Ansc 211 Exam 2 Notes
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Date Created: 02/25/16
1 Ansc 211 Exam 2 Lecture Notes January 5, 2016 Classes & Breeds Horse Breeds breed a group of horses selected for their common ancestry and common characteristics breeding true offspring will almost always possess the characteristics as parents breeding registriesorganizations that track horses breeding true or w/a common ancestry Classification of Horses 1.) light, draft, or pony divided by use: riding, racing, driving, jumping, utility classification depends on weight or height height measured in “hands” 1 hand= 4 inches 2.) hotblood, warmblood, or coldblood refers to overall temperament hotblood: Arabians only true “hotblood” TB considered hotblood because directly descended from Arab blood coldblood: heavy, solid, strong horses with calm temperaments = Draft warmblood: horse with some eastern blood (Arab) some say all light horses some say between Hotblood and coldblood mixture between cold and hot bloods in body type and temperament “sport horses” used for riding, driving, etc 2 3 phase eventing 3.) Cob or Hack (body types) Cob: sturdy, placid horse standing 14.215.2 H; usually draft cross Hack: enjoyable, good riding or harness horse Light Horse Breeds [know breed name and facts; will be pic and fact on test] 1217 Hands high; 9001400 lbs. Arabian oldest & purest of all breeds characteristic refined head and dished profile (dished face) one less vertebrae than any other breed large nostrils and long eyelashes that were adapted to live & survive in desert Andalusian/ Lusitano originated in Spain & Portugal dressage, cattle work, mounted bull fighting Appaloosa Color Breed spotted leopard, spotted blanket, frost, snowflake, white blanket, marble traces back to Spanish conquistadors & were prized by the Nez Perce’ Indians stripped hooves, short mane & tail Lipizzan(er) Spanish bloodlines of Austria best suited for dressage, pleasure driving/riding Missouri FoxTrotter was bred to be suitable to the conditions of the Ozark Hills region of Missouri needed a horse that could be ridden for long periods over rough terrain was bred in the U.S. (Missouri) 3 Morgan traces back to one stallion: Justin Morgan named after a music teacher in Vermont plant back feet & walk forward Mustang “wild” horse of North America (Great Plains) tough, adaptable, clever: trail riding American Quarter Horse (remember American or will get wrong) excels at racing short distances ¼ mile brought to America by Spanish conquistadors & bred for allaround work considered most versatile breed in world Peruvian Paso originated from horses introduced to South America by the Spaniards natural preference for lateral gait & horse’s forelegs are out to the side as he moves (move both feet on same side at once) American Standardbred (remember American or will get wrong) harness racing foundation siremessenger (English TB) used to upgrade trotters & pacers Saddlebred developed by early 19 century settlers in Southern States of North America formerly known as the “Kentucky Saddler” Tennessee Walking Horse developed as an exceptionally comfortable riding horse (like riding in a Cadillac) flatfoot walk, running walk & canter are inherited 4 used to use chains, acid, etc to train horses to walk a certain way Thoroughbred world’s supreme race horse Byerley Turk, Darley Arabian & Godolphin Arabian foundation sires of TB sensitive breed (easily excited) Cleveland Bay originally bred to produce a fine coach horse, renowned for its active pace & great stamina descends from horses bred in NE England since medieval times Danish Warmblood Denmark (origin) *might be bonus Q specifically developed for use in competitive sports such as dressage or show jumping Dutch Warmblood Netherlands highly successful leisure and competition horse of the Netherlands quality horse with a very good temperament Friesian one of Europe’s oldest horses very noble so ideal for ceremonial occasions Hanoverian German warmblood developed from TB’s & Trakehners noted for strength, used in dressage & show jumping Holstein one of oldest of German warmbloods 5 originally prized as tough, active carriage horses very successful in dressage and show jumping Oldenburg Germany’s heaviest type of warmblood Count Anton Gunther Von Oldenburg played a leading role in its development Trakehner closet warmblood in appearance to TB organized breeding started in 1732 in Prussia (now part of Poland) AkhalTeke (really thin, looks unhealthy, thinner than normal horses) a national emblem of Turkmenistan characterized by a “metallic sheen” or “glow” Marwari indigenous breed of India initially used for calvary breed characteristic ears turned in and pointed in/up descendant of native Indian ponies crossed with Arabian horses Mongolian the war steed of Genghis Khan’s army as he conquered the Asian continent pony sized and pony shaped but still considered a horse Draft Breeds “cold bloods” 14.217.2 hands; 1400+ lbs. temperament: much calmer/easy going than light breeds uses: farming, driving, NYPD typical breeds: Clydesdale, Percheron, English Sire, Belgian Draft Horse Belgian 6 originated in Belgium known as the “Gentle Giant” due to kind nature & willingness to work Clydesdale from Scotland very docile, elegant & exceptionally sound Percheron originated in La Perche, in the