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This 11 page Bundle was uploaded by Jesse Miller on Monday February 9, 2015. The Bundle belongs to 1105 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Cox in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 135 views. For similar materials see Geology of National Parks in Earth Science at Ohio State University.
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Better than the professor's notes. I could actually understand what the heck was going on. Will be back for help in this class.
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Date Created: 02/09/15
Geology of National Parks Alaska has by far most federally owned land Western states make up the top 10 used for mining oil etc Ohio has very little federally owned land 58 National Parks Congaree in SC was established in 2003 most recent before that was 1994 Swamps lots of snakes ferrel pigs Three Categories in Parks System Natural areas great scenic wonderlands Monday January 12th outstanding formations and features that illustrate geologic processes significant fossil evidence of the development of life on Earth examples of scenic grandeur of our natural heritage Historic areas examples from Indian cultures buildings sites and objects of American history Recreational areas provide healthful recreational opportunities for population that is increasingly urban First National Park First National Park authorized in 1872 by US GrantYellowstone National Monday January 12th National Park Service was established in 1916 To create a National Park now requires an act of Congress Different than National Monument which is smaller and protects one or a few unique resources They just need presidential proclamation Wilderness Areas much more limited access than a park very few roads no motor vehicles allowed many activities prohibited Things not allowed in National Parks log hunt fish catch and release mining drilling collecting artifacts only designated fires permits required for many activities within a National Park including collecting samples special events ie weddings and parties scattering human remains and raft trips or other special tours Park rangers have law enforcement powers within the Parks as well as educating visitors on how to avoid being mauled Wednesday January 14th Geology geologists are the detectives Reading the Rocks rock type how where when rocks formed fossils environment geologic age how died how preserved how they lived sedimentary structures environment mudcracks ripples tectonic structures how the rocks have been deformed since formation Minerals any naturally occurring inorganic solid crystalline substance having a specific chemical composition and a characteristic crystal structure A mineral has characteristic physical properties that are uniform or variable within definite limits crystal structure the atoms that make up the mineral are packed together in a regular 3D repeating and orderly pattern Minerals include gold copper halite or gem minerals like diamonds there are 4500 different minerals but only a few are common and form most rocks Example quartz solid naturally formed chemical composition silicon 1 plus oxygen 2 many colors Common minerals quartz pyrite feldspar mica biotrite calcite makes up limestone asbestos emerald gypsum drywall Types of Minerals silicates most abundant rock forming minerals carbonates calcite oxides hematite sulfides pyrite sulfates anhydrite halides halite Native elements gold silver copper Friday January 16th Rock igneous formed from molten melted rock ign is latin for fire two types of igneous rocks classified by where they form and further classified by mineral composition and grain size rocks formed by cooling and solidification of molten rock or magma magma is molten rock underground lava when it reaches the surface lava flow from Kilauea in November 2014 threatened homes in Hawaii igneous bodies formed from cooling of magma deep inside Earth Devil s Tower and Shiprock are two examples both are volcano necks Sierra Nevada mountain range including Yosemite are igneous rocks classified by structure and mineral composition extrusive formed outside the surface like volcano neck intrusive formed underneath Earth s surface laccolith similar to sill but layers bent upwards to form a dome volcanic pipes cylindrical conduit that forms feeder pipe below vent volcanic neck pipe exposed by erosion batholith intrusive igneous rock of irregular shape that cuts across the rocks it intrudes largest type of pluton Friday January 16th Examples of popular igneous rock granite rhyolite basalt gabbro Igneous rocks are either light colored dark colored or mixed not colorful Texture depends on cooling rate extrusive cools fast intrusive cools slowly mineral and chemical composition depends on chemical composition of magmalava depends on where it forms plate tectonics setting dikes cut across rock silt is horizontal sedimentary formed at surface of the Earth by deposition and cementation of particles of rock or debris transported by wind water gravity or ice sediment is loose particles of minerals or rock come from weathering and erosion or precipitation from solution by