Ansc 211 Exam 3 Notes
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Date Created: 02/25/16
1 Ansc 211 Exam 3 Lecture Notes General Nutrition Nutrition: the science of how the body uses nutrients in feeds to sustain life and for productive purposes nutrient: any chemical substance in the diet that supports or maintains life processes ***6 classes of nutrients: water, carbohydrate, fat, vitamins, minerals, protein (know) essential nutrient: a nutrient that’s required in the diet proper nutrition is essential for proper functioning of various activities in the body. Nutrition influences growth, reproduction, lactation, carcass traits and general health of the animal. reproduction first to go when improper nutrition water (general): most abundant/cheapest nutrient sources include: drinking, feedstuffs, metabolic 2 O (byproduct of rxns in cell) [metabolic processes] horses can drink 1012 gallons of water a day water (functions): transport nutrients/compounds biochemical rxns (reactions) in the cell regulation of body temperature solvent for solid components lubricates and cushions joints carbohydrates (CHO): includes sugars, starch (easily digestible = NSC), cellulose (structural, so less digestible) NSC= nonstructural carb stored as glycogen in animals primary use is to provide the animal with energy Energy energy needs vary 2 NSC (sugars & starches) are readily utilized & provide much of the horse’s dietary energy NSC are mainly digested & absorbed in the small intestine Energy Nutrients (CHO): microorganisms break down fiber into useable organic acids (VFA’s Volatile fatty acids) young and/or working horses need more NSC and less fiber must feed a minimum amount of coarse fiber to promote normal physiological activity of the G.I. Tract horse has to have roughage (grass or hay, etc) Protein (General): long chains of amino acids (building blocks) made up of C, H, O ,2N and S crude protein: % N in feed x 6.25 protein is ~16% N so (100/16) = 6.25 most people over feed protein to their horses most expensive financially and metabolically Protein (functions): basic structural unit components of lean tissue metabolism: enzymes, protein hormones (LH, FSH, etc), immune system used for energy Energy Nutrients (Protein): horse must have a good, complete protein source in diet age & activity level determine the horse’s requirements for protein (dietary protein requirements of horses pic posted on moodle) lipids/fats (general) esters of fatty acids and glycerol provides 2.25X more energy than carbohydrates or proteins on an equal weight basis 3 supplies essential fatty acids lipids/fats (functions) energy supply provides heat, insulation, protection provides essential fatty acids necessary for the absorption of the fatsoluble vitamins energy nutrients (fat): a small amount of fat in the diet is important horse capable of digesting and utilizing up to 30% of energy need as fat fat is digested more slowly than CHO or protein adds shine to coat vitamins (general): organic compounds—made from carbon needed in small amounts for growth and maintenance of animals necessary for metabolic rxns in cell (coenzymes or prosthetic groups) vitamins (functions) fatsoluble vitamins: regulation of body functions: vision (A), blood clotting (D), and tissue maintenance (E) growth: bone development (K) vitamins A, D, E, K watersoluble vitamins body metabolic regulation vitamins needed in very small amounts vitamins cannot be synthesized within the body in sufficient amounts high quality, leafy, green forages plus plenty of sunshine usually give horse most of vitamins they need minerals 4 inorganic components (bones/teeth) very important part of body’s enzyme systems (Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn, P) serve in mineral/vitamin interrelationships (Vita E/Se; B /12o) maintain acidbase balance (Na, Cl, K) look at minerals as a group, rather than as individual elements balancing act between calcium and phosphorus need 1.) adequate supply of both Ca and P; 2.) in a suitable ratio; with 3.) enough Vita D for assimilation and utilization of both Ca: P chart on moodle The G.I Tract & Nutrition steps in digestion: prehension: process by which the animal brings the food into its mouth by biting & grasping mastication: process of chewing food to mechanically reduce size of food particles salivation: the mixing of saliva with food during mastication deglutition: the passing of food to the stomach by peristaltic waves of muscle contraction digestion: stomach and intestines. In the stomach, HCl and various enzymes are secreted, mixed with food to begin chemical breakdown of the feed. Peristaltic contractions cause a churning of food to create a “mixing” effect. Once food passes out of the stomach, it enters the small intestine where further digestion and absorption of nutrients occurs. ***majority of digestion & absorption occurs in the small intestine duodenum: bile and pancreatic enzymes are secreted and is a major site of chemical breakdown of food ***majority of digestion occurs in duodenum jejunum: Longest part of the small intestine. Main function is absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream. ***most of absorption occurs in jejunum ileum: some absorption occurs, but primarily it serves as the connection to the large intestine large intestine: consists of three parts: colon, caecum, rectum 5 function is to scavenge water, electrolytes, vitamins, minerals, & VFA’s. Introduction (Horses) feed is a major cost historically, nutrition has been one of the most neglected aspects of horse care and management digestive system: nonruminant herbivore & hindgut fermenter Hindgut Fermenters: horses have a SIMPLE stomach with an extensive intestinal system and an enlarged cecum the cecum acts like a rumen (but is less efficient) and is involved with microbial digestion (fermentation) monogastric digestion: Chewing: some amylase added through saliva Stomach: acid breakdown of food particles. Some protein degradation through action of