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Date Created: 02/09/15
Biology 100 Exam 1 Lectures 08222012 August 22 12 Lecture 2 Principles Basic rules or laws Bio Greek for study of life Vinagaroon half spider half scorpion Shoots vinegar Alive or Not Alive 0 Life occurs in about 1 billion organisms His personal opinion The actual guess is about 5 billion Most of the species are microscopic Human Bean Approach 0 Large Mammals 0 Large Plants What is life 0 Life simultaneous occurrence of the following features in an object 0 Carbon Hydrogen and Oxygen What they are made up of amp about 20 other elements ie NPKCaMgS Full of water 0 The object ls has or uses cells Senses and responds to the environment Exchanges materials with the environment gases and solids Organisms can reproduce Have the capacity to evolve Not as an individual but as a species The items listed above are reasons as to why something is considered living Extraordinary examples sometimes alive sometimes not Sea Monkeys Brine Shrimp Artemia Salina formal name Embryos amp Case cysts What the female makes in order to create baby sea monkeys When the water dries out the females make the cysts They are dry without any water They also cannot exchange materials with the environment When you add water they begin to move and swim like a living organism o Lichens Fungus alga resurrection stick white stuff on tree bark Moss very similar to lichens Can become temporarily nonliving Fern mosses and lichens when they dry out they no longer meet the de nition of being alive however when they are wet they are considered alive again 0 When they dry out they do not exchange materials with the environment and cannot respond to the environment Can withstand liquid nitrogen because it is not living NOTHING CAN WITHSTAND LIQUID NITROGEN EXCEPT THINGS AT 300 DEGREES CELCIUS Stem cells embryos eggs sperm Can all withstand liquid nitrogen They are not living Soaked in Glycerol which replaces the water of the cells also known as DMSO Viruses Made of protein nucleic acid DNA or RNA Some have a little bit of sugar and some have a little bit of fat 0 If virus gets into a cell they replace it and cause that cell to reproduce the virus not the original cell 0 Flu cold measles AIDS herpes ebola virus August 24 12 Lecture 3 Cellular Basis of Life Viruses 0 Which features of life do viruses contain 0 They enter cells in order to evolve o Composed of carbon hydrogen and oxygen Fun Fact The US is experiencing the worst outbreak of west Nile virus in 13 years 10 Billion viruses into each gram of stool 523000 different types of viruses in that Pdons Strands of protein 0 Prions CAN evolve but only can evolve themselves if in a cell 0 If they enter a nerve cell brain they associate with the prion like proteins and change them into a prion They are causing the to reproduce 0 When a prion change the protein into more prions the proteins no longer work as proteins They are now prions causing the cells of your brain to start dying When in a sheep it is called quotscrapiequot When in deer and Elk it is called Wasting disease 0 When in a cow it is called Mad Cow disease When in people it is called Crutzfeldt jakob syndrome It is very rare but transmitted when you eat an animal that has this prion based disease New Guinea Outbreak caed quotKuruquot they would get this disease because they would eat the brains of their ancestors Prions are not living until put into a brain cell Because it is just a protein Cells J Craig Venter took things that are inside a cell and created one He disproved the third rule of the cell theory We now know every gene in a human 0 In 2002 the POLIO virus was made from scratch August 27 12 Daily Question Why can we not freeze a human and bring them back to life You cannot replace all of the water inside a human it is easier to replace water in smaller object such as sperm You cannot even drain all of the water out of him Denucleation removing a nucleus Cells can live without a nucleus Mules and other animals that are mixed like ligers cannot reproduce They are still considered living because they have the ability to reproduce They have the ability to they just cannot do it alone As long as you have the ability to evolve you are living Cellular Basis Of Life Typical human is made up of 100 trillion cells Organism subunit of a species with a distinct structure and function A clump of moss is considered and individual Organ Subunit of organism with distinct structure and function Such as the heart Plants have 2 organs roots and shoots o Shoots stems plus leaves 0 Roots obvious de nition Tissue Subunit of an organ with distinct structure and function 0 REMINDER Epidermis outer layer of a cell 0 Tissue