Human Development "Family Interaction"
Human Development "Family Interaction" 3389
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This 12 page Bundle was uploaded by Rebecca Nixon on Monday February 9, 2015. The Bundle belongs to 3389 at Washington State University taught by Amy Shepherd in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Family Interaction in Human Development at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 02/09/15
Introduction to the Family Jan1415 What is family 0 No one right way to be 0 No one right way to communicate There is no one agreed upon de nition 0 Dynamic diverse changing resilient unique Family Experiences 0 Current Families 0 Family of Origin 10 of the population is a traditional family US Families Today Cohabitation living together in a committed marriage like relationship but no legal documents Majority of couples cohabit before marrying Half eventually marry half separate Marriage 0 Most people still marry o Smaller portion of the population is married 0 Lifetime marriages last longer then they used to 0 Age at rst marriage has increased 0 Interracial marriage more common 0 More samesex couples reporting they are married Variation by class and raceethnicity 0 Those with income 3x the poverty line are twice as likely to be married as those with incomes below the poverty line 0 African Americans are least likely to be married most likely to divorce and most likely to never marry Divorce rates 4050 of all US marriages will end in divorce The average length of a rst marriage ending in divorce is 8 years Divorce rates are stabilizingdropping Woman living below the poverty line more likely to experience divorce than nonpoor woman 44 vs 29 Teenagers 50 Mid to late 205 33 30 or older 25 Remarriage 75 of those who divorce will remarry 15 of marriages involve one partner remarrying Children Portion of children who grow up in singleparent homes increasing Most commonly through divorce About 12 of births to single mothers actually births to cohabiting couples African American and Puerto Rican parents more likely to stay unmarried Stepfamilies 17 of children live in a stepfamily Most live with biological mother and stepfather In 2008 the births to single moms rose to 41 Adoonn Teen gets pregnant aunt adopts the baby quotBoomerang Kidsquot When I child comes home after college and lives with parents Gay and Lesbian Couple Multigenerational families Another generation is living with you grandparent baby Sandwich generation when you have multigeneration and boomerang kids So you re taking care of you children and parents Married mothers increasingly likely to work 61 of women with kids under the age of 6 are working Split shift parenting 50 of American parents feel they spend too little time with their children Economic Issues Poverty 0 1 in 5 children live in poverty Single parent 2 kids 17607 Two parents 2 kids 22162 0 Over 12 of young children in female headed households live in poverty 0 41 of children live in lowincome families 0 1 in 50 children experience homelessness each year African American Native American 258 poverty rate Racial Ethnic Diversity o Immigrant Families Higher Fertility Rates 11 foreign 23 of children have at least one immigrant parent Children of Immigrants are more likely to live with two parents Children of immigrants are more likely to live in low income or poor households Criticisms of Changing Families Families much more mobile Generational ties aren t as closely knit Marriage isn t as strong Fathers decreasingly part of their children s lives Families no longer center of personal ful llment Abandonment of traditional family patterns of 19505 has had negative effect Parents spend less time with kids P P FP NE l Wednesday 12115 US Families Today Fra mework For Family Communication What is Communication We convey messages through symbols Transactional process Shared meanings Dynamic Within intimate relationships we cannot help but convey messages to each other Messages occur at two levels Content actual words The underlying message Nonverbal cues They give our partner more information about how to interpret the content They also tell out partner This is how I see myself This is how I see you This is how I see you seeing me Metacommunication Clarifies and establishes rules about communication Meanings and Messages Shared meaning Coordinating verbal and nonverbal communications What in uences meaning Negotiating and coordinating Meanings Communication and the family system Communication supporting functions primary functions Cohesion is the way families balance separateness and connectedness Enmeshed Extreme closeness High dependence little individuality Cohesive Closeness loyalty and togetherness some individuality Connected Sense of belonginginvolvement some independence tolerance of individuality Disengaged Extreme separateness high independence little involvement Adaptability is the way families balance stability and change Chaotic No leadership light levels of change Inconsistent rulesroles Flexible Shared decisionmaking significant change and shifting rulesroles The best for families Structured Limited shared decisionmaking moderate change stable rolesrules Rigid Authoritarian leadership low levels of change strict roles rules Characteristics of communication 0 Listening skills 0 Speaking skills 0 Selfdisclosure 0 Clarity 0 Staying on topic 0 Respect and regard Adaptability 0 Level of change 0 Leadership 0 Roles 0 Relationship rules m 0 Involvement 0 Loyalty and togetherness 0 Independence 0 Individuality What characteristics of communication do they exhibit 0 Listening speaking selfdisclosure clarity staying on topic 130 Supporting Family Functions and Intergenerational in uences Family Images 393 Individuals develop images of their family unit and family members 393 Expectations Level of importance 393 Image congruence we really act the way we want to be perceived Family Themes 0 Represent a fundamental view of reality Who are we What do we value 0 Themes guide behavior inside and outside the family O 9 Understanding themes helps us understand communication patterns and behaviors Boundaries External Physical or psychologically imposed limits Regulate