Bisc 132 Exam 5 Lecture Notes
Bisc 132 Exam 5 Lecture Notes BISC 132
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This 11 page Bundle was uploaded by randomchic12 on Friday February 26, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BISC 132 at Louisiana Tech University taught by Dr. Kyle Kemege in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see The Diversity of Life in Biology at Louisiana Tech University.
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Date Created: 02/26/16
1 Bisc 132 Exam 5 Lecture Notes February 17, 2016 problems with respiration asthma many causes constriction of bronchi leads to reduced air flow to/from alveoli emphysema primary cause: cigarette smoking loss of flexibility in alveoli walls leads to alveoli breakdown less efficient breathing lung cancer primary cause: cigarette smoking results in tumors in walls of large bronchi constricts airways The Circulatory System (CH 49) blood (special) connective tissue blood= plasma + blood cells + platelets [3 components of blood] plasma: the fluid matrix of blood; mostly water nutrients (e.g. glucose) wastes (e.g. CO2) hormones ions (e.g. salts, buffers to control blood pH) proteins (e.g. fat carriers, fibrinogen blood clotting) regenerated quickly plasma w/o fibrinogen is called serum will not clot 2 blood cells several types produced by stem cells in bone marrow erythrocytes= red blood cells= RBC [be familiar with names] discshaped; no nuclei contain hemoglobin (protein), which carries O 2 erythropoietin (EPO): signals for RBC creation leukocytes= white blood cells= WBC involved in immune system platelets: cell fragments, not cells no nuclei; very small minor overall component of blood involved in clotting blood clotting 1.) platelets adhere to wound site & form sticky plug 2.) signals for formation of fibrin from fibrinogen fibrin traps RBCs, holds together clot 3.) as wound heals, clot dissolves comparing/contrasting circulatory systems of different species fish: single loop blood circulation birds, mammals, reptiles: fully divided 4 chambered heart 1.) blood in body/head loses its O —gives it to surrounding tissues that need it 2 blood is now deoxygenated drawn as blue 2.) blood enters heart through veins into right atrium blood going toward heart is in veins blood exiting heart is in arteries *blood enters heart through atria 3 3.) blood pumped from right atrium to right ventricle valve ensures oneway movement 4.) blood (deoxygenated) is pumped from right ventricle to lungs *blood leaves heart through ventricles (vent leaving through vent) 5.) at lungs, blood obtains O2 now is oxygenated blood (drawn red) 6.) oxygenated blood enters heart from lungs at left atrium 7.) blood pumped from left atrium to left ventricle valve ensures oneway movement 8.) blood (oxygenated) pumped from left ventricle to head/body in arteries *right chambers of heart deal with deoxygenated blood, left deal with oxygenated blood cardiovascular diseases atherosclerosis: hardening of the arteries many causes, not all are completely understood deposits of cholesterol, fatty materials, fibrin, cell debris along arterial walls impedes blood flow can cause myocardial infarctions (aka heart attack) death of cells in the heart caused by lack of blood/O2 no/few stem cells to supply heart with new cells strokes: death of brain cells caused by lack of blood/O2 few stem cells in brain to regenerate brain tissue February 19, 2016 The Immune System (CH 51) Innate Immune System simpler found even in simpler animals the skin physical barrier preventing entry by microorganisms 4 oil and sweat create low pH that inhibits microbial growth normal pathogenic flora (bacteria & fungi) exist on skin and help “crowd out” other microorganisms mucosal epithelial surfaces tracts lined with cells that secrete mucus physically trap invaders and/or degrade with enzymes some leukocytes have innate immune capabilities tolllike receptors (TLRs) on surfaces of some leukocytes recognize and bind to common patterns in viruses and bacteria signal for other immune cells *signaling molecules of immune system= cytokines phagocytic cells e.g. macrophages, neutrophils eat foreign material, destroy it process called phagocytosis neutrophils are first to arrive macrophages arrive slightly later & send cytokines to immune system to prepare for a longer response or signal all clear example: tissue damage lets microorganisms in past primary defense (skin) blood clots to seal wound cytokines released by damaged cells attract neutrophils inflammation as neutrophils enter tissue from blood stream neutrophils & later macrophages phagocytize microorganisms skin cells regenerate Adaptive Immune System adapts to deal with many possible threats B cells (matures in bone marrow) 5 produce antibodies aka abs, immunoglobins, Igs proteins that bind to epitopes of antigens antigen: substance (protein, carbohydrate, etc.) that abs bind to epitope: very specific structural region of an antigen abs have a distinctive “Y” shape two antigenbinding sites per ab *each B cell produces its own unique version of antibody that binds to a very specific epitope millions of B cells in body so millions of different epitopes can be recognized allows immune system to respond to possible antigens diversity of abs is achieved by randomly rearranging DNA for ab gene in maturing B cells B cells that produce abs that bind to antigens in normal human body are killed during development failure to do this results in autoimmunity (body attacking itself) abs can be secreted coating an antigen/microorganism with abs signals for it to ne phagocytized How to respond to a particular antigen? (how it’s able to adapt) abs on surface of B cells binding of antigen to a surface ab on a B cell signals for that cell to divide and secrete abs lots of that particular ab secreted side note: all cells present pieces of proteins that they are making if they are virus infected or cancerous, they are producing foreign antigens altered selfcells T cells (matures in thymus) do not produce abs! 2 types cytotoxic T cells 6 kill altered selfcells are Tcell receptors on T cell surfaces (never secreted!) that can bind to antigens presented by cells Tcell receptors are similar to abs in their incredible diversity and specificity millions of cytotoxic cells, each recognizing its own epitope if they bind to an