in moss is epidermis Tissue in person is muscle 0 Cell subunit of tissue with a distinct structure and function 0 O O O O 0 We have nerve cells running through our whole body unusual structure How big are cells 10100 micrometer in size a millionth of a meter is a micrometer An unaided eye can see something up to 100 mm Once it is smaller than that it needs a microscope 700 cells can t across Abe Lincoln s head if only 10mm Smallest cells known are 1 mm they are typical bacteria In 1996 fossil bacteria was found in Antarctica in a meteorite However they were much smaller than the smallest living cells on earth Maximum size of a cell tens of centimeters long An Egg yolk l 1 cell Fish eggs are single cells amp bird egg yolks are considered cells Some nerve cells can be up to a meter long nerve cells in your back Marine alga is considered to be only one cell With few exceptions all LARGE organisms are multicellular Unicellular objects are all microscopic with FEW exceptions like the sh egg and alga For large organisms only there is advantage of being multicellular August 29th 12 Daily Question Of the structuralfunctional parts of an organism discussed in Monday39s lecture which isare composed only of cells 0 Answer Tissue Organ and Organism Because organs are made of tissues and an organism is made of organs Diatoms Unicellular algae Found in fresh and sea water 0 Most of the exotic cell shapes on earth Bene ts of Multicellularity for a large organism vs Large unicellular organism 1 o A B C o In a multicellular organism you can control removal from cells Such as removing AIDS 2 0 One cell that is bad can be killed by all of the other cells in the organism It can be sacri ced other than a unicellular organism because the only cell would be sacri ced killing the whole thing 3 o A multicellular organism can create mouth cells amp anus cells in order to eat good cells and dispose of bad cells easily 0 Unicellular organisms have to use a chemical reaction to dispose and eat things The mouth and anus are located right next to one another The toxins from the anus will kill the cell because they are digested into the mouth located RIGHT next to it 4 o A unicellular organism has to take a long time to diffuse materials and food all the way through the cell 0 A multicellular organism can easily diffuse food to cells because it only has to cross the membrane and is automatically in the separate cells Surface areavolume ratio 0 High ratio allows for better exchange 0 Smaller round object have higher surface to volume ratios How do inner cells get fed from the outside environment 0 Similar to humans they have to transport food into the inner cells Inside the Cells 0 There are 200 different cell types in a human 0 Cell parts of all the different cells especially the human are all the same Different cells have different functions but vary because of the amount of each kind of cell part All plant cells and fungus have cell walls Cell wall thick ridged structure on the outside of the cell Its function in to support and gives the cell structure Plasma lemma The cell membrane The membrane on the outside of all cells that don t have a cell wall For those cells with a cell wall it is right inside the cell wall a Membrane 12 protein and 12 fat fatlipids The fat keeps the membrane from dissolving in water Fat keeps most things from coming through the membrane like a lot of water 0 The proteins Membrane transporters They mover molecules In and out of the cell Cytosol bunch of dots n Everywhere On the inside of the plasma lemma I All cells have plasma lemma and cytosol n Cytosol is made up of water and a gel substance Along with many chemical substances I All of the items that a cell needs in order to function are in the cytosol n FUNCTION It keeps the cell components and all the chemicals SUSPENDED Which allows chemical reactions to occur and the chemical components to move around and interact with one another Organelles I Found in all cells n Distinct bodies oating throughout the cytosol I They often but not always have their own membrane a They are any distinct body inside the cell in the cytosol Nucleus 0 Very large body 0 Has two membranes Has large holes in the two membranes Contains the chromosomes Function To hold protect and control the chromosomes Chromosomes inside nucleus I Have the genes that contain the information to pass to the next generation GenesHave the information to control all of the cells activities I They are working every second 0 The Vacuole O 0000 0 The Plants have one giant vacuole that take up most of the cell Animals have about 12 small vacuole Has a membrane Has NO internal structure Inside you may nd a lot of pigment food molecules waste