Psych 105 Notes
Psych 105 Notes Psych 105
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Psych 105 Notes 8282014 0 Philosophy physiologypsychoogy In uence of philosophy on psychology 0 Early philosophers were concerned with Epistemology Theory of knowledge 0 How do we know what we know Distinction among opinion sensationperception and real knowledge m o The point of knowledge is to behave properly 0 Knowledge is gained through experience Empiricism Praxiology Theory of conduct Why do we do what we do Hedonism 1m Rational enlightenment Final cause of humanity is happiness Happiness is achieved through virtue 0 Each virtue is in a continuum and you want to be right in the middle On the left is rash and the right is de ecient Rashness courage cowardice Selfindulgence termperance lnsensibility Wastefullness generosity stinginess Buffoonery wittiness boorishness 0000 0 Key early philosophers o Plato Platonism o Plato was the rst to introduce true methods of rational analysis 0 Aporetic inquiry asking questions repeadtly instead of trying to get to a conclusion 0 ldealized forms Based on The Allegory what 0 What we are seeing plato would say is just shadows 0 Aristotle Aristotelian 0 Focus on observation of natural events 0 Analysis of causes for a building 0 Material Brick 0 Formal Assembled 0 Ef cient cause Workers How or why something goes from a stationary position to a moving position 0 Final Classes 0 Rene Descartes Method of radical doubt o quotI think therefore I amquot Perception 0 Mind Cartesian Dualism The mind and the body are fundamentally different 0 Mind immaterial governed by free will Epistemology Ideas from experience 0 Ideas from imagination 0 Take two experiences and combine them to make something new 0 Ideas that are innate 0 Anything that is not directly or indirectly experienced 0 God is an innate idea 0 lnnate inside it is a part of you A belief o The astonishing hypothesis quotyouquot your joys and your sorrows your memories and your ambitions your sense of personal identity and free will are in fact no more than the behavior of a vast assembly of nerve sells 0 The in uence of physiology on psychology KNOW THIS FOR THE EXAM 0 History of physiology William Harvey 1628 quotDe Motu Cordisquot 0 Book about the circulatory system Generated interest in physiology 0 Discipline didn39t advance until mid18005 o Coincided with general revival of science 0 Peripheral Nervous System 0 Somatic system KNOW THAT THIS IS VOLUNTARY COMMUNICATION h o Autonomic System FUNCTIONS THAT ARE OUT OF OUR CONTROL AutonomicAUTOMATlC 0 Example heart rate breathing metabolism Selfregulated functions and bodily processes Sympathetic and parasympathetic branches 0 Ex Brings heart rate down slows breathing and sweating You measure grousal when you look at X Skin conductance response Functions of the autonomic system 0Cascading stress response When you see a predator Steps 1Freeze parasympathetic 2 Fight or ight sympathetic 3Tonic immobility controversial de nitely occurs in other animals aConsidered a sympathetic state but you essentially frozen Happens in rats when you ip a rat onto its back and hold its belly Defense mechanism bOccurs in humans with PTSD victims of rape 0 Central Nervous sustem o Spinal cord 1Communicates incoming sensory messages to brain and outgoing motor messages to muscles 0 Brain 1 Foldwrinkles for surface area 0 Hindbrain 1Shared 2Balance 3Vital functions 0 The brain 0 Structures we will focus on 1 Hindbrain contralateral organization Medulla cerebellum 2 Cerebral cortex Frontal lobe primary motor 0 Temporal Lobe Primary auditory Parietal Lobe Primary Somatosensory Occipital lobe Primary Visual o How localized is brain function 1 Phrenoogy External features reveal internal structure of the brain Faulty assumption 2 Language aphasia JeanBaptise Bouillard and Ernest Auburtin Paul Broca 0 Motor aphasia Can understand language but can39t speakit 0 Carl Wernicke o Sensory aphasia o Aphasia de cit of language 3 Face Perception Prosopagnosia face Blind inability to perceive faces Fusiform Face Area 0 Other areas 0 Occipital Face Area 0 Superior temporal sulcus o Amygdala 4 Current view distributed processing Cortex is highly connected with multiple areas responsible for carrying out function a Mass Equipotentiality functional plasticity 0 Any area of the brain can take on the function of an area that is damaged 0 Different from structural plasticity 5 Applications of plasticity Adaptive 0 Recovery from traumatic brain injury 0 Reading Pg 4546 0 Neurons cells that are highly specialized to receive and transmit information from one part of the body to another 1 3 types of neurons Sensory neurons convey information about the environment such as light or sound from specialized receptor cells in the sense organs to the brain 0 They also carry info From the skin and internal organs to the brain 0 Motor Neurons Communicate information to the muscles and glands of the body Simply blinking your eyes activates thousands of motor neurons lnterneurons communicate information between neurons 0 Connect to other interneurons 2 Three basic components of a neuron Cell Body quotsomaquot contains structures that manufacture proteins and process nutrients providing the energy the neuron needs to function 0 Also includes the nucleus Dendrites quotTreequot Dendrites receives messages from other neurons or specialized cells Axon carry information from the neuron to other cells in the body including other neurons glands and muscles 0 Some neurons do not have axons Reading Pg 166177 o What are four broad categories of psychoactive drugs 1 Depressants Drugs that depress or inhibit brain activity 2 OpiatesDrugs that are chemically similar to morphine and the relieve pain and produce euphoria 3 Stimulants Drugs that stimulate or excite brain activity 4 Psvchedelic druos drugs that distort sensory perceptions Does distracted driving impair performance 0 Distracted driving Independent variable 0 Performance dependent variable 0 Motor 1 Sexual activities Shaving Drinking Makeup Texting o Interference Yes 0 Procedural Learning No 0 Task complexity Yes 0 Non motor 2 GPS Searching Mirrors Music 0 Will there be an interference No 0 Procedural learning No 0 Task complexity Yes Altering Consciousness o Depressants Substances that slow down nervous system activity GABA Alcohol depresses our inhibitions hippocampus Cerebellum controls our balance Sedatives barbituates benxodiazepines o correlation with Alzheimer disease Opioids oxycodone heroin Tolerance develops