notes for test one
notes for test one history 2641
Popular in global history pre 1500
verified elite notetaker
Popular in History
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Date Created: 02/09/15
11515 Class notes History historia in Latin means questionsinquiry The whole idea of world history of studying what s happened to civilization since the beginning of time has only been around for a few decades quotWorld historyquot was only introduced at a college level within the last 30 years quotWorld historyquot used to just be western history Mesopotamia to Egypt to Greece to Italy to Britain then to America World history that we teach and learn just re ects our culture now what we do and don t decide to teach just re ects our cultural baggage 12015 Becoming Human part 1 In 2003 a 160000 year old homo sapiens skeleton is found Oldest human skeleton on record Homo sapiens originate in E Africa c 200000 years ago and migrated out 60000 years ago gt Called the quotout of Africaquot thesis gt Doubters of this thesis agreed this happened but say that they actually evolved all over the world about 1 million years ago so each race evolved this is how races were created on their own because there is really no genetic differences between races gt Modern consensus basically just con rms quotout of Africaquot thesis gt Even though there are cultural differences ALL humans live very similarly which means they probably all evolved together Out of Africa thesis gt Vast majority of our differences stem from agriculture which started about 10000 years ago gt So basically before 10000 years ago all humans lived almost the exact same lives Evolution how life adapts to changing environments not progress to quothigher formsquot Modern humans our human subspecies evolved 200000 years ago The universe is 13800000000 years old The earth is 4540000000 years old Hominids are 7000000 years old beginning of human evolvement Modern humans are 200000 years old 0 Civilization is 10000 years old gt All of this was inconceivable 100 years ago 0 Early Hominids gt African apes had a 3way split gorillas chimpanzees hominids 1 1924 South Africa Austraopithecus Africanus Southern Ape of Africa gt brain 13 the size of ours gt Bipedal walk on two feet not fully but more than apes gt 5ft and 110 lbs gt Hunted not hunters gt They survived why Bipedalism 0 By being able to walk and run on 2 feet left their hands free to use quottoolsquot all natural made ie sticks and rocks 393 Can carry their food and bring it back for later instead of having to leave any excess behind oz Can get around easier and travel around to nd better environments gt Evolution of bipedalism 393 Other primatestreedwellers oz Last ice age started 40 million years ago and ended 10 million years ago had both warming and cooling phases 393 10 million years ago cooling in Africa forests shrink savannah spreads group of apes comes out of forests and try to live and survive in the savannah oz This group of apes survives because of Opposable thumbs Explorealter materials in nature Carry young Throw thingsmissiles with accuracy Mostly bc of intelligence This makes them adaptable alter behavior new ways to do things Crucial in changing environment Cognitive skills observation memory problem solving perhaps early form of language gt For 3 million years early hominids travel around Africa because of food favorable environments and they re trying not to get eaten gt Over this period in time their brains double in size 2 Homo Habiis quotskillful manquot gt Bipedal gt gt Even bigger brains innovation pass down knowledge of tool making resource use selfdefense 1950 s Tanzania Mary and Louis Leakey found a skeleton they named quotDear Boyquot oz he was found near quottoolsquot used for scraping meat off bones basically just sharpened rocks First quotrealquot human Leakeys thought so But not too different than Austraopithecus especially in brain size Various types of hominids were around at the same time They would run into each other There was some coexistence and some con ict Some swapped combined DNA Around 2 million years ago most of the many types of hominids all died out One that didn t die out was Homo Erectus oldest evidence of them found was from 18 million years ago VVVVVVV Truly upright quotHomo Erectusquot means quotstanding manquot Even bigger brain Brain too big to birth needs time to grow This means long childhood which means a family dynamic quotOthermothering became a thing They manipulated their environments made tools Created re around 800000 years ago 393 Meant heat protection 393 Cookingbetter digestionmore energybigger brains 1 million years ago many of the Homo Erectus leave Africa and more southwest towards Asia they move along the Indian Ocean shore to South Asia then China Frozen Oceans meant it was freezing which was one of the reasons they were migrating Frozen oceanstrave to Japan Eventually made it to Europe quotJava Manquot and quotPeking Manquot con rms Homo Erectus was in Asia 1 million years ago At this point Hominids were becoming smarter better hunters and better toolmakers Still not quotusquot these hominids are NOT our ancestors we have some genetic overlap but we are not directly