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Ansc 211 Exam 3 Notes

by: randomchic12

Ansc 211 Exam 3 Notes 211

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Notes covering all of the material that will be on Exam 3. This includes: -General Nutrition -The G.I. Tract & Nutrition -Horse Behavior
Intro to equine
Dr. Laura Gentry
Animal Science, equine, Horse, nutrition, GI tract, behavior, gastrointestinal tract
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This 11 page Bundle was uploaded by randomchic12 on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Bundle belongs to 211 at Louisiana Tech University taught by Dr. Laura Gentry in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views.

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Date Created: 02/25/16
1 Ansc 211 Exam 3 Lecture Notes General Nutrition ­Nutrition: the science of how the body uses nutrients in feeds to sustain life and for productive  purposes ­nutrient: any chemical substance in the diet that supports or maintains life processes ***­6 classes of nutrients: water, carbohydrate, fat, vitamins, minerals, protein (know) ­essential nutrient: a nutrient that’s required in the diet ­proper nutrition is essential for proper functioning of various activities in the body. Nutrition  influences growth, reproduction, lactation, carcass traits and general health of the animal. ­reproduction first to go when improper nutrition ­water (general): ­most abundant/cheapest nutrient ­sources include: drinking, feedstuffs, metabolic 2 O (byproduct of rxns in cell)  [metabolic processes] ­horses can drink 10­12 gallons of water a day ­water (functions): ­transport nutrients/compounds ­biochemical rxns (reactions) in the cell ­regulation of body temperature ­solvent for solid components ­lubricates and cushions joints ­carbohydrates (CHO): ­includes sugars, starch (easily digestible = NSC), cellulose (structural, so less digestible) ­NSC= non­structural carb ­stored as glycogen in animals ­primary use is to provide the animal with energy ­Energy ­energy needs vary 2 ­NSC (sugars & starches) are readily utilized & provide much of the horse’s dietary energy ­NSC are mainly digested & absorbed in the small intestine ­Energy Nutrients (CHO): ­microorganisms break down fiber into useable organic acids (VFA’s­ Volatile fatty acids) ­young and/or working horses need more NSC and less fiber ­must feed a minimum amount of coarse fiber to promote normal physiological activity  of the G.I. Tract ­horse has to have roughage (grass or hay, etc) ­Protein (General): ­long chains of amino acids (building blocks) ­made up of C, H, O ,2N and S ­crude protein: ­% N in feed x 6.25 ­protein is ~16% N so (100/16) = 6.25 ­most people over feed protein to their horses ­most expensive financially and metabolically ­Protein (functions): ­basic structural unit ­components of lean tissue ­metabolism: enzymes, protein hormones (LH, FSH, etc), immune system ­used for energy ­Energy Nutrients (Protein): ­horse must have a good, complete protein source in diet ­age & activity level determine the horse’s requirements for protein ­ (dietary protein requirements of horses pic posted on moodle) ­lipids/fats (general) ­esters of fatty acids and glycerol ­provides 2.25X more energy than carbohydrates or proteins on an equal weight basis 3 ­supplies essential fatty acids ­lipids/fats (functions) ­energy supply ­provides heat, insulation, protection ­provides essential fatty acids ­necessary for the absorption of the fat­soluble vitamins ­energy nutrients (fat): ­a small amount of fat in the diet is important ­horse capable of digesting and utilizing up to 30% of energy need as fat ­fat is digested more slowly than CHO or protein ­adds shine to coat ­vitamins (general): ­organic compounds—made from carbon ­needed in small amounts for growth and maintenance of animals ­necessary for metabolic rxns in cell (coenzymes or prosthetic groups) ­vitamins (functions) ­fat­soluble vitamins: ­regulation of body functions: vision (A), blood clotting (D), and tissue maintenance (E) ­growth: bone development (K) ­vitamins A, D, E, K ­water­soluble vitamins ­body metabolic regulation ­vitamins ­needed in very small amounts ­vitamins cannot be synthesized within the body in sufficient amounts ­high quality, leafy, green forages plus plenty of sunshine