ectothermic dinosaurs ­Order Chelonia ­(chel sounds like shell) ­tortoises (terrestrial) ­turtles (aquatic) ­bodies encased in protective shell ­Order Rhynchocephalia ­tuataras ­parietal eye: 3  eye on top of head ­poorly developed ­light­sensing organ ­might play a role in sleep regulation (sense changes in  day/night) ­Order Squamata ­snakes: lack limbs ­lizzards: many can regenerate limbs ­Order Crocodylia ­crocodiles & aligators ­primarily aquatic, carnivores ­Class Aves—birds ­features: ­feathers—modified scales that aid in flight; insulation ­flight skeleton: thin, mostly hollow bones that aid in flight ­downside: weaker ­other flight adaptations ­air sacs—more efficient respiration 21 ­fully divided heart endothermic:  ­ “warm blooded” ­actively maintain high internal temp ­faster metabolism ­amniotic egg: hard shell ­scales (on legs) ­birds evolved from retiles, specifically dinosaurs (modification of  scales to feathers) ­birds: very diverse group of vertebrates


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