descended from them Basically our distant cousins o The rst modern humans gt VVVV VVV Homo sapiens 200000 years ago Ethiopia left Afric 60000 years ago Homo sapiens means quotWise Manquot biggest brain yet Our DIRECT ancestors Complex communication Precarious beginnings 200000 we almost die out because we were in a cooling phase of the ice age 393 Most hominids in the world die out oz Homo Sapiens survive bc went to Ethiopia close to equator ad warmest part of the wold oz Also bc of intelligence Many left Africa 60000 years ago and follow the paths of the hominids that left years before 30000 yrs ago population300000 China quotShandingdong Man 18000 years ago very similar to us oz Advanced tools sewing needles oz Burials grave goods aesthetic tastes religion Homo Sapien in Northeast Asia Siberian grazing animals 18000 years ago migrated into north America Broken Mammoth in central Alaska oldest known settlement in America 8000 years ago land bridge melts and the America s becomes separate from the rest of the world Neanderthalsalso humans hominids VVVVV 150000 years ago in central Asia Europe Way before homo sapiens Big brains tools burials hunters caves Dumb compared to us and Homo Sapiens Some interbreeding 14 of modern gene pool has overlap with Neanderthal gene pools Hunter and gatherers until about 12000 years ago 0 But even in 1500 AD 15 of the world population still hunters and gatherers covering 13 of the globe Not that bad of a life only needed about 3 hours of huntingforaging to survive 12214 Art and Language 0 Unique to humans 0 Ability to gt Express consciousness of self 0 Art gt Express information symbolically Appreciate beauty Gets a lot of attention preference very quothumanquot Cave drawings earliest 4100 yrs old Little change all over the world for 25000 years pretty much depict large game animals Oldest cave painting known ll Castillo Spain These paintings were not decorative these caves were not dwellings and not lit Needed to bring in rearti cial light to see them Possibly painted for either religious shamanic or symbolic purposes Venus statues fertility statues pregnant looking huge boobs no faces 35000 year old ute found in Germany made out of vulture bone sound very comparable to modern instruments Allowed humans to make sense of themselves nature and relationship between humanity and nature 0 Language gt gt gt 80000 years ago complex language Different then just speech Language is the ability to abstract what we see around us and transmit that to another person 0 Agriculture domestication of plants and animals gt gt gt 10000 years ago8000 BC is officially when agriculture started BCAD vs BCECE However much earlier then 10000 years ago we had domesticated wolvesdogs about 30000 years ago found child footprints next to wolves of an animal that are slight different then wolves controversial though Gradual transition humans farm hunt gather Lots of rain mild winters wild grasses Barley wheat wild sheep goats oxen Abundance of foodess human movement Easy Asia 393 Develops independently Warmer and wetter New river basins Yellow north and Yangzi central pop Concentrations oz Around the Yangzi river they grew rice and around the Yellow river they grew millet grain O O 90 90 gt Europe 393 Western fringe of AfroEurasia 60005000 BC borrows idea from SW Asia Wheat Barley Two trajectories Transitions slower in N Europe colder more forests farm hunting and gathering gt The Americas Isolated Spread of ideas slower pre6000 BC impossible post Bering and bridge No permanent farming until 2000 BC Early corn too smallsmaler populations No domesticated animals Domesticated amas in south America 0 O O O 90 90 90 90 O O 90 90 O O O O 90 90 90 90 gt Afri n a Develops independently Sahel 5000 BC south of Sahara at time was very lush Sorghum cereal grass But 4000 BC warming period and desert spreads People disperse to W Africa with tropical rainforests And Ethiopia yam farming Agriculturesociachange gt More people can exist gt More reproduction means more communities farming ends up winning out over hunting and gathering More people farmingfood surplusspeciaized abor Craftworkers pots baskets tools textiles Or priestsprotectors BUT everyone still worked the land End of social egalitarianism Sexual differentiation in labor Origin of inequality of the sexes Men are stronger so they are better at plowing O O 90 90 O O O O 90 90 90 90 VVVVVVVV 12915 Rivers Cities and First States 35002000 BC part 1 Settlement patterns gt Raincrops rst settlements villages gt Drier areas rivers alluvial soil irrigation larger settlements gt Importance of soil ooding irrigation gt World warming cycle longer growing system gt gt gt 0 Trade gt gt gt VVVV Time population increase food surplus Food surplus labor differentiation specialized good leads to trade leads to contact with various people This all leads to cities Labor differentiation trade Textiles ceramics jewelry Traded in outlying areas for raw materials wood metal timber stone precious stones Used for dwellings city walls temples palaces Copper ne wares art Copper tin bronze Bronze very strong used for tools weapons distruction 0 First cities 3500 BC 2000 BC gt gt gt Mesopotamia base of Tigris and Euphrates