quickly Addiction most common Withdrawal physical Headaches Hallucinations Nauseavomiting Convulsionsseizures Reading Pg 142145 0 O Hypnagogic hallucinations The odd vividly realistic sensations you get as you fall asleep Stage 1 NREM Lasts only a few minutes Gradually disengage from the sensations of the surrounding world Theta brain waves Stage 2 NREM De ned by the appearance of sleep spindles brief burst of brain activity that last a second or two and K compolexes single high coltage spikes of brain activity 1520 mins Delta brain waves gradually increase Stage 3 NREM When delta brain waves represent more than 20 percent of total brain activity Stage 4 NREM When delta brain waves exceed 50 percent of total brain activity During the 2040 mins spent in the night39s rst episode of stage 4 delta waves eventually come to represent 100 percent of brain activity When people are asked to perform tasks at this point in sleep they often don39t remember them the next morning 70 mins into sleep the sequence reverses in mins To the REM sleep REM sleep Brain becomes more active generating smaller and faster brain waves Dreams occur The rst REM episode tends to be brief about 5 to 15 mins from the beginning of stage 1 NREM sleep through the completion of the rst episode of REM sleep about 90 mins have elapsed Class 9162014 0 Freudian Unconscious Our behavior can be motivated by unknown thoughts and desues An upsetting thought 0 Our unconscious is not rational 0 Id pleasure principle Desire for pleasure Food water sleep toys quotI WANTquot o Ego reality Principle quotI WILLquot o Superego Angel on your shoulder Moral self quotI SHOULDquot Class 9232014 quotFunctions of sleepquot 0 Three major restorative functions Neural growth Memory consolidation Protection against cellular damage 0 Why do we dream Depends on who you ask Freudian psychoanalytic theory 0 Manifest content vs What actuay occurs in the dream 0 Latent Content Hidden psychological unconscious meaning behind the dream 0 Activation synthesis model 0 What you dream is just a product of where that activity is occurring Informationprocessing model 0 Belief that dreams are just a product of our memory consoHdann 0 Sleep disorders Insomnia Obstructive sleep apnea very loud snoring loss of breath Narcolepsy Sleep paralysis a symptom of sleep disorders REM sleep behavior disorder voluntary movement inhibited People act out their dreams Exam 2 9302014 Learning Behavioristassociative models behaviorist believe the only phenomena worth studying are the ones that are observable only interested in behavior 0 Learning that is the product of associating two stimuli Kid does something wrong he gets in trouble Pairs both together 0 Classical conditioning Ivan Pavov Dogs have a naturally occurring relationship between saliva and meat powder Has assistants bring the dogs the meat powder Dogs eventually start to salivate as soon as the assistants walk in the room because they have developed an expectation that when the assistant walks in that means they expect the meat powder Unconditioned stimulus meat powder Unconditioned response saivation Unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned responseNaturay occurring relationship Neutralconditioned stimulus Bell Conditioned responsg Salivation First thing that should come to your mind when you think of Classical conditioningis quotWhat is the naturally occurring relationship quot Conditioned response is not always the same as the unconditioned response Conditioned response is always lesser Ex Unconditioned stimulus not eating breakfast always feeling hungry unconditioned resoonse always get a candy bar whatever the action is is the response neutralconditioned stimulus the vending machine conditioned resoonse hunger John B Watson Said he can take infants and make them a specialist in whatever profession he selects Gave him one infant That he fear conditioned to be afraid of white rats by giving him the rat and making a loud noise to scare him For classical conditioning to occur 0 Multiple pairingg normally has to happen multiple times for it to be conditioned Temporallv linked must be close in time Prooerties of classical conditioning o StimuluSJeneralization or discrimination 0 Example Kid afraid of white rats was also afraid of anything white and uffy He would not be afraid of a grey rat Extinction the disappearance of that conditioned response 0 Reverse conditioning 0 Ex phobias are thought to be conditioned Maybe you are psyched up and scared already and you drive over a bridge and assume you are scared because of the height when really it s not Can put you in heights and show you good things so you don39t associate heights with bad things 0 Ex If you show the little boy a white rat and he doesn39t get scared Spontaneous recoverv Phobias can come back whenever in your life even if you get over them 0 Biological preparednesimeans we are biologically predisposed to be conditioned to some stimuli versus others 0 Easier for us to oppose things that have produced an evolutionary threat 0 Usually phobias are viable threats spiders heights snakes O o m you can condition people to fear spiders very easily but conditioning people to be afraid of owers is not so easy Operant Conditioning You are learning by pairing action and consequence Rewards and punishments Law of effect What happens after you do something is either going to increase or decrease the likelihood that you do it again 0 E dad gives me money for playing baseball so I keep playing baseball BF Skinner interested in how behavior goes from being random to organized Done through consequences 0 We do things randomly but the likelihood that we do those things is a product of the feedback we get Reinforcement DO increase the likelihood Positive adding something to the environment 0 Negative taking something away 0 Wearing sunscreen takes away sunburn Punishment DO NOT decrease likelihood Positive adding something to decrease a behavior ie time out 0 Negative taking something away to decrease frequency of behavior 0 Take away wi Thorndikes puzzle box 0 Put a cat in the puzzle box with a string The cat needs to learn how to tug down on the string for the door to open Tugging down on the string gets reinforced Positive the cat gets freedom Negative the removal of captivity Shaping 0 Ex teaching animals Cat gets better and better at getting out of the box each time you put him in there Project pigeon operant condition SKINNER Taught pigeons how bomb humans taught pigeons how to play ping pong Continuous