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Chapter 11 chemistry notes

by: Melanie Roberts

Chapter 11 chemistry notes CHEM175

Marketplace > Kansas > Chemistry > CHEM175 > Chapter 11 chemistry notes
Melanie Roberts
GPA 3.7
Chemistry for the Chemical Sciences
Dr. Dunn

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Chemistry for the Chemical Sciences
Dr. Dunn
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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Melanie Roberts on Monday February 9, 2015. The Bundle belongs to CHEM175 at Kansas taught by Dr. Dunn in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 122 views. For similar materials see Chemistry for the Chemical Sciences in Chemistry at Kansas.


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Date Created: 02/09/15
Chapter 11 Gases 111 Properties of Gases Most substances that are solids or liquids at room temperature can exist as gases Few elements are gases at room temperature Many molecular compounds are gases at room temperature Properties 1 Gases assume the shape and volume of their container Gases and liquids ow 2 Gases are compressible 3 Gases have lower densities than liquids and solids Also vary wildly depending on temperature and pressure 4 Gases form homogenous mixtures in any proportion Miscible gases that don39t react together 112 The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases Put forth in the 19th century Explains macroscopic properties of gases Ludwig Boltzmann and James Maxwell 1 A gas is comprised of particles that are separated by relatively large distances 2 Gas particles are constantly moving in straight paths colliding with each other and the walls of their container Collisions are perfectly elastic 3 Molecules do not attract or repel each other 4 Average kinetic energy is proportional to the temperature When we talk about the kinetic energy of gas molecules we use the mean squared speed which is the average speed of each molecule divided by the number of molecules Total kinetic energy of a mole of a gas is 32RT where R is the gas constant 8314JmolK The square root of the mean squared speed is the root mean squared speed urms o Urms is proportional to the square root of the temperature and to one over the square root of the molar mass 3RT u 0 M o For any two gases at the same temperature the one with the larger molar mass will have a smaller Urms 0 Most molecules will have different speeds than Urms and Urms is temperature dependent The most probable speed increases with temperature 0 Also speed curve attens at higher temperatures Lighter molecules move faster than heavier ones If the temperature is the same we can say u1 lMlZ 0 u2W Diffusion mixing of gases because of random motion Effusion escape of gas molecules from a container to a region of vacuum Grahams law the rate of diffusion or effusion is inversely proportional to the root of the molar mass 0 Lighter gases diffuse and effuse more rapidly 113 Gas Pressure Pressure is caused by the random collisions of gas molecules with each other and their container Gases exert pressure on everything Atmospheric pressure gas pressure due to the atmosphere Pressure is a force over a unit of area 0 Pascal Pa is the SI unit of pressure and is equal to 1Nm2 0 There are also atm bar and mmHg torr Atmospheric pressure is the weight of the column above the unit area Barometer instrument for measuring pressure Manometer instrument for measuring nonatmospheric pressure 0 Phpg 114 The Gas Laws All gases exhibit remarkably similar behavior 0 Physical state can be described using just pressure volume temperature and moles o This creates the gas laws Boyles law relates volume and pressure where moles and temperature are constant 0 V1P1V2P2 Lord Kelvin identi ed where the graphs would hit zero 27315 C then set that up as 0K Charles and GayLussac39s Law relates volume and temperature at a constant pressure and moles O V1T1V2T2 Avogadro s law relates volume and moles where temperature and pressure are constant 0 V1n1V2n2 o Allows us to predict volumes of gaseous reactants and products All laws can be explained with the Kinetic Molecular Theory Combined gas law 115 Ideal Gas Equation Ideal gas equation 0 PVnRT Ideal gas hypothetical sample whose PVT behavior is accurately predicted 0 Real gases differ slightly STP 1 mol 0 C latm 0 Kelvin is used in all calculations The ideal gas equation can be algebraically manipulated to solve for other variables 116 Real Gases Unlike what KMT says the gas molecules do not occupy a negligible amount of volume and they do exert forces on one another 0 High pressure and low temperatures erase deviations Van der Waals 0 Pideal Preal l39anZV2 0 Videavreal39nb 2 PaV n2 v nbnRT Compressibility factor Z can help determine deviation 0 ZPVRT o Zlt1 at low pressure 0 Zgt1 at high pressure Gas behavior becomes more ideal as temperature increases 117 Gas Mixtures Two or more gases in a container will behave independently of each other 0 The presence of one gas doesn39t affect others 0 The pressure exerted by each gas is the partial pressure of that gas 1 Dalton s law of Partial Pressures The total pressure exerted by a gas mixture is the sum of the partial pressures Explained by KMT Mole fraction number of moles of a component of the number of moles of the mixture 0 nantotal PaPtotal 1 Always less than one 2 Sum of all mole fractions of a mixture is one 3 Dimensionless 0 Can also be found using the partial pressure 118 Reactions with Gaseous Reactants and Products In the case of reactants and products that are gases it is more practical to express amounts in volume 0 If we know the volume of one reactant in a gaseous reaction we can determine the amount of the other reactant 0 Only works if all reactant are gases otherwise use the ideal gas equation to get moles Moles are directly proportional to pressure at constant volume and temperature


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