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chapter one notes

by: Michelle Kostyack

chapter one notes Philos 1500

Michelle Kostyack
GPA 3.84
Introduction to Logic
Peter Celello

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Introduction to Logic
Peter Celello
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This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by Michelle Kostyack on Monday February 9, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Philos 1500 at Ohio State University taught by Peter Celello in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 88 views.


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Date Created: 02/09/15
Philosophy class notes 82914 Two main terms Argument Validity An argument is a set of propositions the truth of one of which the conclusion is taken to be supported by the truth of the others the premises Aka a series of declarative sentences ie sentences with facts 0 Questions and demands are examples of non declarative sentences 0 A conclusion is the last sentence of an argument the sentence being argued for o The premises are any sentence that is not the conclusion sentences that assert evidence Example of deductive argument Socrates is human All humans are mortal 39 Socrates is mortal this is valid conclusion has to be true bc premises are true IMHO An inductive argument is one such that in order to count as successful the truth of the premises is required to make the truth of the conclusion more likely or more probable than if the premises were not true Example of inductive argument My cousin is from Green Bay 39 My cousin is a Packers fan 0 A deductive argument is one such that in order to be successful the truth of the premises is required to guarantee the truth of the conclusion 0 Agrippa s trilemma giving premises that your audience will understand and accept because if you have to explain everything it would go on forever must nd common ground with your audience can do this in 3 ways 1 Assuring 0 Citing authorities ie doctors say 0 lndicting strength of belief ie I m sure that Questioning anyone that would disagree ie common sense 2 Guarding o Weaken the extent of claim ie moving from all to some 0 Probability phrases ie it might be that its likely that 0 Cognitive phrase ie I believe that 3 Discounting o Indicating one fact is more important than another ie the ring is beautiful but expensive Philosophy class notes 9314 Joe won his bet because all he had to do was eat 5 lbs of oysters and he ate 9 dozen 1which weighs more than 5 lbs All oe had to do was eat 5 lbs of oysters and he ate 9 dozen Joe won his bet All Joe had to do to win the bet was eat 5 lbs of oysters Joe ate 9 dozen oysters 9 dozen oysters weighs more than 5 lbs Joe won his bet Socialism does not provide incentives Incentives are needed for a prosoerous economv 39 Socialism is doomed to failure this argument is too strong doesn t provide adequate incentives makes it more accurate Suppressed premises Benjamin Franklin could not have been our second president because he died before the second election was held Ben Franklin died before the second presidential election was held A dead person cannot be president Benjamin Franklin could not have been our second president Arnold Schwarzenegger cannot become president of the US because he was born in Austria Arnold Schwarzenegger was born in Austria Austria has never been part of the US 39 Arnold Schwarzenegger was born outside the US Anyone born outside the US is not a natural born citizen 39 Arnold Schwarzenegger is not a natural born citizen Only natural born citizens can become US presidents 39 Arnold Schwarzenegger cannot become president of the US 4a Arnold Schwarzenegger s parents were not US citizens when he was born 4b Anyone who was born outside the US whose parents were not US citizens at the time is not a natural born citizen Harriet is in New York with her son 39 Harriet s son is in New York Smith is opposed to the death penalty so he must be soft on crime Unfair assumption Throw out the door true and false looking at only structure do not think about reality soundness is about validity and truth Socrates is human All humans are mortal 39 Therefore Socrates is mortal quotquotquot This is valid gt because this is valid and true it is also sound Socrates is human All humans are mortal 39 Socrates lived in Greece quotquotquot This is invalid even though all premises are true gt not sound becauseinvaHd 9514 Alison is a man All men have beards 39 Alison has a beard This is valid because if the two premises are true this conclusion has to be true Unsound because not all the premises are true All false premises and a false conclusion All men have beards Alison has a beard 39 Alison is a man Invalid conclusion doesn t have to be true based on the premises Invalid therefore unsound Palin is the wicked witch of the west Rain makes Palin melt 39 Either it is raining or it is not raining Valid although the premises do not lead to the conclusion the conclusion has to be true therefore it is valid Unsound because premises are not true rain doesn t make anyone melt Socrates was a robot All humans are robots 39 Socrates was human Invalid all humans are robots not all robots are humans Socrates is human All humans are mortal All humans are Socrates Invalid Chapter one exercise set 12 159 1 Identical twins have the same genes Genes are inherited Identical twins are more likely to have the same blood pressure than fraternal twins 39 Blood is inherited 5 In poker a ush beats a straight In poker a full house beats a ush 39 In poker a full house beats a straight


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