reinforcement frequency that you give a reward Will be effective if you give reward continuously Intermittent reinforcement works better Constant nagging Cat wakes her up in the morning for food every morning at 630 o The reinforcement doesn39t happen every time Identifying theories of learning Is this classical or operant conditioning lf classicalchoose a strategy 0 Working backwards What is the nal outcome CS and CR What was paired with the CS US What response did the US lead to UR 0 Working forwards What is the naturally occurring relationship US and UR What was paired with the US CS What response did the CS lead to CR If it is operant o What is the behavior 0 Do I want to increase or decrease the frequency of the behavior 0 What is being added positive or taken away negative from the environment to achieve this goal If something has a consequence it is operant Examples For several years Casey had a passionate sexual relationship with a girl that always wore lavender perfume Even several years later the mere smell of lavender arouses him 0 Classical conditioning because there is a natural occurring relationship 0 What is the US Sex 0 What is the UR Arousal o What is the CS Smell of lavender o What is the CR Arousal When Hillary was a baby her parents would drive her around in the car to get her to fall asleep because the feeling of motion automatically made her drowsy As an adult Hillary feels drowsy whenever she sits in a car even when it is not moving 0 ClassicalConditioning 0 US motion of the car 0 UR falling asleep 0 CS being in a car 0 CR causes drowsiness Rather than study Jill goes to a movie the night before her 105 exam and gets an F on the exam As a result she is more likely to study the night before a 105 exam Rather than go to the movies in the future o Operant conditioning 0 Going to the movies is being punished o The F is being added to reinforce studying During recess an elementary boy named Greg punches Luke in the stomach for being annoying Luke has an asthma attack which makes Greg feel extremely guilty From then on Greg never gets into a ght again 0 Operant Conditioning 0 Punching or ghting is the behavior and it is punished o Guilt from the asthma attack is being added to the environment to decrease the ghting Bob does badly on an exam and feels depressed He drinks the whole night which makes him feel less depressed Unfortunately drinking excessively has now became Bob39s strategy for feeling less depressed about his academic performance 0 Operant conditioning 0 Depression reinforces drinking behavior 0 Excessive alcohol is added in to make him feel better 0 Social learning theory Observational learning watching people and learning from them Mirror neurons Bobo doll study show kids videos of adults being violent towards the bobo doll Put them in a room with the bobo doll without telling them what to do and the kids become aggressive towards the bobo doll Kids who saw adults get punished for fucking up the bobo doll were less aggressive towards the bobo doll Memory 0 What is memory 0 Components that are under a single umbrella term of memory 0 Case study HM Suffered from epilepsy Hippocampus was removed in surgery After surgery he can39t remember anything past 30 seconds He does retain some other memory ability such as the ability to recall society events He can learn new tasks such as drawing in a mirror He doesn39t remember that he has ever done the task before but everytime he does it he gets better and faster 0 This illustrates that there are multiple types of memory 0 You can t simply say l have a good memory bad memory 0 3 types of memory 0 Sensory Memory extremely short half a second to 10 seconds top raw input Modality speci c lconic visual memory store Echoicauditory memory store Haptic touch memory store Independent of attention what we are actually paying attention to Highly detailed 0 Short term memory Temporary storage Short duration linked to attention 0 Maintenance rehearsal 0 Ex say a phone number over and over until you put it in your phone Elaborative rehearsal 0 Ex doing something over and over and focusing on the meaning Limited capacity Chunking breaking a phone number into little blocks 0 Longterm memory Unlimited capacity Unlimited retention Types Implicit memory memory that is not under our conscious control 0 Priming describes how when we present info To somebody that could in uence how they respond in the future The presentation of one stimulus in uences how you respond to something in the future 0 Procedural is this task oriented memory When we know something so well over and over and over again that we can just do it without thinking Trying to explain to somebody what you are doing is very hard Explicit memory What we consciously recall 0 Semantic memory for general knowledge and facts 0 Episodic memory for life events Amnesia anterograde vs retrograde O O O O O Anterograde memory for the future Retrograde Memory from the past Global all encompassing all types of memory effects more than one type of memory Selective usually only one type of memory is impaired Identify what the one type of memory is Global Anterograde HM could be cassicay conditioned Memory process 1 Encoding speci city levels of processing a Speci city the way you retrieve info You will remember the info Easier in that same context Levels of processing The more shallow level of processing you use the worse your probability or recall Show words and say gure out which ones have a quotDquot in them Then take the sheet away and say write down the words that had a D in it You won39t be able to remember as easy because it is useless Trying to memorize the exact wording on a notecard instead of trying to think of the deeper meaning The deeper the level of processing the better your probability of recall If you show a list of words and say think about which ones you like Then take the sheet away the person will remember what they liked and didn39t like better Doing notecards and being able to explain everything deeper and with actual thought of meaning 2 Storage and consolidation a Consolidate is strengthening we need to work at it 3 Retrieval a With explicit memories we have to work to retrieve them b With implicit memories they come up into retrieval without our effort i Procedural priming Memory process student applications 0 Encoding speci city match your study conditions to your retrieval conditions Reduce distractions chew gum while you study 0 Levels of processing encode memory at a deep level Semantic 0 One way to help with