molecules Function To store things Mitochondrion Has 2 membranes One is normal and one is folded on the inside There is a watery gel substance inside the folded membrane There are dozens to 1005 in a cell Function make a HUGE supply of ATP ATP provides energy to the cell 0 The Chloroplast 00000 0 Much larger that the mitochondrion Root cells have none Stem cells have none Leaves have about 12 or so Chloroplasts are found in a green leaf cell Has 2 outer membranes amp a watery gel substance inside Inside the gel you nd stacks of membranes Function to undergo photosynthesis to capture light and C02 and change it into sugar 0 Golgi Apparatus O O O O O 0000 They are stacks of membrane sacks Smaller sacks come off of the sides they are called vesicles You nd dozens in a cell Function A packaging and delivery station Raw materials can be modi ed in the apparatus and sent to the vesicles and then delivered to where they are needed in the cell IT DOES NOT MAKE COMPOUNDS FROM SCRATCH lt receives materials and the modi es them for the vesicles Stacks of FLAT sacs Endoplasmic Reticulum Looks like a bunch of horizontal lines It is a channel of membranes They could also be sheets of membranes Function to deliver materials through the channels Dozens in a cell You often nd dots or bumps on the sheets that is referred to as rough ER The bumps are called ribosomes I When ribosomes are attached to the ER that tells you that that part of ER is making protein a Function of Ribosomes To make protein a Make Enzymes ER can make fat Smooth ER lack ribosomes Ribosomes O O O O O No cell membrane Tiny Found all over the cell 10005 of them in a cell Often found in association with the ER Function to make proteins with the information from the genes in the DNA Microbodies O 0000 Very small sacs No internal structure No pigment 1005 in a cell Scattered all over in a cell with chloroplast you often nd more amounts of chloroplasts 0 Functions Fat breakdown ampamp and an odd part of photosynthesis 0 Cytoskeleton 0 August 31 12 Made up of a whole network of cables They are extendable cables If cables are thin micro laments Thick microtubules FuncUons 1 Help maintain shape of cell they can change the structure of the cell 2 Attach to other organelles and move them around in the cell 3 When the cell divides they will attach to the chromosomes and move them around to the designated location Daily Question Now consider the uncommon large unicellular organism discussed in the lecture before that Finally consider the latter39s external environment After all these considerations which of the four advantages above might not be a problem for this organism Exchange of materials from the environment Because alga lives in water it doesn t need to work too hard to get water into the cell Volvox multicellular Alga Single cell alga chlamydomonas o It took only a few genes for unicellular organisms to evolve into a multicellular organism The holes in wood are spaces where cells used to be They are the cell walls There is very little structure to a cell 0 Plant cells have strong cell walls September 5 12 Sunday 34 1005 Haworth study session Exam Lecture 12 34 1005 haworth Exam 810 pm All plant cells have LARGE vacuoles If a cell were the size of a football eld the NUCLEUS would be about 14 of the playing eld A vacuole animal would be about the size of a concession stand A vacuole plant would be all of the seating section Chloroplast 12 of the end zone Mitochondria amp Golgi goalpost Ribosome football Cytoskeleton Lines of eld Prokaryotic Cell Football player Two main types of cells on earth Eukaryotic cell 0 All we have talked about in class 0 Large 10100 mm Complex Have many organelles that have membranes membrane bound organelles Same bene ts as many cells give large organism More highly evolved that prokaryotic cell All multi cellular organisms are eukaryotic And a some unicellular organisms n Ameba amp the bigger unicellular organisms o Prokaryotic cell O 0000 Small 1 mm Not complex Do have organelles NO MEMBRANE BOUNDS ORGANELLES Lack advantages Two types a Bacteria n Archaebacteria You cannot tell one from another look the same 0 Lack membrane bound organelles Some biochemical molecules are similar to eukaryotic cells Archarbacteria Archaebacteria are typically found in the most extreme harshest environments on earth and maybe elsewhere September 7 12 35 million bacteria per hour what a human releases In your gut there are 1000 species of bacteria and the have 100 times as many genes as your own DNA They help prime the immune system Help the body harvest more energy For ever human cell there are 10 bacterial cells A 200 pound person carries 6 pounds of bacteria Deepest human made hole 40000 