KIN 155 Notes
KIN 155 Notes 155
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Date Created: 02/08/15
KIN 155 Notes August 27th Leading cause of death is heart disease followed by cancer Diseases highlighted in red are physically related diseases for instance some risk factors of heart disease are fried food These diseases can be reversed due to physical activity Activity prevents these diseases RED Physical Inactivity related diseases When we are more active we oxidize more fat BLUE if someone has this disease activity slows down the progression chronic liver Alzheimer s Parkinson 710 deaths are related to chronic disease Chronic Disease 0 Develops over a long period of time 0 Related to environmental factors smoking how you eat 0 If you have high stresssmoke stogs your genomes are going to become hypertensive Doctor may prescribe you medicine to lower blood pressure but its solely due to the medicine not your body changing 0 Our goal is to have changes in the body to reduce the blood pressure We want to reverse the pathophysiology o The pathophysiology does not go away Medicine does not changeit Physical inactivity poor nutrition smoking and excess alcohol are responsible for early death related to chronic disease Sleep is also important as well Physical activity reduces blood pressure excess body fat cancer diabetes Physical Activity changes the pathophysiology that prevents and alleviates disease Only about 484 meet the physical activity guidelines The guidelines are the minimal requirements necessary to achieve good health benefits 30 minutes of moderate activity 5 days a week Inactivity is a societal and environmental problem Social activities don39t require activity video games hanging out etc Environmental being that our environment isn t conducive to our activity There are rarely bike lanes you would get hit on USl Type 2 Diabetes Heart Disease and Cancer 3050 are caused by inactivity Inactivity increases medical costs by 75 billion People are living longer with chronic disease Graph 0 Volume of physical activity that people perform as decreased Blue 0 Yellow as activity volume goes down we have seen an incline in disease rates 0 As time goes on volume of PA goes down increase in activity related disease o If someone is below than the guidelines they are more at risk Variables that affect PA 0 Age when we get older we get less active amp less availability towards us We need to make the effort 0 Gender males are more active than females due to gender roles cut the grass Men have more lean muscle mass as well 0 Education the smarter you are you are more active Higher education means more access to facilities You are also more educated about the bene ts of activity You have a higher administrative role and can chose your schedule 0 Socioeconomic Status access to gyms 0 Ethnicity minority groups tend to be less active than the white population Moderate Activity Chart as we age our activity goes down You are at risk of inactivity 0 Moderate Activity is 3 mph 0 Vigorous Activity is 5 mph It39s a brisk walkslight jog 0 From 18 to 23 you see the biggest drop in inactivity Why When you go to college you get a job you stop working out It39s a split road where you choose different areas of life In the last 50 years the typical energy expenditure decreased about 800 calories per day Why We drive our cars everywhere We sit on the computer and cellphones We have engineered activity out of ourl e TYPE UP NOTES FROM LAST CLASS September 3rCI Exercise physical activity performed with a speci c external objective whether being improved tness improved performance and improved health Outcomes and Variables 0 Improve your cardiovascular tness V02 Max Volume of Oxygen Consumed or Utilized what is the most amount of oxygen someone can use to consume energy The more oxygen you utilize the higher your tness level is o Muscular Fitness and StrengthMuscle Endurance the most you can bench is 200 lbs this is a sign of muscle strength 0 Body composition body fat That is the amount of fat weight you have relative to your total body weight 0 Flexibility range of motion around a joint The more exible you are the more range of motion you have 0 When we exercise we are trying to accomplish one of these variables Physical Activity any muscular contraction that increased the energy expenditure 0 Lifestyle Activity occupational activity walking to and from class 0 Leisure Time Activity playing soccer taking an aerobics class there is no other reason for the activity other than the activity itself Exercise and Sports and Hobbies Sedentary Behavior time spent in activities that do not increase energy expenditure 0 Studying video games Net ix No formal exercise can actually be better than a desk job where you just work out for one hour If you are slowly moving all day long spending minimal time in sedentary behavior you are better off than sitting at your desk and working out for an hour Sedentary Behavior Cont 0 Average Adult sits 93 hours a day 0 Obese