river Northwestern South Asia lndus River Egypt Nile River Delta 0 Cities Bring Change gt gt gt Survival fed by intense irrigation agriculture Governance divinely inspired monarchs elaborate bureaucracies Religion zoomorphic anthromorphic gods communicate through kings priests in palaces and temples The wheel mass produced pottery and transport metallurgy stone working writing Urbanrural divide oz Separated populations but linked through trade politics religion 393 BUT in 3500 BC VAST MAJORITY of humanity were huntergatherers or village farmers oHunted gathered shed cultivated small plants oHorse centered herded cattle sheep goats oNo permanent settlements traded meat animal products for grain pottery tools tools from agrarian communities oBy 20005 BC large populations require nomadic movement to feed herds dominated Eurasian steppes Mesopotamia gt First complex society 3500 BC gt Why City and Rivers gt Not predictable Tigris and Euphrates were harsh unpredictable oods dry in summer VVVVV VV VVVVVV But dif culties spur engineering advances irrigation levees canals so during oods Euphrates would feed into Tigris Mesopotamia had good soil not much else needs stuff Trade wood from Lebanon stone from Oman copper from Asia Minor and Iran Lapic Lauli blue stone from Afghanistan Few boundaries easy access As trade center becomes crossroad of people and ideas Worlds rst cities all in Southern Mesopotamia today Religion central to cities Example Eridu home of water God Ea temple expanded over centuries Temple is at center of city symbolically important 35 cities w Temple centers Temple is also God s estate Houses priests of cials laborers servants Enormous workforce farmers craft workers Royal Palaces 2500 BC 2000 years after Temples oz Residence of rules family advisors 393 De ning urban landmarks oz Rival to temple 0 Expressions of Secular military administrative Social Hierarchies gt gt gt gt gt Where does a ruling caste come from Law privileges access to economic and political resources Rulers guarantee that some priesthood bureaucrats will be rich In return the rich support the ruler Rulers as link between human and divine Very little movement between economic classes 0 Family life VVVV VVV Also hierarchical Elder male dominates Extended family under one roof Husband and wife bound by one contract she provides kids he provides support protection Monogamy was the no except in cases of no children Sons received properties of equal shares Daughters received dowry s payments to husbands family to marry her and take her away 0 Writing gt Precursors 4000 BC clay tokens w images to seal storage areas or shipments gt Cuneiform oz 3200 BC accounting oz 2400 BC records of politics history economy 0 First territorial States 2315 gt 2600 BC Mesopotamia becomes victim of its own success gt Growing populations citystates compete for land water trade routes gt World rst great conqueror Sargon 23342279 gt quotAkkadian Empirequot lasts until 2190 BC conquered by Hill Tribes from Zagros mountains gt Basically a collection of citystates o Indus River Valley Modern Pakistan City Harappa 2500 BC quotHarappanquot culture In uences from Iranian peoples Mesopotamia Farming villages before 5000 BC cities from 2500 BC 100 s of them Largest Harappa Mohenjo Daro 35000 people each Cultural zone 500000 square miles 3x times larger than Mesopotamia gt Not much known most material of culture buried under silt and cant translate writing gt Writing oz 400 symbols oz Maybe not spoken language 393 No kings list no political history written gt Nothing known about religion or culture really gt Archeology does tell us oz Grew wheat and barley Irrigated cities Cities have planned grid patterns large residential areas and forti ed citadel w public facilities Main street through center Master brick builders still standing today Traded w Iranian plateau along Arabian Sea to Mesopotamia Exported copper int shells ivory pottery int blades jewelry 393 Imported gold silver gemstones textiles o3 Forti cations near metal gem mines gt Uniformity of cities suggests centralized state but no places royal tombs monumental architecture unlike mesop And Egypt VVVV VV 0 O 90 90 O O O 90 90 90 O 90 gt Some dwellings larger than others but no divert displays disparity Egypt 0 Like mesop And Indus valley cities dense population irrigation river societies complex social order 0 Like mesop powerful rules monumental architecture 0 Why so different gt The environment gt Natural boundaries desert seas river rapids ISOLATED unlike mesop and Indus gt Limited cultivated lands CENTRILIZED CULTURE green belt effct 0 Egypt was the Nile The Nile was Egypt gently ooded not very far out gt Upper Nie slow easy gt Gentle predicable annual oods unlike Tigris and Euphrates gt Shaped cultural character gt Green belt ooding not as broad as Mesop Social Order gt Old Kingdom c 2700 2200 BC 393 Pharaoh king primary duty maintain ma at stability order in the political and natural worlds 0 Honor the gods to ensure oors 0 Fend off desert marauders s The Pharaoh was a God Impressive architecture priests rituals Sed Festival 0 Renewed king s vitality ensured ooding celebrated political and cultural unity oAt king s tomb at Saqqara