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Ansc 211 Exam 2 Notes

by: randomchic12

Ansc 211 Exam 2 Notes 211

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Notes covering all of the material that will be on Exam 2. This includes: -Classes and Breeds -Color and Markings (CH 8- Colors; CH 10- Genetics) -Age, Height, and Weight of Horses (CH 9) -Illn...
Intro to equine
Dr. Laura Gentry
Animal Science, equine, Horse, classes, breeds, color, markings, age, weight, height, illness, First Aid, Genetics
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Date Created: 02/25/16
1 Ansc 211 Exam 2 Lecture Notes January 5, 2016 Classes & Breeds ­Horse Breeds ­breed­ a group of horses selected for their common ancestry and common characteristics ­breeding true­ offspring will almost always possess the characteristics as parents ­breeding registries­organizations that track horses breeding true or w/a common ancestry ­Classification of Horses ­1.) light, draft, or pony ­divided by use: riding, racing, driving, jumping, utility ­classification depends on weight or height ­height measured in “hands” ­1 hand= 4 inches ­2.) hotblood, warmblood, or coldblood ­refers to overall temperament ­hotblood: ­Arabians only true “hotblood” ­TB considered hotblood because directly descended from Arab blood ­coldblood: ­heavy, solid, strong horses with calm temperaments = Draft ­warmblood: ­horse with some eastern blood (Arab) ­some say all light horses ­some say between Hotblood and coldblood ­mixture between cold and hot bloods in body type and temperament ­ “sport horses” ­used for riding, driving, etc 2 ­3 phase eventing ­3.) Cob or Hack (body types) ­Cob: sturdy, placid horse standing 14.2­15.2 H; usually draft cross ­Hack: enjoyable, good riding or harness horse ­Light Horse Breeds [know breed name and facts; will be pic and fact on test] ­12­17 Hands high; 900­1400 lbs. ­Arabian ­oldest & purest of all breeds ­characteristic refined head and dished profile (dished face) ­one less vertebrae than any other breed ­large nostrils and long eyelashes that were adapted to live & survive in desert ­Andalusian/ Lusitano ­originated in Spain & Portugal ­dressage, cattle work, mounted bull fighting ­Appaloosa ­Color Breed­ spotted ­leopard, spotted blanket, frost, snowflake, white blanket, marble ­traces back to Spanish conquistadors & were prized by the Nez Perce’ Indians ­stripped hooves, short mane & tail ­Lipizzan(er) ­Spanish bloodlines of Austria ­best suited for dressage, pleasure driving/riding ­Missouri Fox­Trotter ­was bred to be suitable to the conditions of the Ozark Hills region of Missouri ­needed a horse that could be ridden for long periods over rough terrain ­was bred in the U.S. (Missouri) 3 ­Morgan ­traces back to one stallion: Justin Morgan ­named after a music teacher in Vermont ­plant back feet & walk forward ­Mustang ­ “wild” horse of North America (Great Plains) ­tough, adaptable, clever: trail riding ­American Quarter Horse (remember American or will get wrong) ­excels at racing short distances­ ¼ mile ­brought to America by Spanish conquistadors & bred for all­around work ­considered most versatile breed in world ­Peruvian Paso ­originated from horses introduced to South America by the Spaniards ­natural preference for lateral gait & horse’s forelegs are out to the side as he  moves (move both feet on same side at once) ­American Standardbred (remember American or will get wrong) ­harness racing ­foundation sire­messenger (English TB) ­used to upgrade trotters & pacers ­Saddlebred ­developed by early 19  century settlers in Southern States of North America ­formerly known as the “Kentucky Saddler” ­Tennessee Walking Horse ­developed as an exceptionally comfortable riding horse (like riding in a Cadillac) ­flat­foot walk, running walk & canter are inherited 4 ­used to use chains, acid, etc to train horses to walk a certain way ­Thoroughbred ­world’s supreme race horse ­Byerley Turk, Darley Arabian & Godolphin Arabian­ foundation sires of TB ­sensitive breed (easily excited) ­Cleveland Bay ­originally bred to produce a fine coach horse, renowned for its active pace &  great stamina ­descends from horses bred in NE England since medieval times ­Danish Warmblood ­Denmark (origin) *might be