Political Theory notes
Political Theory notes
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Date Created: 02/09/15
WWII in Europe 414 and 416 414 PreD Day Stalin getting antsy starting to think Western allies letting Soviet Union bleed itself dry enemy pre and post war enemy of Communism demands a crosschannel invasion planning limited record of invasions North Africa Sicily Anzio little experience attacking fortified beaches only experience Dieppe 1942 used as background needed better air support intelligence vehicles port make a bigger invasion Hitler becoming unravelled Germans suffered large losses in North Africa and Eastern Front lost many as POWs believes East is a lost cause diplomatic approaches break apart East and West alliance approach US and Great Britain team up against Soviet Union bulwark against communism has to brace for invasion from the West Allies only 500 km from German industrial heartland 1000 km from Berlin poses bigger immediate threat than losses in Russia US vastly increasing human resources US Army strength 1940 170000 men 1943 7200000 men and women includes Air Corps industrial goods being produced at a high rate reorganization of domestic economy November 1943 Churchill FDR and Stalin met at Teheran coordinate military actions appoint Eisenhower as leader of AngloAmerican forces Stalin retains his autonomy Hitler concerned recommitting resources to France change in strategy no longer Blitzkrieg Hitler s preferred tactic no longer had the resources Operation Sea Lion cancelled gone back to a defensive stance adjusted Maginot Line Atlantic Wall didn t know where the invasion was coming had to build up all of Normandy coast limited its effectiveness thousands of mines manned by young sickly old troops from conquered territories not physically capable inexperienced or not committed to the cause Operation Overlord huge buildup in England of American forces equipment better suited for invasion Higgins Landing Craft produced 23300 of them Landing Ship Tank Tanks specially outfitted quotHobart s Funnies equipped with chains explode mines before tank gets there Mulberries build their own ports better intelligence used DoubleCross used British holiday pictures special camera set up barge across the channel in the middle of the night send across during a lightning storm attack supposed to come in May delayed until June by end of June over 1 million men in France take Cherbourg move southward and eastward context of Valkyrie plot in July outburst of French resistance De Gaulle wanted to liberate Paris Eisenhower didn t care liberation on Aug 25 1944 Fall 1944 FDR campaigning for reelection Moscow conference Churchill met with Stalin Percentages Agreement dividing up the postwar world Battle of the Bulge Dec 1944 Jan 1945 shape of front line February 1945 France liberated Rheinland Campaign Feb Mar 1945 George Patton Soviet troops moving from the East meet at Berlin AngloAmerican forces must push into Germany Germany become fully Soviet occupied territory West should control part of Germany Yalta Conference FDR Stalin Churchill FDR American idealism and optimism Declaration on Liberated Europe promised after liberation people in different territories would choose their government point of contention Berlin 1945 brutal fighting fought street to street 416 Germany s Surrender Goering surrendered to the allies on May 8 Considered Victory in Europe VE Day Unconditional surrender 5 Ds of PostWar Germany Denazification Hitler and co took society and conformed it to Hitler s will through propaganda one of the hardest things to deal with ingrained propaganda films made about German atrocities rebuild German identity Demilitarization Germany premier military power in central Europe limited size of Wehrmacht gutted Kriegsmarine and Luftwaffe Germany could not be a military threat to W European powers in the near future Democratization Decentralization Authoritarian movements needed centralization takes power out of Berlin Disassemny of industrialized Germany Henry Morgenthau not as much as the first war get rid of war economics things that allowed them to become a great military power would be inaccessible Nuremberg Trials Europe never experienced anything close to the Holocaust before not prepared to deal with perpetrators quotHow do we hold them accountable lMTs tried 22 highest ranking Germany officials 4 major allies presiding and prosecutors Chief Colonel Jeffrey Lawrence lead convict them of Crimes against Humanity World Court 12 sentenced to death 7 sentenced to life in prison 3 acquitted 2 had charges dropped Robert Ley committed suicide weeks after trial started Albert Speer only Nazi to take personal responsibility and express remorse wanted to get justice not look like tribunal is a sham created idea that an international court should be established more war crimes trials across Europe went unevenly Belgium France Soviet Union Poland Jews Holocaust survivors not happy about staying in Europe UN approved Partition Plan for Israel Palestinians who lived there unhappy tensions were high 14 May 1948 Britain ended mandate Jewish people settled areas around Jerusalem violence ensued Re building Europe Marshall Plan European Recovery Plan Economic stimulus package 13 billion to governments of 18 European countries distributed on a per capita basis UK received about 25 France 20 Germany 10 presided over by Americans reboot European production get factories back online European currency wouldn t bottom out like in WWI bring Europe back to a point where they would buy American goods and pay off their debt fight communism Potsdam Convention Harry Truman president at this point talked about War in the Pacific Atomic bomb fully developed been in the works since the beginning of the war not just being worked on in the United States made in America far enough away from the war to be secure Germany dabbled in building a bomb Summer 1945 US managed to test a bomb Soviets entered war days after United States dropped atomic bomb Final Japanese surrender on September 2 1945 VJ Day
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