reconsolidation is to review the material multiple times and that is related to priming Why we forget encoding failure 0 Information didn39t make it to long term memory Absentmindedness Psychoactives if you are drinking a lot you won t retain information as good 0 Why we forget retrieval failure 0 Result of inadequate retrieval cues a prompt to illicit something from memory a question on a test is a retrieval cue RecaH Recognition is when you have response options Giving a picture and doing ll in the blank 0 Tip of the tongue phenomena Someone asks you something and you can39t quite answer but you know it is there Its similar but you don39t have the retrieval cue to illicit the memory 0 Why we forget decay 0 Memories fade when we don39t use them 0 Can39t be the whole story Retrieval cues quotsuperremembersquotHyperthymesia This ability is not global they don39t have a good memory for everything Selective episodic memory can remember everything from their own experiences Differs from eidetic photographic memory 0 Why we forget interference refers to when two tasks are tapping the same storageimited capacity 0 Other information competes with the information we are trying to recall Retroactive interference new information pushes out the old information Proactiveinterference Why we forget motivated forgetting o Suppression conscious consciously do not want to remember this usually with child hood experiences 0 Repression unconscious unconsciously forgetting something in order to have a recovered memory you would have to repress it people go into fugues and forget who they are and move away 0 Other sources of memory failure 0 Suggestibility Validity of eyewitness testimony Sources of memory failure 0 Encoding absentmindedness psychoactives o Retrieval inadequate cues o Decay o Interference retroactive proactive o Motivated repression suppression Other sources of memory failure 0 Suggestibility Validity of Eyewitness testimony Jennifer Thompson and Ronald cotton 0 The innocence project the yearjennifer Thompson gets robbed and raped the rapist bobby pool later that night goes out and rapes another girl The police show jen phots of multiple suspects one of them being bobby pool She saw Ronald Cotton and said quotthat39s the man he raped mequot He got life in jail A few years later the second victim who was raped by the same man said quotno it wasn t Ronald Cottonquot After DNA samples Ronald Cotton was released because the DNA said it was Bobby Pool Robert Cotton got compensated 500 for each year he was in jail Validity of recovered memories Multiple personality disorder and satanic ritual abuse Bottoms Shaver amp Goodman 1996 0 12000 cases of SRA False memories 0 A memory that is implanted It never happened but we are con dent that it did Experiment for false memories bugs bunny ads for Disney land all people had been to Disney land as a child 0 O O 0 Ad no bugs 8 people thought they saw bugs Ad no bugs bugs cutout in the room 4 Ad Bugs 30 said they had met him and shook his hand Ad bugs and bugs cutout 40 This is the percent of people who generated a false memory Disease 0 Alzheimer39s Can you quottrainquot your memory Language Yes 0 0 Memory athletics Elaborative rehearsal method of loci But that doesn39t necessarily mean your memory quotgets betterquot 0 What is the language Different from communication Unique to humans Present in every human society Cultural Revelation NO Not present in any other animal Physical barrier Communications do not ful ll de nition of language Language structure O OO 0 Basic sound 0 Segmentation topdown processing what you know effects how you hear something MOTIVATION Needs De ency A biological need food water procreation can extend to social phenomena as well Social acceptance 0 Drives tension resulting from need is what pushes us towards a behavior sex thirst hunger Sex can also be an incentive Incentives from environment Money sex social standings something that is motivating you to behave in anyway in the absence of a need eg people work jobs because they get paid 0 Intrinsic Eg I like this class Comes from within Neither intrinsic or extrinsic is better than the other 0 Extrinsic Eg getting a good grade Comes from outside of you 0 Sex Americans say sex is more enjoyable than almost everything 0 Males o Hormones o Testosterone oxytocin o vasopressin Sex drive 0 Reasons Meston and o Buss 2007 Higher than Females 0 quotPhysical appearance 0 turned me onquot 0 quotPerson was availablequot Number of Partners 0 14lifetime o o Hormones Females Testosterone oxytocin vasopressin estrogen progesterone Lower than Males quotI wanted to express my love for the personquot 2lifetime Men who are with girls who are ovulating show increased testosterone Oxytocin is released at orgasm for men and women Vasopressing in men associated with arousal Women with high levels experience decreased sexual motivation High estrogen and low progesterone equals increased sexual drives for women 0 When women are most fertile o Theories of Motivation 0 Maslow39s Hierarchical Model incorrect has some interesting ideas Basic idea we have a hierarchy of needs our most crucial needs are at the bottom of the pyramid Bottom physiological needs needs to feel safe for food Selfactualization this is why we get up in the morning according to Maslow Realism and acceptance are realistic about your life goals these people know what they can and cannot do Spontaneity Go with the ow can39t be too spontaneous Problem centerino you don39t want to be only concerned with your problems you want to see the world in a broader way people who achieved these problem centering had goals to help people besides themselves Autonomy A person who is okay as themselves they are their own person 0 Continued freshness and appreciation Still appreciate the little things 0 Peak experiences This person has experienced some transformative experience 0 Self Determination theory To reach optimal functionselfdetermination 3 needs must be met Not hierarchical Autonomy You need to have time on your own to know who you are be comfortable being yourself Competence ls connected to some type of activity activity usually centers around some type of career hobby or occupational goal 0 Gives you con dence in who you are Relatedness you want to have some type of attachment to some one who is secure and healthy 0 Valuing persons on who they are and not what they provide to you 0 People who you value and they value you in return lf need is not ful lled quotrobust detrimental impact on wellnessquot