bonus Q ­specifically developed for use in competitive sports such as dressage or show  jumping ­Dutch Warmblood ­Netherlands ­highly successful leisure and competition horse of the Netherlands ­quality horse with a very good temperament ­Friesian ­one of Europe’s oldest horses ­very noble so ideal for ceremonial occasions ­Hanoverian ­German warmblood developed from TB’s & Trakehners ­noted for strength, used in dressage & show jumping ­Holstein ­one of oldest of German warmbloods 5 ­originally prized as tough, active carriage horses ­very successful in dressage and show jumping ­Oldenburg ­Germany’s heaviest type of warmblood ­Count Anton Gunther Von Oldenburg played a leading role in its development ­Trakehner ­closet warmblood in appearance to TB ­organized breeding started in 1732 in Prussia (now part of Poland) ­Akhal­Teke (really thin, looks unhealthy, thinner than normal horses) ­a national emblem of Turkmenistan ­characterized by a “metallic sheen” or “glow” ­Marwari ­indigenous breed of India initially used for calvary ­breed characteristic­ ears turned in and pointed in/up ­descendant of native Indian ponies crossed with Arabian horses ­Mongolian ­the war steed of Genghis Khan’s army as he conquered the Asian continent ­pony sized and pony shaped but still considered a horse ­Draft Breeds ­ “cold bloods” ­14.2­17.2 hands; 1400+ lbs. ­temperament: much calmer/easy going than light breeds ­uses: farming, driving, NYPD ­typical breeds: Clydesdale, Percheron, English Sire, Belgian Draft Horse ­Belgian 6 ­originated in Belgium ­known as the “Gentle Giant” due to kind nature & willingness to work ­Clydesdale ­from Scotland ­very docile, elegant & exceptionally sound ­Percheron ­originated in La Perche, in the South of Normandy ­known for great strength & courage (war, carriage, & field horse) ­Shire ­descends from the medieval warhorse known as the “Great horse” & is England’s most magnificent heavy horse ­characteristic roman nose & docile expression ­Suffolk ­Britain’s oldest heavy breed ­also called “Suffolk Punch” ­all Suffolks trace back to a since stallion­ “Crisp’s Horse of Ufford” ­Pony Breeds ­less than 14.2 hands; between 500­900 lbs. ­temperament: dependent on breed & individual ­uses: riding, driving ­breeds: Shetland, Welsh, Pony of America (POA) ­Haflinger ­from Austria ­small, powerfully built ­always chestnut colored due to inbreeding ­Exmoor ­oldest of Britain’s mountain breed ­one of oldest breeds in the world 7 ­very strong & hardy ­Shetland Pony ­smallest of British native breeds ­one of the strongest in the world, in relation to its size ­strong­willed, but intelligent  ­Welsh Cob Pony ­larger version of the Western Mountain Pony ­tough, sound, spirited & courageous  ­Connemara ­considered the best performance pony in the world ­from Ireland ­Fjord ­from Norway ­both mane & tail have black hairs in the center & silver on the outside ­miniature horses not a breed, but need to be <34 inches to be registered January 7, 2016 Color and Markings (Ch 8­ colors; Ch 10­ genetics) ­Horse Colors ­Genetics ­generally, all horses are genetically black or red ­determined by the expression of same gene (EE & Ee­ ability to form  black pigment; ee­ black skin but hair is red) ­exceptions ­if white gene is expressed as 1 dominant & 1 recessive (Ww), skin will be pink & hair white ­2 dominant present (WW) is a lethal gene (die before born; only  with white; true dominant white lethal) 8 ­gray gene (Gg & GG) causes silvering with age but horse is born any  nongray color & will always contain pigment in skin & eyes ­all other color patterns are based on how modifier or dilution genes effect the base black  or red ­modifying genes determine the expression or how the color falls ­ex) uniform black vs black only legs, ears, mane, & tail with red body (bay color) ­dilution genes lighten the base colors depending on their expression ­Black ­Body: true black & NO brown at muzzle or flanks­ ever ­Mane & Tail: black ­relatively rare ­most “black horses” are really registered as “day bay or brown” ­Chestnut/Sorrel ­Chestnut­ TB term; Sorrel­ QH term ­essentially the red base color ­Body: dark or brownish red ­Mane & Tail: usually dark or brownish red; may be flaxen ­Brown/Seal Brown ­modification of