evaporation or secretion by organisms only kind of rock that fossils are found in classified as either detritalclastic or biochemical detritalclastic classified by grain size include conglomerate sandstone siltstone shale made of grains or particles or pre existing rocks formed by weathering and erosion of preexisting rocks classification of detrital rocks gravel sediment is boulder cobble or pebble known as breccia mud sediment is sand silt or clay sandstone siltstone shale examples of bio chemical rocks rock salt deposits gypsum crystals oolites coral reefs fossiliferous limestone chert coal Monday January 19th metamorphic formed when sedimentary or igneous rocks are heated and squeezed or exposed to hot fluids metamorphic changes do not involve melting they are in the solid state if rock melts that would make them igneous metamorphic rocks is formed via heat and pressure classification based on texture and mineral assemblage divided into foliated and non foliated nonfoliated marble parent rock is limestone quartzite parent rock is sandstone foliated slate flat and hard parent rock is fine grain shale phyllite silky luster schist coarse grained with mica larger grain than phyllite gneiss layers of different minerals Geologic Time principle of uniformitarianism the present is the key to the past we can interpret past events in the light of processes we see operating about us today the modern Geologic Time Scale was gradually developed in local areas where distinctive rock units were correlated mapped and named In this way geologic maps can be made Two kinds of geologic time relative time I m older than you absolute time numerical time actual age of a unit in years Pre cambian and 3 Eras paleozoic mesozoic cenezoic Relative Ages Stratigraphy study of the relationship of strata in time and space Principle of Superposition in any undisturbed sedimentary sequence the first rocks are deposited are on the bottom The strata get progressively younger towards the top Principle of Original Horizontality Principle of Crosscutting Relationships and Included Fragments Grand Canyon The Four Corners Utah Colorado New Mexico Arizona History of Park 1540 Coronado s conquistadores were first white men to see Grand Canyon 1869 John Wesley Powell ed expedition 1893 Forest Reserve 1903 Teddy Roosevelt took trip down 1908Declared national Monument 1919 Established as National Park 1936 Hoover Dam built forming Lake Mead 1966 Glen Canyon Dam built forming Lake Powell 1979 Designated a World Heritage Site Native American History in Grand Canyon 4000 years of occupancy Anasazi who built cliff dwelling Modern tribes include Navajo the Hopi the Zuni the Hualapai Grand Canyon Facts 5 million visitors 1218375 acres 1500 plants 373 birds 89 mammal species multiple endangered species The canyon is over one mile deep and ranges from 9 to 18 miles at the rim the North Rim is about 1200 ft higher in elevation than the South Rim so it has a cooler climate and somewhat different vegetation Locations of main canyon and side canyons are controlled by faulting cut by Colorado River about 2 million years ago Wednesday January 21 st Grand Canyon Evolution the canyon is so wide it forms a barrier to animal and plant movements 2 squirrels found on either side Kaibab squirrel and Abert squirrel Colorado River Water Rights controls salinity Canyonlands explored by John Wesley Powell Butch Cassidy and the gang used canyons as hideouts Established as National Park in 1964 Robbers Roost with Butch Cassidy Utah s largest national park Confluence of Green and Colorado River over 7800 feet of relief distance between highest altitude and sea level 25 arches in Pennsylvanian sandstone Needles form when two intersecting joint sets are closely spaced Has white rim sandstone moenkopi formation chinle formation Jurassic Wingate sandstone Red Rock Country Canyons in canyonland incised meanders rivers in flat areas that move back and forth across flood plains Cedar Mesa Major Features Island in the Sky mesas which appear elevated The Maze a maze of canyons very easy to get lost Upheaval Dome collapse of salt structure meteor impact crater The Needles Geologic History paradox basin Permian Period EXTRA CREDIT QUESTIONS FOR QUIZZES 1 One of the greatest OSU alumni who during a Big Ten track meet broke records who was it Jesse Owens 2 All time leading scorer in Ohio State s women basketball Jantel Lavender What Nobel Peace Prize winner said One child one teacher one pen can change the world Malala Yousafzai Winningest College Basketball Coach Pat Summitt Recruited women into NASA Nichelle Nichols Declaration of Human Rights Eleanor Roosevelt Head Coach of OSU Womens Basketball Team Kevin McGuff Player coach Olympian basketball player Baylor head coach Kim Mulkey What Native American language was used during World War II Navajo Who was first Senate women Rebecca Latimer Felton Who was first women to actually serve in Senate Hattie Caraway Highest Ranking Women to serve in US Congress Nancy Pelosi Who is the all time assists leader in OSU history Sammy Prahalis 3 Time All American OSU basketball players Jantel Lavender and Jessica Davenport
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