Motivation and Culture where we are from will determine how we are motivated o Individualistic cultures more likely to be motivated by personal accomplishment o Collectivistic Cultures More likely to be motivated to behave when the rewards or bene ts extend to your group 0 Motivation Applications 0 Goalsetting a way for us to increase our motivation peci c don39t want the goal to be too broad too broad get a career in psychology a better goal I want to get a PHd in Psychology Measurable Have to have to way to assess where you are in achieving your goal Achievable want it to be realistic but not too easy you want it to be a little bit dif cult Relevant associated with inner value relevant to some greater purpose that you see for yourself later in your life TimeboundNeeds to have an end point Emotion Emotion vs mood vs affect umbrella term can be talking about emotion or mood or both o Theories Locationist account you are saying there are discreet categories of emotion fear anger happiness ect o Universalitv approach The category itself comes with a unique facial expression they believe that is what emotion is 0 Paul Ekman o Emotion categories Anger disgust fear happiness sadness surp se 0 You should be able to go to any culture in the world and see the same six faces for these emotions o Evolutionary approach Saying there are actual parts of the brain that work when emotions are experienced neural networks of emotion o Jak pankesepp o Seeking the desire and motivation to engage with our environment reason why the building up to something is so much better than the thing when it actually happens motivates us to interact my 0 Fear w w 0 Panic 0 Play Constructionist account our emotions are made up of many different parts that all work together to allow us to feel a certain thing Emotions emerge out of more basic psychological processes 0 Emotions process A Process B Process C o Eg sensory input prior experience immediate surroundings executive attention 0 There are no emotion categories because our fears are based on whatever is happening Our sensory input Consistent with how we view the rest of the brain 0 People can intentionally or unintentionally change their emotions Emotions regulation it is based on a principle that emotions are tied to a physiological response 0 When people are emotional they have increase in skin conductance O Reappraisal if something is making you feel bad focus on something else Expressive suppression pretend you are not feeling emotions at all 0 Negative effect on memory because it takes so much effort 0 Emotion application Polygraph tests lie detector test no true test just look at how people respond 0 Assess Physiology 0 Potential problems 0 People who are good at lying that everything comes up as truth 0 People who are so nervous everything comes up as a lie 0 Potential solution 0 What does it mean to be rationalirrational o Rational COGNITIVE Reasonable Fair good Educated Pros and cons Logical Calm polite generous experienced open minded intelligent o Irrational EMOTIONAL Impulsive sel sh stubborn unfair unreasonable Value of emotion o Emotions are popularly thought to cloud judgment 0 In reality emotions are what allow us to meaningfully interact with our environment 0 Amygdala damage causes emotional processing damage 0 Case studies in emotiondecision making 0 Amygdala damage Motivated by risk Don t experience loss aversion in risky choice You are unable to tie emotions to your memories 0 Don39t have emotional feedback to help you avoid making bad decisions in the future 0 10 fat vs 90 fat free Meat options 0 People always choose 90 fat free 0 This is an example of framing o This is a product of our emotional response to positives and negatives 0 We hate sure losses if someone comes up to you and hands you ten dollars and says you have the choice of me taking 9 dollars back or a 5050 chance that I will take all the money back Emotions are why we are all rational What can we conclude o Emotions can both help and hinder our decision making So it would be best to try and avoid using emotions 0 NO 0 We can39t pending serious injury Nearly all decisions involve a EMOTIONAL PROCESS hot affective system Emotion is a bene t to us in a lot of cases 0 The alternative were it to occur would be worse Alternative cold cognitive deliberative system 0 Attention based 0 System characteristics 0 System 1 HOT Unconscious can t control it Automatic Large capacity Associative Reportereditoranangy 0 Reporter Intuition Impression impuIse 0 System 2 Cold Deliberate Effortful Limited Lazy Reportereditoranangy 0 Editor Beliefs Comes from intuition and impression voluntary action Comes from impuIse The monitor If it seems reasonable he is not gonna doubIe checkit What goes into emotion 0 Individual differences Recognition eg autism 0 Physiological response Understanding Eg phobia 0 Environmental input 0 Past experience 0 Making predictions about decision making 0 What system is required to make the correct decision System 1 Hot 0 When did this system result in making the correct decision 0 If you get a choice between 10 and 1 what are you gonna choose 10 because of past experience System 2 cold 0 Only comes online when necessary o Is there anything preventing the system from performing its duty which could result in an error o If not how can I bring the system online 0 Any time you have to consciously rationalize a choice 0 Individual differences in decision making personality 0 Risk seeking and sensation seekingimpulsivity 0 Sensitivity to reward and extraversion Personality traits Five factor model personality traits are 50 heritable o Openness to experience prefer variety and new things 0 Conscientiousness your shit is planned out dependable self disciplined o Extraversion You get your energy from other people energy and sociability o Agreeableness has to do with the tendency to be compassionate and cooperative towards others Trusting helpful nature negatively associated with having a personality disorder 0 Neuroticism How anxious tense high strung a person is all about the experience of negative emotion very emotionally stable in a negative emotion sense positively associated with most personality disorders Eg eyore for pooh Personality disorders 0 Extreme variants of personality stable 0 Develop in childhoodadolescence o Clusters based on diagnostic manual Oddeccentric Schizoid PD You want a solitary life You do not have close relationships appear to be unable to express emotion Emotionally aloof lack social skills seem to