Bisc 132 Exam 3 Lecture Notes
Bisc 132 Exam 3 Lecture Notes BISC 132
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This 21 page Bundle was uploaded by randomchic12 on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BISC 132 at Louisiana Tech University taught by Dr. Kyle Kemege in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 204 views. For similar materials see The Diversity of Life in Biology at Louisiana Tech University.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
1 Bisc 132 Exam 3 Lecture Notes Additional Plant Topics (Ch 3840) (Cont.) January 13, 2016 Symbiotic Relationships that involve plants Acacia Tree & Acacia Ants mutualistic tree provides shelter and food ants defend the tree against herbivores and other plants many species of plants and wasps mutualistic when a caterpillar eats a leaf it releases chemicals in to the air. The wasp reacts to the chemicals by killing the caterpillar and laying larvae inside it. The action against the caterpillar inadvertently protects the plant 2 Ethylene C 2 4 gas produced by many plants plant hormone for ripening rapid ripening can to spoilage of fruits meant for consumption genetic engineering:direct manipulation of an organism’s genome through biotechnology creates transgenic organisms scientists introduced an antisense copy of the ethylene gene. This gene is transcribed to antisense RNA. This binds to the regular gene and bocks translation, blocking production allows us to pick unripe fruit, distribute them, then ripen them for sale 3 Animal Diversity (Ch 33) animal traits heterotrophs all nutrients from eating multicellular no cell walls active movement sexual reproduction complex embryonic development tissues body symmetry radial symmetry any plane through the middle creates symmetrical halves (ex: see anemone) bilateral symmetry only one plane will make symmetrical halves (ex: humans) anterior head posterior tail/rear dorsal back/top ventral front/bottom 4 body cavity most animals are tubes hollow in the middle two open ends 3 layers of cells ectoderm: skin mesoderm: skeleton, muscles endoderm: lining of the digestive tract 3 body plans acoelomate: no coelom pseudocoelomate: cavity between mesoderm & endoderm coelomate: has coelom: body cavity within the mesoderm body cavity is space for stuff like organs 5 initial cell development is a sphere of cells. An indentation forms that will become the digestive tract or “tube”. Whether that indentation becomes the mouth or anus is a determining characteristic. deuterostomes becomes anus protostomes becomes mouth colonial flagellate hypothesis proposed explanation for the evolution of animals from protists some protists from colonies (not ? multicellularity) randomly based off of availability of fellow cells hypothesis: these colonial protists evolved a genetic program to multicellularity formation of specialized reproductive cells evidence: many sponges resemble primitive protist colonies DNA sequency shows that the sponges are close to the colonial protists 6 Invertebrates (Ch 3335) parazoa: animals without specialized tissues ex: porifera (sponges) mostly marine lack symmetry sac bodyshape water enters via pores and exits through a mouthlike opening called an osculum body strengthened by secreted proteins and minerals specialized cells ex: choanocytes: flagella on the inside of the sponge that propel water through it and capture food particles at the same time no nervous system pores can close in response to stimuli can do asexual reproduction. Do do regular sexual reproduction eumetazoa: animals with specialized tissue will include all further groups we talk about January 15, 2016 cnidarians (C is silent) radial body symmetry; sac body no complex organs 7 no brain but have a lattice work of nerve cells to transmit sensory info many are carnivores use nematocysts to capture their prey (some release a paralyzing venom) there are two body plans/forms polyp: cylindrical; not motile (anchored) (ex: corals) medusa: umbrellashaped; motile (mobile) (ex: jellyfish) both forms have a hydrostatic skeleton a skeleton made up of pressurized fluid in the body that provides rigidity some polyps make a rigid exoskeleton because they don’t need to move (coral) 8 ex: corals polyps that produce mineral exoskeletons dead corals provide the structural foundation for living corals. The reef grows. grow very slowly (N ½ /yr) coral reefs exist where nutrients in the water are scarce survive by symbiosis with a photosynthetic protist that is housed within the coral mutualist, obligate protist provides sugars, coral provides protection harbor great diversity of life very sensitive to changes like water temp pH global temp rising has led to the loss of coral reefs ex: jellyfish some species are dangerous to humans some are bioluminescent produce Green Flourescent Protein (GFP) this protein can be attached to other proteins and can be put into other animals. Scientists have been able to make many other species glow used to track