South of Normandy known for great strength & courage (war, carriage, & field horse) Shire descends from the medieval warhorse known as the “Great horse” & is England’s most magnificent heavy horse characteristic roman nose & docile expression Suffolk Britain’s oldest heavy breed also called “Suffolk Punch” all Suffolks trace back to a since stallion “Crisp’s Horse of Ufford” Pony Breeds less than 14.2 hands; between 500900 lbs. temperament: dependent on breed & individual uses: riding, driving breeds: Shetland, Welsh, Pony of America (POA) Haflinger from Austria small, powerfully built always chestnut colored due to inbreeding Exmoor oldest of Britain’s mountain breed one of oldest breeds in the world 7 very strong & hardy Shetland Pony smallest of British native breeds one of the strongest in the world, in relation to its size strongwilled, but intelligent Welsh Cob Pony larger version of the Western Mountain Pony tough, sound, spirited & courageous Connemara considered the best performance pony in the world from Ireland Fjord from Norway both mane & tail have black hairs in the center & silver on the outside miniature horses not a breed, but need to be <34 inches to be registered January 7, 2016 Color and Markings (Ch 8 colors; Ch 10 genetics) Horse Colors Genetics generally, all horses are genetically black or red determined by the expression of same gene (EE & Ee ability to form black pigment; ee black skin but hair is red) exceptions if white gene is expressed as 1 dominant & 1 recessive (Ww), skin will be pink & hair white 2 dominant present (WW) is a lethal gene (die before born; only with white; true dominant white lethal) 8 gray gene (Gg & GG) causes silvering with age but horse is born any nongray color & will always contain pigment in skin & eyes all other color patterns are based on how modifier or dilution genes effect the base black or red modifying genes determine the expression or how the color falls ex) uniform black vs black only legs, ears, mane, & tail with red body (bay color) dilution genes lighten the base colors depending on their expression Black Body: true black & NO brown at muzzle or flanks ever Mane & Tail: black relatively rare most “black horses” are really registered as “day bay or brown” Chestnut/Sorrel Chestnut TB term; Sorrel QH term essentially the red base color Body: dark or brownish red Mane & Tail: usually dark or brownish red; may be flaxen Brown/Seal Brown modification of black body: brown or black with light hairs on flank, muzzle, eyes, tips of ears hints of red hair; can be light or dark seal brown Mane & Tail: black Bay modification of black body: range from tan through red to reddish brown; dark (black) points; can be dark bay, blood bay, light bay 9 mane & tail: black Grey mixture of white with any colored hairs dappled flea bitten (spots or specks) born solid, dark color, & get white with age Roans uniform mixture of white hairs with other solid color blue roan, red roan, bay roan White born white always white pink skin under the white; evidenced around the eyes eye color can be brown, hazel, or blue very rare (look for pink skin) Modifications and Dilutions Grulla dilution of black or seal brown body: smoky or mousecolored; black points usually a dorsal stripe each hair smoky or mousecolored; not a mixture of black & white hairs mane & tail: black Dun dilution of dark bay or seal brown body: sooty yellow to yellowred; dorsal strip, zebra stripes on legs, & transverse stripes over withers mane & tail: may be black, brown, red, yellow, white, or mixed Perlino double dilution of bay body: offwhite or pearl color; sometimes rust color on lower legs 10 mane & tail: rust color on tips of mane & tail Cremello double dilution of Chestnut body: offwhite or cream mane & tail: lighter mane & tail Color Breeds Appaloosa mottled skin (muzzle & genital regions) vertically stripped hooves shorter/thinner mane & tail coat patterns blanket most common leopard white with colored spots other variations… may occur with any body color Buckskin dilution of bay (different dilution gene from Dun) Body: yellowish or gold; usually black on lower legs & possibly ears; usually don’t have dorsal stripe but it is accepted by breed registry mane & tail: black Palomino dilution of Chestnut body: golden body; ranges from very light to dark golden mane & tail: flaxen (white) mane & tail Paints (2+ inches of white to be paint) tobiano usually has head markings like a solid colored horse; regular & distinct markings—round or oval patterns 11 overo will often have a bald face; tail is often 1 color; white does not cross the back; white is “splotchy” or irregular tovero dark pigment around ears & mouth; spots on chest and/or flank; one or more blue eyes Horse Markings head markings: star: white mark on forehead stripe: narrow white mark down face snip: mark between nostrils blaze: broad white mark down face, extended over nose bald: very wide blaze covering most of face & down over nostrils 12 leg markings January 12 & 14, 2016 Age, Height, and Weight of Horses (Ch 9) terms foal young, unweaned horse; generally, one’s date of birth is Jan 1 weanling young horse 6 months 1 yr old yearling horse between 12 yrs old 13 2 years old horse between 23 yrs old Determining Age best way is with good records using teeth to determine age: an old practice becomes harder as