be loners No desire for close relationships thought to share a genetic link with schizophrenia connection is weak Schizotypal PD same as Schizoid but with the addition of strange thoughts and odd eccentric behavior eg they believe the news stories they read are about them go out and make an effort to buy ghost hunting equipment because they see ghosts not paranoid they just believe weird things Paranoid PD extreme susoicion of others unwa rranted see wife leave without ring on her nger and immediately assume she is going out to cheat on them blameless Dramaticemotional Anxiousfearful If you have a normally distributed trait then you are like everyone else If you are on either of the extremes you always do it Histrionic PD characterized by the need to be the center of attention will participate in dramatic behaviorjust to get everyone to focus on them 0 Typically these people get their worth from others they need it 0 Equal between men and women Borderline PD the main characterizing component is emotional instability will go from being the happiest of happy to the saddest of sad in seconds 0 Not bipolar it is a different category o If there is cutting or attempted suicide it is most likely this PD 0 More women than men Narcissistic PD a person who has a very positive selfimage of themselves but it is exaggerated relative to the truth 0 This person thinks that they are amazing people that just think they are better than everyone else but in reality they are not 0 Operate by their own rules because they are a higher being Antisocial PD they do not need others but outwardly they can function and sometimes be quite charming 0 Ted Bundy 0 Don39t desire social interaction but they have the ability to manipulate it to their advantage If you have a PD there is a pretty good chance you will have a mental disorder Avoidant PD is similar to schizoid and schizotypal these people have extreme fear of social interaction 0 Avoidance people want to interact they wished they were more outgoing social and had a higher selfesteem This is what makes them different from schizoid and schizotypal 0 Unable to function socially because of thisquot Dependent PD This person is very clingy needy would die if you left them very exaggerated about how much they need you 0 Can39t even go to the grocery store without the other 0 About equal in men and women Historv of the treatment of mental disorders the treatment of mental health has a very gruesome history 0 Domestication period Characteristics patientsseen assub human beast the goal was to tame the beast mental illness not curable Patients considered subhuman and terminally irrational Everything before the 18405 Mental illness seen as incurable Goal was to tame and manage the beast through terror Treated these people like pets Treatment 0 The rotating chair Cox s swinging device 0 Would do it till you puked or shit They wanted you to release bodily uids Hydrotherapy aquatic shock treatment 0 Waterboarding Chinese Temple 0 Call the patient to come across the bridge and when they got in the middle the bridge would give out and the patient would drop into a metal cage in the water below 0 Bath of surprise 0 Same thing but just put them on a platform End of domestication period LunATICSCOUNTY ASYLUM Act 1845 0 Call them Patients instead of inmates 0 Required inspection of insane asylumes o Moral treatment period Patients are children who haven t been raised pronerlv Mental illness can be cured but no theory driving treatment Goal was to reteach Kind of like a behaviorist perspective using operant conditioning End of moral treatment period 0Ultimate downfall was lack of credentials o Quakers were farmers that owned the mentally ill tied up in the moral treatment period there was no training or anything doctors took over leading to the medicalization period 0 There was no theory driving treatment 0 Medicalization was pro table o Medicalization period Beginning of how we currently view mental health Mental illness is a broken mechanism that needs repair Medicalexperimentation Minimal respect Biologically based 0 High cure rate so high to the point that it is suspicious Goal to cure the insane Fever Treatment 0 Observation fever helps reduce madness o If a person in a extreme psychotic state and they got a fever when they awoke from that fever that person was less psychotic Treatment is to induce fever via malarial blood injection Fever is not going to reduce madness the likely cause is that the person who had the fever is just really drained because of being sick Just sort of fell out of fashion Surgical Bacteriology Henry kahn IDK Belief mental illness originates in undetected infectious teeth 0 Treatment is teeth removal 0 Guy pulled out his own teeth after having a mental break down and pulled out his wife39s teeth and two son39s teeth Insulin Coma Observation morphine addict accidently given OD of insulin and put in coma has psychiatric symptoms lessened When the girl wakes up from the coma the psychotic girl wakes up a little less crazy so since that worked this became a popular form of treatment 0 Treatment is to place in the person in a coma Coma39s do not cure psychosis the result is probably because the person is drained after the coma like the fever treatment Shock therapy Repaced comas Belief mutual antagonism of epileptic and schizophrenic brain cells 0 If you have a schizophrenic person you give them a seizure because if you are epileptic you cannot be schizophrenic Treatment is to induce seizure o Camphor causes extremely painful seizures 0 Metrazol synthetic form of camphor o Injecting blood drawing blood from an epileptic while they were seizing and inject it in the schizophrenic Modern methods 0 Electroshock therapy shock gentalia anus lips different from ECT Electroconvulsive therapy ECT electricity it passed bilaterally through the head Historically people are not knocked out before this happens people still receive this therapy we do not know why this still works the thought is the advantage of getting this is random or placebo used for treatment resistant patients eg if you are really depressed treated every other day for 3 days no idea if this even has a bene t Now people are givin muscle relaxants and anesthetics so the patient is relaxed when it happens Lobotomy Observation chimps with frontal lobe damage are more docile calm and indifferent to anything that is happening 0 Treatment is to destrov frontal lobe tissue 0 Developed by Moniz responsible for the rst human lobotomy Popularized by Walter Freeman