feet Endosymbotic Theory Chloroplasts and mitochondria were formally prokaryotic cells 0 The cells invaded a larger prokaryotic cell 0 Evidence 0 Chloroplasts and mitochondria are the same size as bacteria 0 Outermost membrane of the chloroplast and the mitochondria shares the same chemistry as the eukaryotic plasmalemma chemistry 0 The chemical feature of the proteins and lipids of the inner membrane are similar to prokaryotic plasmalemmas o The chloroplasts and mitochondria have their own ribosomes Molecule structure made up of atoms 0 No idea how many molecules in a person 0 Different molecules 0 Different atoms 0 Same atomtypes but different numbers 0 Same types and numbers of atoms but they are bonded differently Atom protons H neurons and Electrons o 116 different kinds in the universe 0 Only about 20 in biology o Atoms differ from one another different number of neutrons protons and electrons Because prokaryotic cells are simple we can grow and manipulate them Why Is life focused on C H amp O 0 Most abundant atoms in the universe 0 Hydrogen and Helium Most abundant atoms on the Earth 0 0 AI Si Fe 0 C H O interact chemicay in special ways 0 Bond together easily and the bonds are strong and stable 0 They bond well with the other 20 elements N Ph K All molecules in a living organism are made up of C H 0 But the structural backbone is Carbon Carbon is almost unique because it is able to make multiple kinds of bonds It can bond with itself in different ways 0 Si is similar It can bond with other molecules ad in a bunch of different ways Old Exam Questions August 22nd 5 Which are the symbiotic partners that make up a lichen Fall 2009 a a bacterium and a cyst b a marine aga and a prion 0 a fungus and a cyst 1 Why do some biologists have difficulty considering things like viruses and quotalivequot Fall 2012 a because they never meet the de ning criteria of life b because they do not evolve c because they do not meet the de ning criteria of life when they are inside their host cell 12 In a lecture Daily Demo your professor that would be me stuck a stick with lichens on it into liquid nitrogen The lichens were dry and would be alive if warmed and wetted In contrast why would wet lichens die if treated the same way Fall 2009 a their cells would run out of DMSO b their cytoskeleton would disentegrate c the nitrogen itself is toxic this has nothing to do with the low temperature 2 Which of the following sets of lifede ning criteria best includes organisms that are clearly alive as well as those that are dormant or depend on parasitizing a host cell Fall 1999 a uses energy productively in a cell and reproduces b uses energy productively in a cell reproduces and evolves c eventually uses energy productively in a cell and reproduces d 27 When a normally alive sperm cell is frozen in storage it does not meet the de nition of life given in class for all exceptthe following reasons Fall 2009 a b it does not contain a large amount of water c it cannot sense or respond to its environment it cannot exchange energy and materials with its environment 26 What is the smallest thing that can be considered living Fall 2004 a a prion b a virus c a mitochondrion d 38 Which of the following is not true of all living organisms Fall 2004 a exchanges energy with the environment b has the ability to reproduce c d has the potential to evolve as a species 2 What is a prion Fall 2002 a b simple DNA or RNA that infects nerve cells in the brain c bacterialike cells that infect nerve cells in the brain simple lipid fat molecules that reside in the membranes of nerve cells in the brain 4 Evolution is considered a property of all living organisms Which of the following best depicts how living organisms evolve Fall 2001 a the organisms themselves evolve b c evolution here simply means growth and all organisms grow as they develop evolution here indicates an improvement in an organism s success or efficiency over its lifetime 27 When might we consider a virus to be living Fall 2001 a when it receives water b c it is always considered living it is never considered living Old Exam Questions August 29th 2 Which of the following is notan example of an unusually large cell Fall 2001 a some marine algae b some nerve cells c sh eggs 26 When dissecting a large organism into its parts from largest to smallest which part is smaller than the next largest component of an organ Fall 2001 a cells b organelles c organettes 0L 29 Consider the organizational structure of a living organism What is the name of the structure that is made up of cells only not another level of organization fall 2010 a b organ c organism nucleus 41 Consider a large unicellular organism and a large multicellular organism in