access to people places ideas information values Internal Reinforce hierarchical structure Regulate internal differentiation Biosocial Issues 0 9 Position oriented vs personoriented families Birth Order Gender Intergenerational In uences O O O O I 00 00 00 0 CH3 Current relational experiences re ect Familyof origin socialization Cultural context Family patterns transmitted to next generation Communication Internal and external boundaries Complementary power relationships Parenting style Patterns of con ict Family themes Internal working models of attachment Systems Characteristics 0 O I 60 00 Interdependence Changes reverberate Wholeness The Whole is greater than the sum of its parts Emergent properties Patternsselfregulation The system maintains constancy Within and acceptable range of behaviors Patterns of interaction repetition and reciprocity become established in the system to keep it functioning Calibration Regulate interaction patterns through feedback Maintenance feedback Changepromoting feedback 393 Supernanny The Bullard family 2215 Systems Characteristics 393 Interactive complexity punctuation 393 Communication is circular 393 Punctuation Tries to place blame on someone or something Openness Depends on family s external boundaries Technology Complex Relationships Subsystems Relationships between 23 persons Defined by generation gender interests Membership uctuates 393 Coalition When a subsystem aligns against others 393 Often triangles Child as scapegoat Crossgenerational O O O O 90 90 90 90 Eguifinality Many ways to arrive at some outcome Families meet goals share meanings in different ways Understanding cause less valuable than understanding process Limitations of Systems Theory Has not adequately dealt with issues of Gender power differentials Biological predispositions for problems that affects family communication Cultural differences in family boundaries and communication patterns Social Constructionism People actively construct model of the world through their conversationsinteractions Families are social systems created by their communication Svmbolic Interaction Interaction fosters development of self and group identity Behavior is based on meanings attributed to actions Meaning are in uences by social and cultural context Roles Shared norms about social positions Tell us what behavior is expected of us Tell us what behavior we can expect from others Relational Dialectics Focuses on how people manage contradictions in relationships Autonomyconnection Opennessclosedness Predictability novelty 0 How do families deal with these tensions Selection Segmentation Neutralizing Cyclic alteration Reframing Narrative TheorV 0 We make sense of our worlds through storytelling Subjective Process Allows us to discover and create who we are 0 Types of Narratives Recounting Accounting Narrative Performance Theory Audience Norms of power and knowledge Tone Narratives Functions of Stories Remember Create belonging and family identity Teach expected behavior and values Functions of Stories cont 0 Cover stories Identity Relationship Exploitation How Family Stories Are Told 0 Perspective taking 0 Coordinated 0 Individual 0 Imposed 0 Gender 0 Ethnicity 0 Content Relational Culture A private world of rules understandings meanings and patterns of acting and interpreting p81 Emerges as families develop patterns of communication and systems of meaning Family of origin in uence Rules Interpreting responding to family members messages Create meaning and define relationships Constitutive What is being communicated Regulative How and When it should be communicated Rule Formation Explicit Implicit Intergenerational transmission Ethnic background Tvnes of rules What can be discussed How can it be discussed With Whom can it be discussed Metarules rules about the rules Communication Patterns Rules Provide predictability Help coordinate shared meaning Set limits of cohesion adaptability boundaries Beyond communication Rules Rules regulate and direct family life Rules emerge from Family of origin Blending with partner Culture Trial and error con ict and resolution Finding What works to manage life 0 O 90 90 O 90 O 90 Purpose of Rules Accountability Boundaries Distance Regulation Implementation Exceptions Violation Managing Rules Adaptability is helpful Developmental appropriateness Rule rigidity Disabling rules Implicitness is desirable Family Secrets Secrets involve deliberately Withholding information from one or more family members Interactions are shaped by how information is shared Secrets create and reinforce boundaries Can be damaging to family functioning Types of Secrets Sweet something temporary that you re not telling people Pregnancy getting into college getting engaged Essential Important secrets that others don t need to know spouses sharing their sec history and not telling their kids Toxic the elephant in the room a secret that can hurt the family a lot a secret that would eat at people Dangerous a secret that puts someone into immediate harm You just found out your little brother brought a gun to school today and told you not to tell anyone Functions of Secret Bonding A White lie kind of secret very harmless siblings writing each other late passes and holding it from the parents Evaluation A secret kept to avoid negative judgment Maintenance Protect family from stressors Hiding a parking ticket from your spouse so they don t get stressed or worry Privacy Kept just because it is no one else s business it s a private family matter Parents getting divorced Defense to protect someone in the family and defend them Communication If you re disengaged as a family you wont share those things because there is no level of trust Protection To protect the person because the secret might hurt them protecting their feelings but usually just protecting yourself Uneven Dower dvnamic To give power over others to hold something against them Factors in uencing Effect of Secrets m One person keeping a secret from everyone Between certain members and not others 0 Within generations 0 Across generations Across family Boundaries Secrets everyone knows Timing 0 Developmental period 0 Transition periods
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