very interested in becoming famous o Transorbital Lobotomv watts walks in on Freeman with ice picks in a patients eyes just wiggling them around rst TL They would do a ECT rst till the patient was unconscious Then shove the ice picks through the eyes tissue behind the eyes destroyed Effects Regression of behavior to childlike state long recovery period Loss of motivationindifference Varying Long term effects If you get a lobotomy at a young age you will be better off afterwards Chemical model main reason lobotomies went out of style 0 Development of antipsychotic medications sifts experimentation towards neural chemistry Chlorpromazine eg Thorazine o The rst antipsychotic chemical lobotomy 0 Used as an antihistamine but it was a little too strong 0 All the sudden we wanted a pill for every disorder Final DSM o How a psychological illness becomes a mental disorder By a committee vote 1520 committees 160 people total range in size from 310 0 56 have received some form of compensation from pharmaceutical companies 0 Pharmaceutical have a great interest in what goes into the DSM because whatever new illnesses go in will cause for new treatments and new treatments make money Homosexuality was a mental disorder until DSM 3 0 Utility of DSM ReHabH y Eh reliabilitv receive same diagnosis from multiple doctors o What the DSM has hung its hat on for years 0 Measured based on Kappa 1 perfect reliability Ochance DSM has a kappa has 8 0 Statistical measurement 0 Schizophrenia 46 0 Major affective disorders 28 0 Mixed anxietydepressive lt0 Would have been better if they threw the book in the trash and guessed Validity High validity diagnosis is re ective of what is actually wrong DSM has poor validity because of symptom based diagnosis 0 Circular reasoning go into a doctor and say I am sad I have been sad for two weeks I must have major depressive disorder Like saying I have chest pain so I must be having a heart attack The rest of medicine used to diagnose in this way as well Not practiced for the last 50 years 0 DSM is published by the American Psychiatry system 0 DSM Classi cation of Mental Disorders Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders Schizophrenia cause unknown genetic component 0 Positive vs negative symptoms Positive adding something to the environment What would you add to normal functioning people to have schizophrenia Hallucinations think something is there that is notthink you saw the queen of england delusions Belief based think you are the queen of england Negative symptoms Primarv neoative svmptomFlattened affect no reaction to anything funny Slowed or slurred speech 0 Low motivation o No more categories of schizophrenia 0 Has a late adolescent onset 0 Popular new theory is that schizophrenia is a combination of many disorders O 0 High correlation with substance abuse about 50 of people with schizophrenia Treatment heavy antipsychotic that depresses you Schizoa ective disorder cause unknown 0 All but de ned If you are acting strange but you don39t t any of the other disorders we will give you this one Delusional disorder cause unknown 0 O O O O Erotomanic believing that someone is in love with you when they don39t even know you Grandiose delusions of selfworth that are exaggerated Thinking you are the queen of England Jealous has to do with some type of sexual relationship Persecutorybelief that you are being treated badly or that people are out to get you Somatic physical defect of a mental condition Mixed unspeci ed Bipolar and related disorders Bipolar l cause unknown 0 More on the positive side manic episode or mixed episode high as you can get on the positive a ective spectrum these people are having the time of their life can39t follow a conversation Can go up and down durastically Have to have the high highs and lows aren39t too low Bipolar ll cause unknown 0 Spends most of their time on the low lows and will have brief periods of hypomania but mostly you are down in depression Cyclothymic cause unknowngenetic component 0 In the middle of both cycling half way in between hypo mania and moderate depressive episodes Never hit full mania or full depression 0 Treatment lithium a mood stabilizer 75 of people who take it have a side e ect Easy to diagnose at a younger age Depressive disorders 0 Major depressive disorder cause unknowngenetic component 0 Ef cacy of antidepressants 0 Need to experience a prolonged depressive episode longer than 2 weeks 0 People experience extreme tiredness guilt fatigue worthlessness No test for depression Depression is not caused by a chemical imbalance Not caused by a lack of serotonin or norepinephrine People who take the placebo effects are close to the SSRI unless you are really depressed Anti depressants can also be used for persistent depressive disorder cause unknown but not as effective 0 Persistent depressive disorder not hitting the low lows as much as MDD but you stay at a moderately depressed level and never come out of it lf anti depressants don39t work they use ECT treatment resistant depression If you undergo ECT you typically have memory loss and violent seizures Anxiety disorders 0 Speci c phobia cause known 0 O 0 Extreme irrational fear if you had a fear of spiders you would have bug bomber your house today People have developed these fears because they have conditioned themselves to have the extreme fear of whatever that is Treatment exposure or conditioning the opposite way face your fears Generalized anxiety disorder cause unknowngenetic component 0 If someone in your family has it you are more likely to have it chronic worrier Karan overly concerned with everything that is occurring because it might just lead to the next horrible thing somewhat controversial some people claim it is just an excuse to medicate don39t have an extreme fear of one thing just constantly worry at all times Obsessivecompulsive and related disorders 0 0CD cause unknown 0 0 Common obsessions cleanliness organization violent or sexual thoughts Obsessions are what is occurring in the mind 0 Compulsions result from the obsessions can be behaviors or thoughts themselves Trauma and stressor related disorders 0 PTSD O Intrusions ashbacks one of the main symptoms after you have experienced the traumatic event you continue to reexperience it o avoid triggers 0 increased arousal benzos use is positively correlated with likelihood of dementia diagnosis don39t know if it is causal Social psychology 0 How does being in a group impact our behavior If you are new to an environment you will watch others