Bisc 132 Exam 4 Lecture Notes
Bisc 132 Exam 4 Lecture Notes BISC 132
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Date Created: 02/25/16
1 Bisc 132 Exam 4 Lecture Notes January 29, 2016 Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebra Class Mammalia features: hair: mostly keratin used for insulation, camouflage, sensory mammary glands one females, secrete highenergy milk to nurture young endothermy & fully divided heart placenta: brings bloodstream of fetus close to bloodstream of mother to exchange O /nutrients/waste 2 other features in some orders: specialized teeth with many possible functions horns (bone) hooves (made of keratin) digestion of plants most mammals are herbivores cellulose in plants is difficult to digest mutualistic symbiotic relationship w/bacteria 3 clades of mammals monotremes mammals that lay shelled eggs e.g. duckbilled platypus marsupials live birth but shortlived placenta 2 born very small & crawl into pouch in mother to feed, grow, and continue to develop (e.g. kangaroos) placental mammals live birth of developed young—longer lived placenta order primates (e.g. monkeys & humans) binocular vision eyes on front of face better depth perception grasping fingers & toes w/opposable thumbs *only primates have both key points of evolution of humans bipedalism: walk on 2 feet enlarged brain enable us to construct/use complex tools The Animal Body (CH 42) organization of life cellstissueorganorgan system cells: smallest unit tissues: groups of cells with similar structure & function organs: functional groups of tissues organ systems: groups of organs—performs a major function epithelial tissue epithelium: covers all surfaces of body (inner & outer) inherent polarity apical surface: free to the outside basal surface: secured to underlying connective tissue 2 classes of epithelial tissue simple epithelial tissue: one cell layer thick 3 stratified epithelial tissue: several layers thick 3 class subdivisions squamous: flat columnar: taller than wide cuboidal: as wide as tall e.g. simple squamous lines lungs & blood capillaries permits diffusion of gases e.g. simple columnar thickest single layer of cells, best at secretion & absorption lines digestive tract e.g. stratified squamous multiple layers protect makes up epidermis (outer skin) connective tissue 2 classes of connective tissue 1.) connective tissue proper functions to connect tissues together loose connective tissue beneath epithelium & between organs dense connective tissue (muscle to bone) cells close together stronger but still flexible connection 2.) special connective tissue cartilage: firm, flexible tissue good at shock absorption 4 at joints, ears, nose bone: bone cells are alive, hardened by calcium phosphate blood: part of circulatory system (several cell types) muscle tissue allows for movement 3 types 1.) smooth muscle smooth, flat found in walls of blood vessels, stomach, intestines not controlled voluntarily (involuntarily) 2.) skeletal muscle striated/striped muscle attached to bones by tendons controlled voluntarily 3.) cardiac muscle cells linked by gap junctions: help cells communicate & work together only in the heart not controlled voluntarily (involuntarily) cells regenerate very slowly if at all 5 February 1, 2016 nerve tissue neurons & cells that support them neurons have 3 parts cell body: most of cell contains nucleus dendrites: branched extensions from cell body axon: single long extension from the cell body neuroglia: protect neurons (support them) from myelin sheath 2 systems of nervous tissue central nervous system (CNS): integrates & interprets info from other neurons brain & spinal cord peripheral nervous system (PNS): communicates signals to and from CNS all other neurons 3 types of neurons 1.) sensory neurons: receive info (sight, sound, etc.), send to CNS 2.) interneurons: conduct info between neurons 3.) motor neurons: conduct info to muscle, cause movement The Nervous System (CH 43) all animals (except sponges) use a network of nerves to process/integrate info & respond to environment neurons use electricity to communicate + + neurons use a sodiumpotassium pump (Na K pump) membranebound transport system + + uses energy from ATP to pump: Na x3 out of cell and K x2 into cell 6 +3 charge out, +2 charge in—leads to a difference in charge outside compared to inside more positive outside of cell and more negative inside relative to one another resting membrane potential is 70 mV inside relative to outside depolarization: lowering of membrane potential—less negative e.g. 70 mV 40 mV hyperpolarization: raising of membrane potential—more negative e.g. 70 mV 100 mV repolarization: returns to resting (70 mV) membrane potential nerve impulse aka action potential movement of sensory info along a cell often begins with ligandgated ion channels membrane bound only let specific ions through membrane only after the appropriate chemical signal (ligand) binds e.g. acetylcholine receptor binds ligand (acetylcholine) + opens, letting Na flow into cell for a short period of time + because Na is high outside, low inside causes depolarization begins electrical signal—action potential voltagegated ion channels membrane bound + let