chapter 4 notes
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Date Created: 02/09/15
Philosophy class notes chapter 4 Handout 6 Handout 7 101514 Necessity and suf ciency Necessity quotA is causally necessary for Bquot means without A B will not occur Suf ciency quotA is causally necessary for Bquot means whenever A occurs B will also gt Small pox vaccine is what condition for small pox prevention oz Not necessary 0 Suf cient gt Decapitation is what condition for death oz Not necessary 0 Suf cient gt Oxygen what condition for re oz Necessary 393 Not suf cient gt Clouds what condition for rain oz Necessary 393 Not suf cient 101714 Statistical Syllogisms and Fallacies o What is the form a statistical syllogism gt A syllogism is an argument with 2 premises and a conclusion that puts together information presented in the premises gt In a statistical syllogism the general premise is a statistical generalization rather than a universal generalization gt We use statistical generalizations when we argue that what is generally but not universally true or false is also true or false for a particular case gt Standard form gt X percent of all F s are G s A is and F 39 A is a G o What are the 2 standards for acceptable strength of a statistical syllogism 1 Closeness to 100 percent or 0 percent in the negative case 2 Whether all available relevant evidence has been considerd in selecting the reference class also known as the rule of total evidence 0 When these standards are not met which fallacy occurs gt Fallacy of incomplete evidence 0 What are the 3 special types of statistical syllogisms that Solomon discusses What are their typical forms and what are the standards for acceptable arguments of each type 1 Arguments from authority gt Typical form Most of what authority A has to say on subject matter S is correct A says P about S 39 P is correct gt It is reasonable to take the word of an authority if aka an argument is acceptable if i The authority is an expert on the matter under consideration ii There is an agreement among experts in the area of knowledge under consideration gt Fallacy that will occur if used incorrectly fallacy from authorty 2 Arguments against the person gt Typical form Most of what individual A says about a particular subject matter S is false A says P about S 39 P is false gt Only legitimate when there is reason to believe that most of the claims made by the individual or group concerning a particular aspect of that subject matter are false gt Fallacy that will occur if used incorrectly 3 Arguments from consensus gt Typical form Usually when most people agree on a claim about a subject matter S the claim is true P is a claim about S that most people agree on 39 P is true gt The argument is acceptable when consensus is a reliable authority on the subject matter gt Fallacy that will occur if used incorrectly fallacious argument of consensus abusive circumstantial tu quoque Arguments from analogy o What is the form of an argument from analogy Objects of type X have properties F G H and so on Objects of type Y have properties F G H etc and also an additional property Z 39 Objects of type X have property Z as well 0 What is the standard for an acceptable strength of an analogical argument gt Strength of the analogy relevance of the similarity What are the 2 related fallacies 1 Fallacy of false analogy 2 Fallacy of the slippery slope Arguments based on samples 0 What is the form of an argument based on samples X percent of observed F s are G s 39 X percent of all F s are 6 5 0 What is the standard for an acceptable strength gt Whether the sample mentioned in the premise is representative of the population referred to in the conclusion 0 What are the four related fallacies 1 Hasty generalizationFallacy of insufficient statisticsLeaping to a conclusion 2 Fallacy of misleading vividness 3 Biased statistics 4 Circular reasoning
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