their early evolutionary stages Both begin to make a very toxic substance to ward off predators that might eat them Which of the following is the most likely outcome of this evolutionary developmentFall 2000 a b the multicellular organism dies as a result of its own poison c both organisms die as a result of their own poison both organisms live happily ever after 30 Why is a large multicellular organism usually more ef cient in absorbing food from its environment relative to a similarly large unicellular organism Fall 2010 a the large multicellular organism can more easily specialize parts of its body b a single cell of the multicellular organism has a greater surface area than that of the unicellular organism c it is impossible to know without more information 14 If you had a cell from an unknown organism and it had a cell wall which of the following is a reasonable conclusion Fall 2009 a it is an animal cell b it is a eukaryotic cell c it is an animal or fungal cell 0L 44 In lecture you learned that different cell types with different shapes functions etc differ mainly as a result of different numbers of organelles not different types of organelles Which of the following cell pairs violates this principle Fall 2001 a lichen cell and plant leaf cell b prion and virus c human muscle cell and human skin cell Old Exam Answers 824 26 What is the smallest thing that can be considered living Fall 2004 a a prion b a virus c a mitochondrion 0L 2 What is a prion Fall 2002 a simple b simple DNA or RNA that infects nerve cells in the brain c bacterialike cells that infect nerve cells in the brain simple lipid fat molecules that reside in the membranes of nerve cells in the brain 5 How many different elements types of atoms make up all living things Fall 2006 a about 10 b c about 50 about90 34 What are the most abundant atoms in living organisms Fall 2001 a Al Si and O b H and He 0 d C O and N Which of the following is not characteristic of prions Fall 2011 they are made of protein when in a cell they seem alive they cause a usually fatal disease 90 7 You know from class that one of the three postulates of the quotcell theoryquot has been or will soon be violated Some biologists claim that another part of the theory is wrong because mitochondria and chloroplasts might be considered living yet are smaller than the cell in which they are found Which of the following provides evidence against this claim and thus supports the cell theory Fall 2011 23 b human sperm when in liquid nitrogen c all living things have the potential to evolve d the existence of prions 19 What do a quotsea monkeyquot brine shrimp and a lichen have in common Fall 2010 a both contain viruses b both lack cells when dry c both grow in salty ponds 23 Why is a human embryo difficult to consider living when stored in liquid nitrogen Fall 2009 a it no longer has cells b c it has lost its capability of reproducing d its species has lost its capability of evolving Old Exam Answers September 5th 6 Which of the following best depicts an accurate comparison of a typical eukaryotic cell with a typical prokaryotic cell Fall 2001 a the two cells are the same size b the prokaryotic cell is larger than the eukaryotic cell 0 a eukaryotic cell is about the size of a chloroplast 10 Which of the following best characterizes a major difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells Fall 2002 a b prokaryotic cells are more complex and more highly advanced than eukaryotic cells c eukaryotic cells are more complex and more primitive than prokaryotic cells eukaryotic cells are less complex and more primitive than prokaryotic cells 11 A prokaryotic cell shares all of the following with a eukaryotic cell with one exception Which of the following is not found in both types of cells Fall 2007 a b chromosomes c plasmalemma cytosol 31 If a chloroplast were to move from one end of a cell to another which of the following was most likely responsible for that movement Fall 2009 a mitochondrion b microbody c vacuole d 12 A prokaryotic cell typically has what kinds of membranes Fall 2001 b nuclear c ribosomal a prokaryotic cell has no membranes 27 If a cell were the size of Memorial Stadium which of the following would approximate the size of microbody 2005 a the football b a ticket c a ticket stub d Old Exam Answers August 29th 2 Which of the following is notan example of an unusually large cell Fall 2001 a some marine algae b some nerve cells c sh eggs 29 Consider the organizational structure of a living organism What is the name of the structure that is made up of cells only not another level of organization fall 2010 a tissue b organ c organism nucleus 41 Consider a large unicellular organism and a large