protein location/expression bilaterian flatworms bilateral symmetry tube body plan acoelomate complex systems of cells 9 nervous system no brain, but centralized ganglion of nerve cells very simple eye spots that distinguish light and dark digestive system spansentive length, spreads nutrients so there is no need for a circuatory system reproductive system hermaphroditic (has both male & female sex organs) many are free living (not parasitic) parasitic flatworms e.g. schistosomes cause schistosomiasis chronic illness that’s especially bad for children causes damage to internal organs e.g. tapeworms from improperly cooked meats attach to intestines then absorb nutrients Phylum mollusca mollusks aquatic. Mostly marine some terresterial such as snails, slugs common body features: mantle: thick (layer of skin) epidermal sheet that covers body and can create a hard shell foot: usually used for locomotion most have an open circulatory system: no blood, no blood vessels 10 hemolymph fills coelomic cavity heart pumps hemolymph around cavity ex: chitons marine covered by hard plates (mantle) radula: rasping tongue used for feeding (mostly herbivores) ex: gastropods snails & slugs can be torrostrized (?) torsion: during development the digestive system twists and the anus becomes anterior instead of posterior ex: bivalves clams, oysters, muscles, scallaps, etc aquatic burrow into the sand/(?) using their foot filter rexders (?) 11 ex: cephalopods octopi, squids, nautiluses most are marine predators some have shell (nautiluses) modified foot is several tentacles can have hooks, suction cups, or neither not moved for locomotion but rather by expelling water through the tentacles from the mantle cavity ex: vampire squid spined tentacles feeds on detritus (waste/debris of any kind) low O 2environment uses bioluminescence to evade predators January 20, 2016 Phylum Annelida Annelid worms 12 aquatic or terrestrial aka segmented worms each segment has own muscle, ganglion (nerve), reproductive organs can regenerate coelom forms a hydrostatic skeleton closed circulatory system have blood, blood vessels Class Clitellata earthworms, leeches clitellum: part of reproductive system harbors deposited sperm & eggs; serves as cocoon for young worms hermaphroditic (mate to crossfertilize) leeches saliva has anesthetic & anticoagulant properties nematodes roundworms pseudocoelomates tubular digestive system mouth & anus diverse: some parasitic & some freeliving e.g. Caenorhabditis elegans (freeliving) model organism: organism used to study processes that occur in humans but these organisms are simpler & easier to work with every cell accounted for sequenced genome easy to grow robust system for genetic exchange forward genetics: mutate worms randomly, look for a specific phenotype; then identify gene that was mutated 13 reverse genetics: disrupt a gene & observe phenotype e.g. Trichinella worms (parasitic) cause trichinosis found in pork & wild game proper cooking kills worms & eggs larvae hatch in stomach burrow to intestines, get nutrients migrate to muscle, heart, brain Phylum Arthropoda arthropods distinctive features segmented body (functional units instead of repeated units) head, thorax, abdomen or cephalothorax & abdomen anterior posterior exoskeleton made of chitin & protein hard, protective outer shell downside: must molt to grow vulnerable during & after molt jointed appendages better control of movement modified to form: legs, antannae, wings, mouthparts, etc. open circulatory system no blood vessels, no blood internal cavity filled with hemolymph heart(s) pump to move hemolymph around nervous system 14 motor functions controlled by different gangella, along body respiratory system gills: in aquatic arthropods trachaed: small branched ducts that allow gas close to internal cells book lungs (spiders) leaflike plates that increase surface area for gas exchange Subphylum Chelicerata spiders, ticks, scorpions, horseshoe crabs 2 segments: cephalothorax, abdomen spiders important predators of insects many spin webs of liquid protein all have poison ticks: parasites can transmit diseases Subphylum Crustacea crabs, shrimps, crawfish most have gills few terrestrial crustacea (pill bugs rolly pollies) Subphylum Hexapoda (hexa 6; poda feet 6 feet) insects: beetles, flies, grasshoppers, etc. 3segment body plan most have compound eyes gives wide view angle mouthparts modified for different functions may undergo metamorphosis complete (butterfly) or simple (roach) series of molts 15 January 22, 2016 Subphylum Myriapoda centipedes, millipedes numerous repeating segments 1 or 2 pairs of legs per segment Phylum Echinodermata (spikey/spiked skin) echinoderms mostly marine aquatic e.g. starfish bilateral symmetry as larvae but pentaradial symmetry as adults pentaradial symmetry branches radiating out from center contains nervous system no brain endoskeleton skeleton on inside made of calcium carbonate flexible collagen can regenerate most reproduction is sexual