usually give horse most of  vitamins they need ­minerals 4 ­inorganic components (bones/teeth) ­very important part of body’s enzyme systems (Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn, P) ­serve in mineral/vitamin inter­relationships (Vita E/Se; B /12o) ­maintain acid­base balance (Na, Cl, K) ­look at minerals as a group, rather than as individual elements ­balancing act between calcium and phosphorus ­need 1.) adequate supply of both Ca and P; 2.) in a suitable ratio; with 3.) enough Vita D for assimilation and utilization of both ­Ca: P chart on moodle The G.I Tract & Nutrition ­steps in digestion: ­prehension: process by which the animal brings the food into its mouth by biting & grasping ­mastication: process of chewing food to mechanically reduce size of food particles ­salivation: the mixing of saliva with food during mastication ­deglutition: the passing of food to the stomach by peristaltic waves of muscle contraction ­digestion: stomach and intestines. In the stomach, HCl and various enzymes are  secreted, mixed with food to begin chemical breakdown of the feed. Peristaltic  contractions cause a churning of food to create a “mixing” effect. Once food passes out of the stomach, it enters the small intestine where further digestion and absorption of  nutrients occurs. ***­majority of digestion & absorption occurs in the small intestine ­duodenum: bile and pancreatic enzymes are secreted and is a major site of chemical  breakdown of food ***­majority of digestion occurs in duodenum ­jejunum: Longest part of the small intestine. Main function is absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream. ***­most of absorption occurs in jejunum ­ileum: some absorption occurs, but primarily it serves as the connection to the large  intestine ­large intestine: consists of three parts: colon, caecum, rectum 5 ­function is to scavenge water, electrolytes, vitamins, minerals, & VFA’s. ­Introduction (Horses) ­feed is a major cost ­historically, nutrition has been one of the most neglected aspects of horse care and  management ­digestive system: ­non­ruminant herbivore & hindgut fermenter ­Hindgut Fermenters: ­horses have a SIMPLE stomach with an extensive intestinal system and an enlarged cecum ­the cecum acts like a rumen (but is less efficient) and is involved with microbial  digestion (fermentation) ­monogastric digestion: ­Chewing: some amylase added through saliva ­Stomach: acid breakdown of food particles. Some protein degradation through action of  pepsin (enzyme) secreted in gastric juices. ­small intestine: pancreatic secretions include trypsin & peptidase: degrades protein to  amino acids; amylase, maltase, & sucrose: converts starch & sugars into glucose; lipase:  converts fats into fatty acids. Bile also aids in fat & fat soluble vitamin absorption. ­horse digestion: ­stomach: Small, so feeding is frequent in contrast to ruminants. ­small intestines: major site of digestion and absorption of nutrients. *­never feed more than .75% of body weight at one time ­stomach of horse functions best at 2/3 capacity ­large intestine (cecum/colon): ­microbial fermentation takes place ­hindgut fermenter ­VFA’s absorbed and used for energy ­microbial protein not utilized much by horse ­coprophagy: eating of feces by horse usually due to severe protein deficient diet 6 ­horse is less efficient than ruminants in feed utilization and therefore must have better  quality feed (protein). 7 Horse Behavior ­temperament ­important quality ­qualities of a “good tempered horse”: ­obedient, intelligent, trainable, courageous, confident, calm ­How can we determine a horse’s temperament? ­observe it, handle it, ask (owner, trainer, breeder), number of previous owners ­many different temperament types ­ethology study of behavior of animals in their natural surroundings with focus on innate behavior ­a relatively new area of Animal Science ­need to apply ethology to handle animals ­understanding behavior means SAFETY!! ­address animal welfare issues ­basic behavioral traits (livestock in general) *­gregariousness­ herd animals SDO­ social dominance order; alpha and rest follow alpha ­promiscuous matings­ not monogamous (more than 1 mate) ­precocial young­ born and within hour ready to go (eyes opened and can move around  unlike puppies and kittens) ­adaptability­ adapt to