pepsin (enzyme) secreted in gastric juices. small intestine: pancreatic secretions include trypsin & peptidase: degrades protein to amino acids; amylase, maltase, & sucrose: converts starch & sugars into glucose; lipase: converts fats into fatty acids. Bile also aids in fat & fat soluble vitamin absorption. horse digestion: stomach: Small, so feeding is frequent in contrast to ruminants. small intestines: major site of digestion and absorption of nutrients. *never feed more than .75% of body weight at one time stomach of horse functions best at 2/3 capacity large intestine (cecum/colon): microbial fermentation takes place hindgut fermenter VFA’s absorbed and used for energy microbial protein not utilized much by horse coprophagy: eating of feces by horse usually due to severe protein deficient diet 6 horse is less efficient than ruminants in feed utilization and therefore must have better quality feed (protein). 7 Horse Behavior temperament important quality qualities of a “good tempered horse”: obedient, intelligent, trainable, courageous, confident, calm How can we determine a horse’s temperament? observe it, handle it, ask (owner, trainer, breeder), number of previous owners many different temperament types ethology study of behavior of animals in their natural surroundings with focus on innate behavior a relatively new area of Animal Science need to apply ethology to handle animals understanding behavior means SAFETY!! address animal welfare issues basic behavioral traits (livestock in general) *gregariousness herd animals SDO social dominance order; alpha and rest follow alpha promiscuous matings not monogamous (more than 1 mate) precocial young born and within hour ready to go (eyes opened and can move around unlike puppies and kittens) adaptability adapt to different conditions limited agility/docile temperament areas of study in animal behavior reactive behavior simple reflex communication: visual (e.g. use ears, eyes; laid back ears get away; forward alert) auditory (e.g. vocalize can mean nervous or letting other horses know something) 8 tactile (sense of touch) olfactory (sense of smell) shelter seeking visual field of vision ~220 degrees for each eye blind spots directly in front and behind horses see out of each eye independently (monocular) generally have poor vision so raises and lowers head to increase range of vision trouble judging height and distance hearing very good in most horses (rotate ears) can hear high tones we can’t hear touch horse’s skin very specialized can detect cold, hot, hard, soft, etc. some can detect electric fencing with lip hairs most sensitive spots are mouth, feet, flanks, neck, shoulders use different grooming supplies on different areas of body smell most animals have a very good sense of smell stallions can detect mares in estrus from far away good idea to let them smell you, tack, surroundings, etc. before attempting to train or use aggression & social structure involved in obtaining food, mates, securing place in the herd. “pecking order” or “alpha” animal dominance hierarchies introduction of two strange horses 9 head high, tails up, necks arched, ears erect (then flat), nostrils flared. May squeal, rear, strike, kick. make introductions slowly once dominance established, only subtle threats needed to maintain it. Social Structure social attachments occur and can become very strong if very strong, can be quite traumatic if separated hard to manage so should try to keep the attachments from becoming too strong sexual behavior involves courtship, mating and maternal behavior controlled by hormones, but some is learned can be affected by way animals are reared or the environment epimeletic/etepimeletic behavior [know the difference btw these two] epimeletic care giving or attention etepimeletic signaling for care and attention both very common in horses epimeletic behavior displayed several ways mutual grooming: nibble each other in areas of neck, base of neck, withers, back, croup. Most tend to have regular grooming partners. Useful for handling untrained horses standing head to tail: swat flies for each other huddle together: bad weather or danger etepimeletic behavior used by all age groups most frequently observed when horses are separated from each other mares with foals horses with strong attachments/bonds 10 grooming behavior love to roll then stand and shake to remove insects/flies contract muscles use head on legs, shoulder, belly use tail use hindlegs/forelegs rub on fixed object or scratch itself with teeth or hindlegs investigative behavior horse’s inspection of environment by use of the senses and movement most horses are very curious will either investigate or flee if not allowed to investigate, will be nervous and apprehensive elimination/urination behavior urinates every 46 hours most will urinate in stall or trailer but some won’t some will urinate in same location because it becomes soft and doesn’t splatter defecates every 23 hours increases when nervous stallions tend to defecate in a small area, mares/geldings have no preference mimicry mimicry is common among horses learn to copy other horses at young age could be good or bad: when one group starts playing, others start playing wind sucking, chewing wood, becoming hard to catch can be learned from others play behavior 11 horses enjoy playing running, bucking, tossing head, chasing other horses play with objects in stall or pasture sticks, balls, hanging objects sleep behavior horses sleep standing up ~3 hours/day stay apparatus: system of tendons and ligaments that lock their legs [know this] survival mechanism horses spend about 2 hours/day lying down off and on abnormal behavior vices (bad habits): aggressive vices: charging, kicking, biting, bucking, striking flight responses: rearing, balking, shying, halter pulling, running away stall vices: kicking, wood chewing, cribbing, weaving, stall walking, bolting feed, pawing, tail rubbing, eating bedding/dirt
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