Vetebrates (Ch 35) Phylum Chordata chordates (all vertebrates are chorded) 4 traits 1.) single, hollow nerve cord beneath dorsal surface 2.) flexible notocord below nerve cord 3.) pharyngeal slits/pouch at mouth can develop into gills 4.) postanal tail tails extends past anus 16 *some features may be lost during development but are present in embryo most (not all) chordates have an endoskeleton that forms around nerve cord 2 protect it 2 subphyla of chordates that do not have an endoskeleton nonvertebrates e.g. lancelets marine, fishlike no bones, scales, head, brain e.g. tunicates (look like hearts) sea peaches larval forms have apparent chordate features, lose most as an adult immoblie filter feeders Subphylum vertebra spinal column welldefined head internal organs endoskeleton made of cartilage and/or bone fish (several classes & traits) traits: jaws & paired appendages some fish today & many extinct fish lack jaws gill arch evolved into jaw hinged, attached to skull internal gills: filamentous (lots of individual filaments) tissue rich in blood vessels to extract O2 from water closed circulatory system singleloop blood circulation blood is pumped from heart to gills, then body, then back to heart nutritional deficiences cannot make certain amino acids 17 shared by all vertebrates class chondrichthyes sharks & rays cartilage & calcium carbonate to form a strong, lightweight skeleton early form of teeth hardened scales easily lost, readily replaced interal fertilization sharks born live instead of hatching out of egg most must move frequently to expose gills to new oxygenated water bony fishes (e.g. rayfinned & lobefinned fishes) bone skeletons heavier than sharks swim bladder helps heavy fish stay at correct deepth inflate/deflate using gas from circulatory system to control bouyancy gill cover: hard plate that covers & protects gills muscles move gill cover to pass new water over gills do not have to move frequently rayfinned fishes most fish alive today fins moved by muscles in body lobefinned fishes most are extinct fins are more complex, have own muscles *closest relatives to amphibians bones & muscles in lobed fins evolve into arms & legs 18 January 25, 2016 Class Amphibia frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. features: legs: key adaptation to survive on land lungs: to extract 2 from air gills too delicate out of water not as efficient as lungs of higher vertebrates cutaneous respiration: gas exchange through the skin supplements lungs double circulatory system: loop 1 pumps deoxygenated blood from heart to lungs, back to heart loop 2 pumps oxygenated blood from heart to body, back to heart partially divided heart partly seperates oxygenated & deoxygenated blood —mingle some—inefficient! problem: usually need to live near water to not dry out; need to lay eggs in water because they dry out otherwise & die Order Anura anura: “no tail” frogs & toads frogs: more aquatic, smooth skin toads: dry environments, rough skin both have tadpole form eggs in water sequential hermaphroditism 19 in some species of frog an individual born as one sex chancges to the other sex Order Caudata salamanders long, smooth bodies live in moist places Order Apoda “no legs” caecilians limbless burrowing amphibians poorly understood Class Reptilia features: amniotic egg amnion: encases embryo in fluidfilled cavity and allows eggs to be laid on dry land dry skin, covered with scales—protects & prevents drying out thoracic breathing: a more efficient way of breathing where the entire chest moves, not just the throat allows larger animals to survive double circulatory system fully divided heart oxygenated & deoxygenated blood do not mix—fully seperated in different chambers more efficient allows for bigger animals ectothermic: “cold blooded”; obtains heat from external sources Dinosaurs first land vertebrates to “rise to dominance” 20 5 orders, all extinct leading extinction theory: meteor impact caused atmospheric changes, cooling temps kiled large ectothermic dinosaurs Order Chelonia (chel sounds like shell) tortoises (terrestrial) turtles (aquatic) bodies encased in protective shell Order Rhynchocephalia tuataras parietal eye: 3 eye on top of head poorly developed lightsensing organ might play a role in sleep regulation (sense changes in day/night) Order Squamata snakes: lack limbs lizzards: many can regenerate limbs Order Crocodylia crocodiles & aligators primarily aquatic, carnivores Class Aves—birds features: feathers—modified scales that aid in flight; insulation flight skeleton: thin, mostly hollow bones that aid in flight downside: weaker other flight adaptations air sacs—more efficient respiration 21 fully divided heart endothermic: “warm blooded” actively maintain high internal temp faster metabolism amniotic egg: hard shell scales (on legs) birds evolved from retiles, specifically dinosaurs (modification of scales to feathers) birds: very diverse group of vertebrates
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