ions Na cross membrane—specific for their ion triggered by change in nearby voltage cause propagation of action potential 7 *depolarization of one region of neuron leads to depolarization of an adjacent region action potential (signal) is propagated/moves after depolarization, very short period of insensitivity in voltagegated channels this prevents backtracking of signal summary of depolarization 1.) resting phase + + 70 mV due to Na K pump 2.) rising phase stimulus (ligand or nearby voltage change) causes Na channel to open Na moves into cell depolarization 3.) maximum voltage reached (up to +50 mV) + Na channels close 4.) falling phase K channels open, let K out repolarizes membrane February 3, 2016 chemical synapse aka synaptic cleft (aka synapse) narrow spaces between two (usually nerve) cells incoming action potential causes release of chemicals called neurotransmitters neurotransmitters released from presynaptic cell via vesicles, diffuse across synapse & bind to receptors on post synaptic cell begins action potential in postsynaptic cell neurotransmitters cleared from synapse by degradation or uptake by either cell 8 to prevent constant signal select neurotransmitters *most neurotransmitters have many roles! acetylcholine signals between neurons & muscle cells causes muscle contraction degraded by enzyme to allow muscles to relax also used in brain dopamine used by brain to control some movements & for pleasure death of some dopamineproducing neurons leads to uncontrolled movement—Parkinson’s disease treated with Ldopa, a chemical precursor to dopamine serotonin used in brain to regulate sleep not enough can be a cause of clinical depression treatment for clinical depression include drugs that block reuptake of serotonin at synapse cocaine binds to reuptake transporters for dopamine on presynaptic neuron prevents reuptake, dopamine stays in synapse longer, continued signaling of pleasure signals many other effects addictive & can cause permanent organ damage and/or death human brain anatomy 9 3 sections: hindbrain pons: sleep paralysis, dreams medulla oblongata: involuntary functions (e.g. breathing, blood pressure, etc.) midbrain vision, hearing, temperature regulation forebrain cerebrum: synthesizes sensory info; speech, learning, memory, voluntary movements hippocampus: memory, emotion The Sensory Systems (CH 44) 2 types of receptors based on location 1.) exteroreceptors: sense stimuli from external environment 2.) interoreceptors: sense stimuli from inside of the body 3 categories based on how they’re stimulated 1.) mechanoreceptors: stimulated by force/pressure (mechanical change) 2.) chemoreceptors: stimulated by chemicals or chemical changes 3.) electromagnetic receptors: stimulated by light waves sensory perception 1.) stimulus 2.) transduction: stimulus converted to an action potential 3.) transmission: movement of action potential from cell to cell to CNS 4.) interpretation: CNS makes sense of signal touch interoreceptors and mechanoreceptors under the skin (cutaneous receptors) sense heat, cold, pain, pressure 10 in cutaneous mechanoreceptors ion channels are sensitive to distortions in membranes respond to pressure neurons with these receptors are located in different layers of cells allows for different levels of sensitivity some areas of skin have higher or lower densities than cells with these receptors thermoreceptors respond to changes in temperature a type of mechanoreceptor can also be stimulated by chemicals capsaicin: in hot peppers; feels like heat menthol: in mint oils; feels cold also in brain to monitor blood temperature other mechanoreceptors (not involved in touch): proprioceptors detects tension in muscles can sense position & movement in muscles baroreceptors in heart & monitors blood pressure February 5, 2016 hearing (underlined are structures in the ear in the steps) sounds are vibrations traveling through a medium waves of vibrations 1.) sound waves channeled through outer ear in ear canal 2.) vibrations hit tympanic membrane causes movement in 3 small bones 3.) bones vibrate against oval window, leads to inner ear and cochlea (a bony structure) cochlea has 3 chambers filled with fluid 11 4.) vibrations cause pressure waves in cochlear fluid pressure bends cilia on hair cells 5.) bending of cilia causes depolarization in hair cells mechanoreceptors starts action potential that’s relayed to CNS different regions of inner ear moved to different degrees in response to sounds at different frequencies tone/pitch some animals are capable of hearing a greater range of frequencies due to different inner ear physiology some animals use sound & hearing to judge distance of far away objects echolocation emit clicks, hear bouncedback sound taste and smell similar & both detected by chemoreceptors exteroreceptors taste cells with chemoreceptors in taste buds on tongue some chemicals act directly, some are indirect many arthropods have tasting chemoreceptors in hair on their legs taste by standing in/on something fish have tasting chemoreceptors all along outside of bodies smell olfactory neurons in upper nasal passages use olfactory hairs (cilia) to trap inhaled particles directly linked to brain by a