multicellular organism in their early evolutionary stages Both begin to make a very toxic substance to ward off predators that might eat them Which of the following is the most likely outcome of this evolutionary developmentFal 2000 a the unicellular organism dies as a result of its own poison b the multicellular organism dies as a result of its own poison c both organisms die as a result of their own poison both organisms live happily ever after 30 Why is a large multicellular organism usually more efficient in absorbing food from its environment relative to a similarly large unicellular organism Fall 2010 a the large multicellular organism can more easily specialize parts of its body b a single cell of the multicellular organism has a greater surface area than that of the unicellular organism c it is impossible to know without more information all of the cells of the multicellular organism together have a greater surface area than that of the unicellular organism 14 If you had a cell from an unknown organism and it had a cell wall which of the following is a reasonable conclusion Fall 2009 a it is an animal cell b it is a eukaryotic cell c it is an animal or fungal cell d it is a fungal or bacterial cell 44 In lecture you learned that different cell types with different shapes functions etc differ mainly as a result of different numbers of organelles not different types of organelles Which of the following cell pairs violates this principle Fall 2001 a lichen cell and plant leaf cell b prion and virus c human muscle cell and human skin ce prokaryotic cell and eukaryotic cell Old Exam Answers September 7th 20 Different atoms elements vary in numbers of which of the following Fall 2000 a b chemical bonds c nuclei molecules 3 Which of the following best indicates the relationship between molecules and atoms Fall 2001 a atoms are made up of molecules b c molecules and atoms are usually quite similar in size and makeup molecules and atoms have nothing in common 18 Which of the following provides strong support for the endosymbiotic theory Fall 2010 23 b a eukaryotic cell nucleus contains chromosomes c a prokaryotic cell and a eukaryotic cell contain ribosomes a prokaryotic cell and a eukaryotic cell contain chromosomes 16 Which of the following is not considered to be evidence for the endosymbiotic theory Fall 2010 a the ribosomes of mitochondria and chloroplasts are more like prokaryotic ribosomes than eukaryotic ribosomes b mitochondria and chloroplasts carry their own genes mitochondria and chloroplasts are about the same size as prokaryotic cells 18 Which of the following is not true of chloroplasts and mitochondria Fall 2009 a b both make highenergy molecules c both were probably once prokaryotic cells long long ago both contain chromosomes 34 Mercury is extremely toxic to humans while phosphorus is an important nutrient Both have protons neutrons and electrons so why are they so different Fall 2009 a mercury has an excess of water making it a toxic liquid b their pH s are very different c the way their protons neutrons and electrons are arranged is very different 47 Which of the following describes an aspect of the endosymbiotic theory that is very difficult to envision a a whole new cell could not be suspended in cytosol a new cell would be sucked into the vacuole C d a new cell would be destroyed by the ER of the bigger cel Viruses Made of protein nucleic acid DNA or RNA Some have a little bit of sugar and some have a little bit of fat How big are cells 10100 micrometer in size Diatoms Unicellular algae Found in fresh and sea water 0 Most of the exotic cell shapes on earth How do inner cells get fed from the outside environment 0 Similar to humans they have floum to transport food into the inner cells MITOCONDRION Make ATP 0 Cytoskeleton 0 Made up of a whole network of cables They are extendable cables o If cables are thin micro laments 0 Thick microtubules 0 Functions 1 Help maintain shape of cell they can change the structure of the cell 2 Attach to other organelles and move them around in the cell 3 When the cell divides they will attach to the chromosomes and move them around to the designated loca on Volvox multicellular Alga Single cell alga chlamydomonas o It took only a few genes for unicellular organisms to evolve into a multicellular organism If a cell were the size of a football eld the NUCLEUS would be about 14 of the playing eld A vacuole animal would be about the size of a concession stand A vacuole plant would be all of the seating section Chloroplast 12 of the end zone Mitochondria amp Golgi goalpost Ribosome football Cytoskeleton Lines of eld Prokaryotic Cell Football player
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