people sit 25 hours more than normal people What happens when you sit 0 When we sit enzyme activity slows down and fat is being stored As soon as you sit caloric expenditure drops 1 kcalminute HDL we want to be high LDL is bad After two hours the enzyme activity of HDL drops 20 lnsulin sensitivity decreases lnsulin takes sugar out of our blood to be used for energy The more sensitive it is the better it transports When you loose sensitivity you have high blood sugar levels leads to diabetes For your muscle to make energy it needs oxygen from the blood stream It gets pumped to the muscle from the heart and brought in from the atmosphere through the lungs This helps to break down fats and carbs At low levels of exercise you do not need much energy If you are sprinting you need more oxygen increasing the heart rate further and breathing rate higher The more muscle we contract more oxygen we need higher breathe rate and heart rate 0000 In tness the higher we work the better changes we see in tness levels This is when we see good changes in the cardiovascular levels Light Activity MET Level lt3 Metabolic Equivalent 1 MET is 35 ml of oxygen for kg of body weight on estimate a person resting is working at 1 MET Doing the dishes Moderate light walk MET 3060 33 mph shooting around playing basketball stationary bike 70w Higher MET harder the exercise Vigorous MET gt60 jogging stationary bike 130w Physical Activity any muscle contraction increases expenditure Physical Fitness ability to do work What is more important It is about improving your tness level If you want to improve tness levels you need to do activity that is going to be harder and make you to adapt We want to do activity that is high enough to cause adaptations to do more work Quintiles of Exercise Capacity 0 Highest tness level has less risk of death than the lowest tnessleveL o The biggest drop is from one to two this person went from PlayStation 3 to a Wii To increase 1 MET is the biggest jump Physical Fitness 0 Health Related Fitness affected by habitual physical activity that relates to health status 0 Performance Related Fitness components of tness that are necessary for OPTIMAL work or sports performance Morphological Changes physical changes body composition fat distribution bone density Cardiovascular heart function blood pressure lung function Metabolic insulin sensitivity substrate oxidation lipid metabolism Motor balance coordination gait how someone walks Physical Activity Health Related Bene ts 0 If you increase your physical activity level you will have improvements in health 0 Physical activity with an adequate intensity then we will see an improved tness 0 When you have improved tness you are likely to be able to do more Met QUIZ 2 Performance adaptations increase the chances of survival If you were the slow caveman you were being eaten by the tiger If you are fast and can go out searching for food without fatiguing you will survive longer The nervous system in the brain when you rst ride a bike your body adapts and you learn how to do it Physical activity is necessary for hunting physical activity results in improved performance capacity motor skill and cerebral functions increase in hunting success rate increase success results in more food more food nutrients for survive and energy for physical development Stone Age Activity 0 These people did a lot of walking and running to catch their pray Dancing entertainment Carrying items or children Lifting Digging 0 Combination of cardiovascular training and resistance training Cave man to couch potato is due to the technology continuum o The volume of activity as dramatically declined over time 0 Why In stage 1 we were huntergatherers and were active Then we gured out how to catch contain reproduce animals domesticate them At this time you had to burn calories to get calories 0 Next we have the industrial revolution where cars were born Next we have the technology revolution 0 1 Hunting and Gathering 2 Domestication of Animals 3 Industrial Revolution 4 Technology Revolution As we became smarter we pulled activity out of our lives 19091970l washer and driers and things to just reduce activity 2009 and on we see increase in internet video games etc Caloric Intake 0 19091970 caloric intake is relatively stable 0 19702009 lower cost high energy foods supersizing convenience food were getting more foods cheaper Differences in Energy Expenditure o The average huntergather was 126 lbs burning 99 kcallbday 1247 kcalday 1113 miles of walking 0 The average man or woman is 141 lbs burning 39kcallbday 550kcalday 46 miles of walking 0 Huge difference Late stone agers were smaller but much more muscular to the typical contemporary beings because they were leaner built like Olympians They are smaller because you need calories to grow They are constantly expending calories to get more calories and you need calories for growth It was a constant energy race OOOO Todays energy expenditure is 65 that of late stoneagers Current guidelines