long axon interoreceptors that are also chemoreceptors in heart & brain that sense pH of blood & cerebrospinal fluid 12 vision photoreceptors: a type of electromagnetic receptor that detect light; many together can gauge light intensity more complex eyes have one or many lenses to focus light vertebrate eyes complex, many components ciliary muscles change shape of lens to see objects near or far near sightedness or farsightedness are inability to adjust lens fully many photoreceptorcontaining cells in each eye are pigmentcontaining cells that have two anatomical parts inner segment: nucleus, mitochondria, synapse outer segment: stacks of pigment discs two types of cells rod cells: black & white distinction only more pigment discs that are more sensitive cone cells: allow for color distinction 3 types, different photopigments red, blue, green color blindness: lack of one or more functional cone cells— genetically inherited sensing infrared radiation e.g. pit vipers capture heat in form of infrared radiation in pit organs activate thermal receptors on neurons in pit sensing magnetic fields by many insects, sharks, bacteria, migratory birds poorly understood mechanisms 13 used in migration The Musculoskeletal System (CH 46) 3 types of skeletons 1.) hydrostatic skeleton: fluid filled cavity; uses hydrostatic pressure to provide rigidity e.g. earthworm muscle contractions push against skeleton sequential contractions move worm through dirt 2.) exoskeleton external skeleton that’s a rigid case around body protection provides muscle attachment points must molt to grow 3.) endoskeleton internal skeleton that’s hardened by calcium phosphate bone & cartilage February 12, 2016 movements of endoskeleton occur at joints where two bones meet 4 types 14 1.) ballandsocket joints: allow for multidirectional movement (e.g. shoulder, hip) 2.) hinge joint: only moves in two opposite directions (e.g. elbow) 3.) gliding joint: bones slide along one another (e.g. vertebrae) 4.) combination joint: two or more joint types together (e.g. jaw hinge & gliding) skeletal muscles are attached to bones one end of muscle remains stationary & other moves bone(s) it’s attached to muscles contain muscle fibers, which are made of proteins actin: forms polymer called thin filament myosin: elongated protein with distinct head domain forms polymer called thick filament muscle contraction 1.) ATP binds to myosin head, breaks the crossbridge that holds it to the actin filament 2.) energy from ATP (ATP ADP + P) used ti charge myosin into an energized state 3.) myosin binds to actin, forms crossbridge 4.) power stroke: myosin head moves actin filament myosin no longer in an energized state ADP + P rei ased many myosin filaments & many actin filaments in muscle tissue many power strokes cause muscle contraction lots of ATP spent! The Respiratory System (CH 48) cellular respiration: breakdown of glucose to CO to 2roduce ATP & requires O 2 gas exchange obtain O 2& release CO 2 singlecelled organisms exchange gasses directly through membrane amphibians have cutaneous respiration where blood vessels near skin surface exchange gasses 15 echinoderms (spikey starfish, etc.) have direct exchange via cells; protruding structures increase surface area insects use trachea to allow gas into body; trachea are branched to increase surface area fish have blood vessels in gills that exchange gasses with water; gill filaments increase surface area mammals use lungs to bring air into bodies; alveoli in lungs to increase surface area increase surface area to create more efficient gas exchange gills (use countercurrent flow) water enters mouth and is expelled past gills, exiting body countercurrent flow: blood in vessels in gills flows in the opposite direction of the water water hits gills at its highest O l2vels blood in this part of the gill is also at its highest O l2vels, but, still less O than water 2 O 2moves from water to blood water loses O a2 it moves past gills water arrives at end of gills at its lowest O lev2 s blood at this part of the gill is also at lowest O le2els but, still less O2 in blood than water O 2moves from water to blood *at each point along the gill, O moves from water to blood 2 concurrent flow: blood in vessels flows in same direction as water O 2 vels equalize halfway along gill 16 no more O movement and wasted gill 2 *much less efficient! mammalian lungs negative pressure breathing 1.) inhalation increases size of thoracic (chest) cavity muscles on walls of chest & diaphragm contract diaphragm: separates thoracic from abdominal cavity decreased pressure in thoracic cavity causes air from outside to move in because fluids move from high pressure to low pressure 2.) gas exchange bronci: tubes that connect alveolar sacs, which contain alveoli to increase surface area CO 2s dissolved in bloodstream leaves O 2needs a special carrier hemoglobin: protein in red blood cells that uses iron to carry O 2 3.) exhalation decreases size of thoracic cavity as muscles on chest walls & diaphragm relax increases pressure in thoracic cavity, causes air to move out additional muscles can be used for forced inhalation/exhalation
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