Fashion Development MIS250
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Date Created: 02/09/15
Fashion Development Historical evolution of the textile and apparel industry Fashion is a reflection of Social forces Economic forces Poitica forces Artistic forces The Birth of Fashion and France history Paris France France dominated fashion in the early 18th century Weathy and royalty set fashion trends Court of King Louis XIV Rose Bertin Official Court Minister of Fashion Surrounding industries Textile and notion suppliers Dressmakers and tailors The French Revolution 1789 Outcome was shift simpler designs French Fashion Terms Couture kootour Custommade Couturier kootureeay mae Couturiere kootureeair female Ateier AHteIiay Workshop Key Designers Charles Frederick Worth First true designer opposed to dress maker House closed in 1952 Paquin Packwin First women to open a fashion house in 1891 House closed in 1956 Jacques Doucet Dosay 18531929 Very feminine Madeleine Cheruit Pioneer of readytowear 1906 1935 John Redfern 18811929 Dress maker to Queen Victoria First Red Cross women uniform Callot sisters kalo Marie Callot Gerber Marthe Callot Bertrand Regina Callot TennysonChantrell and Josephine Callot Crimont 18951952 Exotic details on dresses and blouses gold silver laces The Industrial Revolution The birth of the Middle Class Why the importance of the middle class Extra money to spend Desire to demonstrate wealth Desire to be perceived as respectable eads to development of the business suit Industrial Revolution Inventions The Textile Industry 1733 John Kay Flying Shuttle weaving 1764 James Hargreaves Spinning jenny machine yarn spinning l769 Richard Arkwright Water frame water powered spinning 1785 Edmund Cartwright Power loom 1789 Samuel Slater lmmigrates from England with memorized plans textile technology 1814 Fancis Cabot Lowell Power loom integrated factory The Sewing Machine 1829 Thimmonier Chain stitch machine 1846 Elias Howe Sewing machine patented 1859 Isaac Singer Foot treadle mass production Mass Production of Clothing Civil War uniforms body measurement data collection to standardization of garments Denims from serge de Nimes neem Levis Strauss and the Gold rush For women hoops corsets cloaks muffs some shirtwaists Shirtwaists produced in 1880 s Separate blouse from skirt 19th Century Retailing Travel Peddlers Merchandise is not marked Bargaining General Stores Movement to cities Evolving retail brought about Department stores Lord and Taylor Macy s Harrods Specialty stores Early Mail Order Merchandising Popularity base in West Coast Railroads Rural Free Mail Delivery Montgomery Ward 1872 Richard Sears 1886 Communications Leisure and Industry Communications Fashion Magazines Harpers Bazaar 1867 Vogue 1894 What is the effect Women become aware of new styles Desire to wear new styles increase Rate of fashion change increases The demand for more new looks increases Leisure Sports participation Bicycling Swimming Horseriding Swimwear becomes practical Pants for women Sports only Garment Industry Conditions New York City lmmigrants with skills need job Sweatshops hours conditions wages 1914 Amalgamated Clothing Workers of American 54 hour week 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory File 146 deaths Public outcry Better working conditions World War I Women start to enter workforce need appropriate clothing WW factory work leads to increased practicality in clothing Corsets discarded Hemlines rise Skirts widen Designers of the Era Paul Poiret Poorray Own house in 1904 Raised waste lines below bust Designed without the corset Romain de Tritoff Erte ErrorTee French Art deco influence More of an illustrator Symphony in black CoCo Chanel Jersey knit Poor chic Genius at selling The little black dress Costume jewelry Jeanne Lanvin Longvine Craftsmanship Velvet satin and fine embroidery Madeline Vionnet French Opened house in 1912 lntroduced bias cut Greek and Roman inspiration Jean Patou Gshan PaToo Flapper look 4ndependence Retailing at the time 1900 s Bergdorf Goodman Saks Neiman Marcus 1920 s Chain retailing is popular James Cash Penny 1930 s First women as presidents of retail firms Dorothy Shaver Lord amp Taylor mentions The Depression First a look at what is happening 128 million are unemployed 50 of banks fail 30 of garment factories fail An escape from reality Hollywood Americans attend films 12 times a week See onscreen fashions Gibert Adrian leading film designer Important Designers Esa Schiaparelli Shouder interest Boero jacket Coaress jacket Shocking James Mainbocher Wedding dress for Wallis Simpson 1st American designer to be successful in Europe World War II Cosure of Parisian design houses American designers come to forefront Wartime restrictions Fashion is stable Caire McCardell The American Look Denim wrap dress in 1942 popover Pioneer of American RTW Popuar among middle class Postwar Fashion Popuation migration and the Baby Boom Emphasis on home and casual clothes Retailers move to the suburbs the Mall Finding fashion faster Christian Dior New Look 10 year career house still open today Credited for restarting Fashion in Paris after Nazi occupation Christobal Balenciaga the master of tailors Spanish Reintroduced hip pads and bustle silhouette nfluential Jacqueline Kennedy Audrey Hepburn Madame Gres grey Pleats Had to sell house in 1980 s do to lack of funding 1950 s Rebellion of Youth Rock and roll television View on children s place voice of youth Glamour figures such as Marilyn Monroe and James Dean Peddle pushers 1950 s Fashion Designers Hubert de Givenchy Continued with separates Audrey Hepburn dress Alexander McQueen designers for the Givenchy house in 1990 s Pierre Cardin Apprentice with Dior Bubble dress More art RTW in 1953 Licensing Bill Blass Casual and conservative Sold house in 1999 PAssed away in 2002 Youthful 1960 s Bn shln uences Mary Quant The Mod look Reverse adoption theory lncreased interest in men s fashion Youthfulness had negative effect on couture Men s fashion is revitalized Boutique shopping influence 1960 s Fashion Designers Mary Quant Mini Skirt Yves Saint Laurent Smoking jackets mini dress Valentino sensual 1970 s Ethnic and Folk looks predominate Physical fitness fashion Women go to work and Dress for Success begins Preppy look and designer jeans 1970 s Fashion Designers Calvin Klein Gloria Vanderbilt Ralph Lauren 1980 s Consolidation among manufacturers and retailers Globalization Still dressing for success the power suit Lady Diana Spenser Hugo Boss menswear Yohji Yamatoto Unstructured loos Timeless classic Opera and Ballet Giorgio Armani 1980 s Fashion Designers Donna Karan Career wear and sportswear lssey Miyake Designed for garment shape rather than body shape Kenzo Takada 1980 s Industry Trends Use of EDI Growth of designer and brand names through licensing Overstored America Growth of mail ordercatalogs 1990 s Value orientation of consumers Pricequality Retaiers consolidate enter into bankruptcy NAFTA affects imports Grunge Look is and antifashion statement Menswear market seeks tremendous growth Doce and Gabbana 1982 Started women s wear DampG lower price point for younger people Emanuel Ungaro Eaborate colorful Sod house for Ferragamo Karl Lagerfeld Chane Lagerfed Fendi Choe Tommy Hilfiger The 21st Century Competition is tougher more than ever Fashion can be the same all over the world Ceebrities are the fashion leaders American consumers are buying fewer pieces of clothing lmports are increasing China Retai mergers continue Chapter Four Historic Perspective 2000 s Fashion Designers Jean Paul Gaultier Gianni Versace Marc Jacobs Miuccia Prada Anna Sui swee Stella McCartney Vera Wang Kenneth Cole Tom Ford
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