for health are only 44 of what the late stone agers did Evolutionary Paradox as we increase our cognitive abilities our brains got larger Although it seems great and more ef cient we removed all activity Every invention we have is supposed to make everything easier Stone agers were designed for activity If they weren t active they wouldn39t survive Over time there has been major change in PA Human genome has not changed as much so there is a mismatch Over time we became smarter we developed to make things easier Evolutionary Paradox Thrifty Gene Hypothesis 0 Helps explain body fat gaining and loosing weight 0 Essentially our genes are designed for survival and to manage and store energy 0 Whenever we have a lot of food or no food our body is able to deal with this 0 Back in the day people would roam and nd an abundance of food They get all of this meat and have nowhere to store it They would literally feast and eat as much as they possibly can lling with excess energy Our human physiology breaks it down and stores the excess energy as fat The excess stuff or fat is stored energy When you cannot nd food the body has something to break down so that you can maintain energy levels 0 Outcomes Feasting Fasting you break down fat but if the fasting state continues it breaks down muscle protein Your metabolic rate goes down You start to acquire less its an ef ciency program Muscle atrophy as we break down muscle protein you need less calories you become less likely to be active Your body is biologically trying to do less activity to help with survival As we break down muscle protein we require less calories You are less likely to be active because you are weaker It is training your body to reduce activity to help you take in less Thrifty Gene you can stop eating for a day or two but if you stop meeting your caloric requirements your metabolic rate goes down Small frequent meals never want to crash diet You want some activity in there Reduce your caloric intake and start running marathon runners should not do this because it is too much for the body to handle You loose 10 lbs but you look like a smaller fat person As a mechanism of efficiency the muscle mass decreased Physical Inactivity Epidemiology O O 0 What dictates how active someone is We all have a genetic core Genetics limit us to a certain parameter You have a big leeway however Study shows that if your parents are active you may have those DNA changes to make you active as well Center the genetic core Middle the host the person Outside layers biological social and physical broken up in thirds Biological gender age your disease state factors that are programmed for you already Social your resources and attitude do you like to work out Is your family supportive Do you have the nancial capabilities Physical your environment around you can you ride a bike Is the weather good outside When you combine these we see the physical and social are a big problem Social entertainment does not revolve around activity Graph 0 O O O O O 8000 BC our genome requires activity those who are active will survive Our genome has not changed 2 differentiates us from a chimp Now were in 2002 in a sedentary lifestyle our muscles want to contract and move lnsulin which brings sugar into the muscles so we can use it the insulin is not being used and its becoming insensitive Muscles put a strain on the skeleton We need this strain and if we don39t our muscles break down and we become frail Our brains want this reward system and if we don39t achieve it you can experience depression We do not match what our genetics want us to do Physical lnactivity Altered Gene Expression Change Phenotype the outcome of the gene Depression If someone is physically active they move away from threshold of disease They are less likely to get disease Today people have susceptibility to certain diseases due to genetics diabetes overweight etc People think if its passed down then we are absolutely going to get it as well It does not have to be that way If you throw physical inactivity on top of it you will likely get the disease You can be susceptible but if you are physically active it will override that genetic in uence Chronic diseases you can x the pathophysiology Exercise is good for you versus inactivity can kill you 0 We need to alter this We should be active its more than just goodforyou From the article 0 O O 0 Abstract how human genes are incongruent in western societies Discusses the mismatch of what is going on Part 2 physical activity in the stone age most people were nomads Despite the weather conditions like a cold environment etc they are still more active than today Part 3 health implications and skeletal diseases body composition insulin resistance Body composition and insulin resistance People say carbs are a bad thing Carbs are a macronutrient the way we are served them is what is bad Muscles burn carbs More carbs than fat Read abstract into and discussion
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