black ­body:  ­brown or black with light hairs on flank, muzzle, eyes, tips of ears ­hints of red hair; can be light or dark seal brown ­Mane & Tail: black ­Bay ­modification of black ­body: range from tan through red to reddish brown; dark (black) points; can be  dark bay, blood bay, light bay 9 ­mane & tail: black ­Grey ­mixture of white with any colored hairs ­dappled ­flea bitten (spots or specks) ­born solid, dark color, & get white with age ­Roans ­uniform mixture of white hairs with other solid color ­blue roan, red roan, bay roan ­White ­born white­ always white ­pink skin under the white; evidenced around the eyes ­eye color can be brown, hazel, or blue ­very rare (look for pink skin) ­Modifications and Dilutions ­Grulla ­dilution of black or seal brown ­body: smoky or mouse­colored; black points usually a dorsal stripe ­each hair smoky or mouse­colored; not a mixture of black & white hairs ­mane & tail: black ­Dun ­dilution of dark bay or seal brown ­body: sooty yellow to yellow­red; dorsal strip, zebra stripes on legs, & transverse stripes over withers ­mane & tail: may be black, brown, red, yellow, white, or mixed ­Perlino ­double dilution of bay ­body: off­white or pearl color; sometimes rust color on lower legs 10 ­mane & tail: rust color on tips of mane & tail ­Cremello ­double dilution of Chestnut ­body: off­white or cream ­mane & tail: lighter mane & tail ­Color Breeds ­Appaloosa ­mottled skin (muzzle & genital regions) ­vertically stripped hooves ­shorter/thinner mane & tail ­coat patterns ­blanket­ most common ­leopard­ white with colored spots ­other variations… ­may occur with any body color ­Buckskin ­dilution of bay (different dilution gene from Dun) ­Body: yellowish or gold; usually black on lower legs & possibly ears; usually  don’t have dorsal stripe but it is accepted by breed registry ­mane & tail: black ­Palomino ­dilution of Chestnut ­body: golden body; ranges from very light to dark golden ­mane & tail: flaxen (white) mane & tail ­Paints (2+ inches of white to be paint) ­tobiano ­usually has head markings like a solid colored horse; regular & distinct  markings—round or oval patterns 11 ­overo ­will often have a bald face; tail is often 1 color; white does not cross the  back; white is “splotchy” or irregular ­tovero ­dark pigment around ears & mouth; spots on chest and/or flank; one or  more blue eyes ­Horse Markings ­head markings: ­star: white mark on forehead ­stripe: narrow white mark down face ­snip: mark between nostrils ­blaze: broad white mark down face, extended over nose ­bald: very wide blaze covering most of face & down over nostrils 12 ­leg markings January 12 & 14, 2016 Age, Height, and Weight of Horses (Ch 9) ­terms ­foal­ young, unweaned horse; generally, one’s date of birth is Jan 1 ­weanling­ young horse 6 months­ 1 yr old ­yearling­ horse between 1­2 yrs old 13 ­2 years old­ horse between 2­3 yrs old ­Determining Age ­best way is with good records ­using teeth to determine age: an old practice ­becomes harder as the horses age ­feed, environment, heredity, disease ­stabled horses appear younger than range horses (usually)­ might not be true  when…. ­parrot mouth­ overbite with teeth ­monkey mouth­ underbite ­should look at desired use ­ “prime” age­ 4­12 years old ­average lifespan= 24 years but horses can live to be 30+ ­4 key changes in teeth: ­1 occurrence of permanent teeth ­2 disappearance of cups ­3 angle of incidence ­4 shape of surface of teeth figure 9­1: position of teeth ­teeth: 24 deciduous (temporary); 42 adult (permanent) ­1. Occurrence of permanent teeth ­horses have two sets of teeth (temporary & permanent) ­temporary: “baby” or “milk teeth”  ­temporary incisors erupt in pairs at 8 days, 8 weeks, and 8 months 14 ­temporary: more refined neck where the crown and root meet at the gum line;  whiter in color; more rounded & shorter ­permanent incisors erupt: st ­1  pair (central)=2 ½ years nd ­2  pair (intermediates)= 3 ½ years ­last pair (corners)= 4 ½ years ­canines (tusks): appear at 4­5 years old between incisors & molars of geldings and  stallions but seldom mares ­2. Disappearance of Cups ­cups= deep indentures in the center of the surfaces of young, permanent teeth ­order of smoothness of cups ­lower central, intermediate, corners (6, 7, 8 years) ­upper central, intermediate, corners (9, 10, 11 years) ­smooth mouth= 11 years (some say 9 years) ­as cups disappear­ dental stars appear ­3. Angle of incidence ­refers to the angle at which the upper and lower incisors meet ­160­180 degrees in young horses ­less than right angle in older horses (incisors slant forward and outward) ­4. Shape of Surface of Teeth ­shape changes greatly with wear & age ­broad & flat= around 3­5 years ­oval= around 6­9 years ­round= around 10­15 years ­Galvayne’s Groove ­a longitudinal depression which appears at the gum line on the surface of the upper  corner incisor at 9­10 years of age 15 ­15 years= extends halfway down tooth ­20 years= extends all the way down tooth ­25 years= halfway gone from the tooth ­30 years= disappears from tooth ­Measuring Horses ­height and weight are influenced by age, breed, type, sex, nutrition ­height­ measured in hands measured on level ground from top of withers 2 ground when horse is set up ­1 hand= 4 inches ­can use height stick or measuring tape ­weight ­influenced by breed, type, age, nutrition ­importance of determination: ­amount of feed needed & adequacy of feeding program ­potential health issues ­optimal training and competing ­?? ­fully pigmented gg ­no true white no silvering ­black ­Ee/EE, aa, CC, dd, gg, ww, toto ­P. 229­ table 10.2 ­P. 232­ table 10.3 ­weight 16 ­most people underestimate weight ­use scale (horse or truck), weight tape, girth movement tables, formula: ­ [(HG  x L)/330] = body weight in lbs. (adult) ­HG – 25.1/0.007= body weight (foals 1­6 weeks old) ­**(HG) Heart girth and (L) length measured in inches ­Heart girth alone can be used: ­some tapes give a direct reading of girth to weight or can use a table to get estimate ­nomograms­ two­dimensional diagram allowing approximate graphical  computation of a function ­Choosing and Buying a Horse ­seek help/advice from friends, 4H leaders/Extension, veterinarians, farmers, ranchers, professors ­Locating a horse ­friends, advertisements, dealers, farms, auctions, trainers ­Things to Consider ­Level of involvement: ­own a horse (includes owning residence & boarding facility) ­take lessons, rent horse, lease & board horse January 19, 2016 Selection and Buying ­Considerations ­age of rider/horse; size of rider/horse; training; sex of horse; disposition and vices;  facilities available; conformation; market value Illness and First Aid ­Signs of Health ­Good body condition ­amount of fat cover ­uses scoring system of 1­9 (1­dead/emancipated; 9­ obese; 5 is ideal) ­winter hair may mask appearance of fat 17 ­different body conformations, late gestation mares and horses with grass bellies  (belly so full of grass bc they graze all day) may make it harder to correctly  determine BC ­6 areas to determine BC: ribs, behind shoulders, along neck, along withers,  tailhead, crease down back [posted on moodle] ­poor (1), very thin (2), thin (3), moderately thin (4), moderate (5), moderate to  fleshy (6), fleshy (7), fat (8), extremely fat (9) [just know 1 is poor almost dead,  emancipated; 9 is obese, extremely fat] ­hair coat, hoof growth, eyes, manure/urine, body weight ­Recognizing Illness ­temperature: 99 F­101 F (normal)­ rectal ­heart rate: varies with age; to determine pulse, press fingers against artery (15 secs x 4) ­mature: 28­40 beats/minute ­newborn: 80­120 beats/minute ­foals: 60­80 beats/minute ­yearling: 40­60 beats/minute ­respiration rate:  ­8­16 respirations/minute ­determine by breaths/air from nostrils or flanks ­ if respiration is greater than heart rate, there’s a problem 18 ­gut sounds (want to hear but not too many; means food is moving through system):  ­1­3 sounds/minute ­absence of gut sounds are usually more critical than excessive sounds ­mucosal color (gums, around eyes, etc) ­mucus membranes: gums, inside lips of vulva, nostrils, conjunctiva (want to be  pink not white or red) ­skin pliability: test for dehydration ­appetite/weight loss; depression; nasal discharge; coughing; swelling; behavior ­First Aid ­horses are prone to injury ­always keep a first aid kit readily available: bandage scissors, bandage/gauze/tape,  tranquilizers, etc. ­have veterinarians phone # handy


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