antigen presented by a cell, cause that cell to destroy itself programmed cell death called apoptosis like B cells, T cells that react with normal selfantigens are killed during development if not, autoimmunity February 22, 2016 helper T cells regulate the immune system signal to start or stop immune response by secreting cytokines activated by interaction between their T cell receptor and an antigen presented by a macrophage incredibly important HIV kills T helper cells after an immune response, B cells and/or cytotoxic T cells that were involved can become memory cells live for years/decades when they encounter same antigen again, they can mount an immune response more rapidly better and faster immune response second time often prevents symptoms vaccines rely on formation of memory cells expose individual to vaccine inactivated (dead pathogen) 7 still has antigens OR live “attenuated” pathogen less active than normal little/no damage symptoms still has antigens OR purified antigens from pathogens (proteins, etc.) have immune response to antigens memory cells created prevent subsequent infection e.g. the influenza vaccine flu virus evolves rapidly changes epitopes old memory cells might not recognize the epitopes in next year’s prevalent virus need new flu vaccine each year some individuals are not healthy enough to receive vaccines some individuals (rare!) vaccines do not create proper immune response some individuals elect to not get vaccinated herd immunity if a certain high percentage of individuals in a population are vaccinated this will provide protection for those who are not as more individuals elect to not get vaccinated, herd immunity breaks down The Digestive System (CH 47) digestive process in humans mastication: chewing teeth: specialized machinery to chew saliva: produced by salivary glands some digestive enzymes but is a small factor 8 moistens food for easier passage swallowing: voluntary action that triggers an involuntary set of actions soft palate in the epiglottis prevents food from entering into nasal passage epiglottis prevents food from entering trachea to lungs peristalsis rhythmic contraction of muscles that moves the food down to the stomach stomach cells secrete gastric juice (HCl) (low pH) denature/unfold proteins kills many microorganisms cells are lined with mucus to prevent selfdigestion acidresistant enzymes are used to break down proteins chyme: mixture of partially digested food and gastric juice pyloric sphincter junction between stomach and duodenum of small intestine where chyme leaves stomach to enter small intestine small intestine walls lined with villi and micro villi to increase surface area absorption several accessory glands February 24, 2016 pancreas secretes enzymes into small intestine to break down proteins, carbohydrates, and fats secretes bicarbonate to neutralize acidity of chyme liver secretes bile liver waste products bile salts to emulsify fats gall bladder: stores bile to prepare for incoming fats in small intestine small intestine 9 absorbs brokendown sugars, fats, and amino acids to bloodstream absorbs most of liquid in chyme large intestine not as long as small intestine but larger diameter no digestion compact waste & absorb remaining water bacteria in large intestine break down fiber and produce vitamins that are absorbed most of feces is dead bacteria peristaltic contractions compact feces sphincter allows for delayed defecation digestion in herbivores herbivores have evolved digestive processes that allow for cellulose digestion e.g. foregut fermentation in ruminants (like cows) have a 4chambered stomach 1 chamber= rumen large chamber where bacteria break down cellulose regurgitate contents of the rumen to repeatedly chew food— allows for more complete breakdown e.g. hindgut fermentation nonruminant herbivores (like rodents, rabbits, etc.) have a large cecum before large intestine—houses bacteria that breakdown cellulose problem: best absorption of nutrients is in small intestine and cecum is after small intestine solution: coprophagy eat own feces produce two types of droppings: soft pellets and hard pellets 10 soft pellets are eaten, to give nutrients a pass through small intestine; need to do this for proper nutrition hard pellets are not eaten The Urinary System (CH 50) functions of urinary system 1.) filtration: remove wastes and other small molecules from bloodstream 2.) reabsorption: retrieve useful molecules back into bloodstream 3.) secretion: disposal of wastes February 26, 2016 kidneys 2 kidneys in the lower back each kidney has millions of nephrons each nephron has a glomerulus 1.) blood arrives at kidney from artery (high pressure) 2.) forces small molecules (e.g. H O2 glucose, urea, ions, etc.) through porous walls of glomerulus cells, platelets, proteins are not filtered because too big 3.) glomerular filtrate enters a convoluted system of nephron tubes surrounded by bloodcontaining capillaries 4.) reabsorption of useful molecules into bloodstream (e.g. amino acids, glucose, H O2 etc.) 5.) loop of Henle helps in reabsorption of H O2 concentrates wastes in urine 6.) all nephrons empty their contents into a common duct, leads to urinary bladder for storage 7.) urine excreted from urinary bladder via urethra blood is filtered many times per day reabsorption of water is important to avoid water loss reabsorption of nutrients is also important glucose or other nutrients in urine indicates something wrong 11 some drugs are filtered out easily and not reabsorbed therefore, need multiple doses per day (because body keeps filtering them out) wastes water: get rid to maintain a normal total blood volume H (Hydrogen ions): get rid to maintain pH of blood ions: maintain homeostasis of ions in blood excess nitrogen (nitrogen waste) amino acids (proteins) and nucleotides (DNA & RNA) contain nitrogen their breakdown produces nitrogen fish easily excrete ammonia (NH ) 3nto surrounding water reptiles and birds convert ammonia to uric acid costs a lot of energy uric acid is solid eliminated with less water loss in shelled eggs, uric acid builds up and cannot leave egg but solid uric acid can be set aside in egg and not affect development most mammals create urea which is excreted in urine humans create urea and uric acid uric acid buildup in joints causes gout
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