to see how they behave which will in turn cause you to behave the same way Facilitation having other people around improves your behavior think of this in any competitive sense Loa ng the presence of others normatively negatively impacts your behavior if everyone is running way faster than you are jogging and they get way ahead of you then you will start walking because you don39t care anymore Normsconformitv it is a social norm to be nice to people social norms make us conform we are all wearing some type of bottom half clothing Ashes line experiment only one person on the experiment the rest of the people in the room are in on it They show lines that are different sizes they are looking to see if a large group make a mistake if the individual will make a mistake and go along with the group 0 Obedience when people do bad things Forms of conformity 2 classic studies Milgram 1963 1974 two people come into a room for an experiment the tester says this is a memory game one person will be a learner one a teacher the teacher shocks the learner every time they mess up the learner is an actor it is a test of how far will the teacher go into applying shocks to a learner trajectory is always the same rst two words pairs are easy no shock is give then words start getting harder and the teacher will keep going if the teacher keeps going the learner will say he has a heart condition if the teacher keeps going the learner will say stop he is done then ends up unconscious 0 Most people will go all the way to a shock called quottriple xquot above 60 if they have to place the learners hand on the shock machine then obedience goes down 0 75 of people who went to 150 volts went all the way Zimbardo 1971 Stanford prison experiment 0 Would not be able to be done today 0 lngroup outgroup ingroup the group that you are a part of our psych 105 class outgroup other psych 105 classes Bias members of our own group are superior while members of the out group are inferior Outgroup homogeniety is the ability to see all others on the outgroup as the same as the people in your group a mass over generalization Modern example political parties all republicans are gay bashing climate change arguing assholes Group cohesion allows for Easy agreement Quick decisions Diminished individual responsibility saves resources 0 Can have a negative side Where a person no longer takes responsibility for their actions because of a mass gathering Informational social in uence members of your group provide valuable info To you a tribe supplying info On how to survive Normative social in uence says that we want to be a part of a group because it feels good to us Can we counter it Yes by nding a common enemy Or by allowing dissenting opinions to be hear Minority in uence 0 The negative in positive psychology Liberation psychology is focused on encouraging dissent impower people who have given up control to a majority in uence and take control back into their hands Helping when people do good things Helping behavior evolved through kin selection it would be evoluntionary bene cial to you to help your kin to make sure people from your family carry on We often quotfeelquot the pain of others 0 Empathy 0 Our attitudes do not impact our behavior 0 Doesn t ALWAYS lead to helping behavior negativestate relief model o If you can relief your empathy from other behaviors such as turning off the tv on the sarah mclaughlin commercial then you will 0 Impact of numeracy ie will we be more likely to help one person or many Once we move beyond one life the function levels off thousands of lives are about equal to what we would have said with 3 people Too big of numbers make it hard to visualize Katie bitch lecture Biological sex male or female 0 Based on genetic codereproductive organs Gender the cultural social and psycholigcal meaning associated with malens Women better at verbal skills reading and writing Men better at spatial skills and slightly better at math At almost every trait men have a wider distribution than women Ex there are a lot of really tall men and a lot of men that are really short Differences are minimal Averages don39t tell us anything about an individual Where do gender differences come from 0 Nature Biologically based Inevitable Unchanging o Nurture Learned Socially constructed Changeable o It is true that more women are stay at home parents WHY Because women are born to raise children Because women have been taught their role is to raise children Gender is at least partly learned and socially constructed 0 Social construction of gender society and culture create gender roles EX women shaving introduced by razor companies in 19205 0 Title IX Until the 705 most women didn39t play sports When schools were forced to offer sports women played sports How do we learn gender roles 0 Media Tc shows movies advertising music 0 Our parents Parents treat boys differently than girls quottoughen upquot quotyou are so beautifulquot 0 Schools Women are interrupted more than men More eye contact with male students Teachers more likely to know and use the names of their male students Women are often asked fewer or easier questions than males How are gender roles maintained 0 Gender policing What would happen if a man wore a dress to class People would communicate in some way that he is not being appropriate What would happen if a woman tried out for football Disguised as quotProfessionalismquot Social ostracism boy cries as much as girls so no one is friends with him Double standards 0 Bachelor vs spinster 0 Player vs sut o A woman slaps a man a man slaps a woman Gender identity 0 The degree to which a person sees himherself as masculine or feminine o Transgender person who s gender identity con icts with biological sex 0 Transsexual person who has undergone sex reassignment surgeryhormone therapy to transform the body to the opposite sex 0 Gender identity is NOT sexual orientation Sexual orientation 0 Direction of a person s eroticromantic attraction o Heterosexualstraight o Homosexual Gay 10 of men Lesbian 4 or women 0 Bisexual o Pansexual attracted to men women and transgendered people Social construction of sexual orientation 0 David helperin is there a hisotyr of homosexuality 0 We think about sexual orientation in terms of preference for partners of a certain gender 0 The greeks didn39t have the same concept of sexual orientation sex was about power not desire 0 Our cultural context shape how we think about sexuality and sexual orientation
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