different conditions ­limited agility/docile temperament ­areas of study in animal behavior ­reactive behavior ­simple reflex ­communication:  visual (e.g. use ears, eyes; laid back ears­ get away; forward­ alert) ­auditory (e.g. vocalize can mean nervous or letting other horses know something) 8 ­tactile (sense of touch) ­olfactory (sense of smell) ­shelter seeking ­visual ­field of vision ~220 degrees for each eye blind spots directly in front and behind ­horses see out of each eye independently (monocular) ­generally have poor vision so raises and lowers head to increase range of vision ­trouble judging height and distance ­hearing ­very good in most horses (rotate ears) ­can hear high tones we can’t hear ­touch ­horse’s skin very specialized ­can detect cold, hot, hard, soft, etc. ­some can detect electric fencing with lip hairs ­most sensitive spots are mouth, feet, flanks, neck, shoulders ­use different grooming supplies on different areas of body ­smell ­most animals have a very good sense of smell ­stallions can detect mares in estrus from far away ­good idea to let them smell you, tack, surroundings, etc. before attempting to  train or use ­aggression & social structure ­involved in obtaining food, mates, securing place in the herd. “pecking order” or “alpha” animal ­dominance hierarchies ­introduction of two strange horses 9 ­head high, tails up, necks arched, ears erect (then flat), nostrils  flared. May squeal, rear, strike, kick. ­make introductions slowly ­once dominance established, only subtle threats needed to maintain it. ­Social Structure ­social attachments occur and can become very strong ­if very strong, can be quite traumatic if separated ­hard to manage so should try to keep the attachments from becoming too strong ­sexual behavior ­involves courtship, mating and maternal behavior ­controlled by hormones, but some is learned ­can be affected by way animals are reared or the environment ­epimeletic/et­epimeletic behavior [know the difference btw these two] ­epimeletic­ care giving or attention ­et­epimeletic­ signaling for care and attention ­both very common in horses ­epimeletic behavior ­displayed several ways ­mutual grooming: nibble each other in areas of neck, base of neck, withers, back, croup. Most tend to have regular grooming partners. Useful for handling  untrained horses ­standing head to tail: swat flies for each other ­huddle together: bad weather or danger ­et­epimeletic behavior ­used by all age groups ­most frequently observed when horses are separated from each other ­mares with foals ­horses with strong attachments/bonds 10 ­grooming behavior ­love to roll then stand and shake ­to remove insects/flies ­contract muscles ­use head on legs, shoulder, belly ­use tail ­use hindlegs/forelegs ­rub on fixed object or scratch itself with teeth or hindlegs ­investigative behavior ­horse’s inspection of environment by use of the senses and movement ­most horses are very curious ­will either investigate or flee ­if not allowed to investigate, will be nervous and apprehensive ­elimination/urination behavior ­urinates every 4­6 hours ­most will urinate in stall or trailer but some won’t ­some will urinate in same location because it becomes soft and doesn’t splatter ­defecates every 2­3 hours ­increases when nervous ­stallions tend to defecate in a small area, mares/geldings have no preference ­mimicry ­mimicry is common among horses ­learn to copy other horses at young age ­could be good or bad: ­when one group starts playing, others start playing ­wind sucking, chewing wood, becoming hard to catch can be learned  from others ­play behavior 11 ­horses enjoy playing ­running, bucking, tossing head, chasing other horses ­play with objects in stall or pasture ­sticks, balls, hanging objects ­sleep behavior ­horses sleep standing up ­~3 hours/day ­stay apparatus: system of tendons and ligaments that lock their legs [know this] ­survival mechanism ­horses spend about 2 hours/day lying down ­off and on ­abnormal behavior ­vices (bad habits): ­aggressive vices: charging, kicking, biting, bucking, striking ­flight responses: rearing, balking, shying, halter pulling, running away ­stall vices: kicking, wood chewing, cribbing, weaving, stall walking, bolting  feed, pawing, tail rubbing, eating bedding/dirt


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