the horses age feed, environment, heredity, disease stabled horses appear younger than range horses (usually) might not be true when…. parrot mouth overbite with teeth monkey mouth underbite should look at desired use “prime” age 412 years old average lifespan= 24 years but horses can live to be 30+ 4 key changes in teeth: 1 occurrence of permanent teeth 2 disappearance of cups 3 angle of incidence 4 shape of surface of teeth figure 91: position of teeth teeth: 24 deciduous (temporary); 42 adult (permanent) 1. Occurrence of permanent teeth horses have two sets of teeth (temporary & permanent) temporary: “baby” or “milk teeth” temporary incisors erupt in pairs at 8 days, 8 weeks, and 8 months 14 temporary: more refined neck where the crown and root meet at the gum line; whiter in color; more rounded & shorter permanent incisors erupt: st 1 pair (central)=2 ½ years nd 2 pair (intermediates)= 3 ½ years last pair (corners)= 4 ½ years canines (tusks): appear at 45 years old between incisors & molars of geldings and stallions but seldom mares 2. Disappearance of Cups cups= deep indentures in the center of the surfaces of young, permanent teeth order of smoothness of cups lower central, intermediate, corners (6, 7, 8 years) upper central, intermediate, corners (9, 10, 11 years) smooth mouth= 11 years (some say 9 years) as cups disappear dental stars appear 3. Angle of incidence refers to the angle at which the upper and lower incisors meet 160180 degrees in young horses less than right angle in older horses (incisors slant forward and outward) 4. Shape of Surface of Teeth shape changes greatly with wear & age broad & flat= around 35 years oval= around 69 years round= around 1015 years Galvayne’s Groove a longitudinal depression which appears at the gum line on the surface of the upper corner incisor at 910 years of age 15 15 years= extends halfway down tooth 20 years= extends all the way down tooth 25 years= halfway gone from the tooth 30 years= disappears from tooth Measuring Horses height and weight are influenced by age, breed, type, sex, nutrition height measured in hands measured on level ground from top of withers 2 ground when horse is set up 1 hand= 4 inches can use height stick or measuring tape weight influenced by breed, type, age, nutrition importance of determination: amount of feed needed & adequacy of feeding program potential health issues optimal training and competing ?? fully pigmented gg no true white no silvering black Ee/EE, aa, CC, dd, gg, ww, toto P. 229 table 10.2 P. 232 table 10.3 weight 16 most people underestimate weight use scale (horse or truck), weight tape, girth movement tables, formula: [(HG x L)/330] = body weight in lbs. (adult) HG – 25.1/0.007= body weight (foals 16 weeks old) **(HG) Heart girth and (L) length measured in inches Heart girth alone can be used: some tapes give a direct reading of girth to weight or can use a table to get estimate nomograms twodimensional diagram allowing approximate graphical computation of a function Choosing and Buying a Horse seek help/advice from friends, 4H leaders/Extension, veterinarians, farmers, ranchers, professors Locating a horse friends, advertisements, dealers, farms, auctions, trainers Things to Consider Level of involvement: own a horse (includes owning residence & boarding facility) take lessons, rent horse, lease & board horse January 19, 2016 Selection and Buying Considerations age of rider/horse; size of rider/horse; training; sex of horse; disposition and vices; facilities available; conformation; market value Illness and First Aid Signs of Health Good body condition amount of fat cover uses scoring system of 19 (1dead/emancipated; 9 obese; 5 is ideal) winter hair may mask appearance of fat 17 different body conformations, late gestation mares and horses with grass bellies (belly so full of grass bc they graze all day) may make it harder to correctly determine BC 6 areas to determine BC: ribs, behind shoulders, along neck, along withers, tailhead, crease down back [posted on moodle] poor (1), very thin (2), thin (3), moderately thin (4), moderate (5), moderate to fleshy (6), fleshy (7), fat (8), extremely fat (9) [just know 1 is poor almost dead, emancipated; 9 is obese, extremely fat] hair coat, hoof growth, eyes, manure/urine, body weight Recognizing Illness temperature: 99 F101 F (normal) rectal heart rate: varies with age; to determine pulse, press fingers against artery (15 secs x 4) mature: 2840 beats/minute newborn: 80120 beats/minute foals: 6080 beats/minute yearling: 4060 beats/minute respiration rate: 816 respirations/minute determine by breaths/air from nostrils or flanks if respiration is greater than heart rate, there’s a problem 18 gut sounds (want to hear but not too many; means food is moving through system): 13 sounds/minute absence of gut sounds are usually more critical than excessive sounds mucosal color (gums, around eyes, etc) mucus membranes: gums, inside lips of vulva, nostrils, conjunctiva (want to be pink not white or red) skin pliability: test for dehydration appetite/weight loss; depression; nasal discharge; coughing; swelling; behavior First Aid horses are prone to injury always keep a first aid kit readily available: bandage scissors, bandage/gauze/tape, tranquilizers, etc. have veterinarians phone # handy
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