death ritual Eternal Life oStep pyramid 200 ft dominated landscape Same artistic architectural forms dominated period Pyramids at Giza 26002500 BC oNear Saqqara oPyramid of Khufu 481 ft still worlds largest stone structure 0 Labor mandatory peasant labor slaves from Nubia Mediterranean 21000 workers 10 hrsday 300 daysyear 14 years Religion oRegional gods resident in temples O O O 90 90 90 O 90 O 90 oContractual relationships kind cared for gods and temples God thought the king maintained order and nurtured humanity oRituals designed to maintain cosmic order prosperity oPriesthood high rank second only to Pharaoh crucial to protecting spiritual power of King only Priests can behold the statues of the Gods reinforced cosmisc hierarchy 393 Writing olnitially economic accounting as it was everywhere oBy 2500 BD commemorative religious literary 0 Literacy more common in Egypt than Mesop oScribes worked in King s Court upper class burial with books oTwo forms 1 Hieroglyphs temple royal contexts 2 Demotic writing much more common used for record keeping letters etc oz 500 years of prosperity social order centralized politics oz Then 100 year drought gt First Intermediate Period 21812055 BC 393 Century of in ghting among nobility bloody regional con ict struggle with water scarcity East Asia 0 Yellow and Yangzi River Basins gt 50000 BC widespread farming millet in north rice in south gt Next 3000 years Mesop Egypt and lndus V all developed complex urban societies gt But east Asia moved more slowly bc the environment large river basins widely dispersed people lack of easily domesticated plants and animals gt Geographic barriers oz Himalayas oz Two major deserts gt Yangshao culture 50003000 BC Yellow Rlvr oz Slash and burn agriculture exhausted soil migrated repeat Hard lives Cemeteries 20 under age of 15 only half lived past 40 O O O 90 90 90 gt gt Yangshao culture gave way to Longshan culture 3000 2000 BC Main proof of common culture unique black pottery Some evidence of smallscale shortlived political organization Liangzhu Culture 30002000 BC Much smaller then Mesop Egypt and Indus V Sophisticated farming Europe the western frontier Key differences from river basin cultures gt gt gt VVV 2515 Social elites were warriors not priests and scribes A world of weapons not writing forts not palaces conquest not commerce Environment cold forested prevented largescale farming large populations Farmland from deforestation 3500 BC large farming communities not cities 30002000 BC megalithic monuments oz Warrior burials across W and C Europe weapons and drinking cups oz Constant warfare led to increased needed bronze horses trade routes with Anatolia Mediterranean 393 European society military mobilized agrarian communities rules by warrior class different then everywhere else 100year droughtwarming climate change Egypt tomb inscription reads quotAll of Egypt is dying they had to eat their childrenquot Nomadic herders and pastoralists also hit by climate change 20001500 BC nomads migrate into civilized zones with chariots Further strain on area affected by climate change Overthrow of rules elites across Afro Eurasia Chariot warfare adopted by civilized zones military expansion rise of territorial states gt gt gt Egypt Mesopotamia East Asia EgyptconUnued First intermediate period 21812055 BC gt Drought ends c 20155 Middle kingdom 20551640 BC gt 1650 BC Hyksos migrations and invasions gt Chariots composite bowl bronze axes overthrow middle kingdom gt Rule over Egypt maintain Egyptian culture second intermediate period 16501550 gt 1550 Ahmosis defeats Hyksos 0 with chariots becomes pharaoh New Kingdom beings in 1550 gt Expansionism NE in Levant S into Nubia Tutankhamen defeats the Nubians gt Queen Hatshepsut oz Declares herself king rules in place of her 7 year old son 393 Egypt s most powerful female ruler oz Enriches Egypt expands trade Thutmosis lll slays Canaanite captives after battle of Megiddo chariot battle Rameses ll battle of Kadesh 6000 chariots involved battle against the Hitite empire Climate changenomads migrate into Mesopotamia C 2000 BC same as Egypt climate change nomad migrations overthrow of ruling elites Amorites conquer Mesopotamia 2000 BC Amorites found Babylonian dynasty in city of Babylon gt Integrate into Mesop Society gt Promote mesop Culture to dispel negative views of themselves gt Produced literature about Mesop Kings gt Cultural continuity Epic of Gilgamesh gt About old king of Uruk celebration of ancient Mesop Culture As in Egypt in ux of nomads changes Mesop View of the world expansionism vassal states Hammurabi 17921750 Babylonian King 7 foot tall standing structure with his code of laws written on it Expands territory dominates Mesop Seeks to centralize state authority w new legal order Bronze Age Governments in general gt Very unlike today gt Small poor gt Beaurocracies number in 100 s V VVVV Subsisted on taxes from peasants usually in food oz Food surpluses not large small poor gov ts Basic services military defend expand borders limited public works Link between human and divine Did not regulate lives of citizens No police Couldn t enforce all court rulings Indus Valley Devastated by climate change Population plummets 1500 BC nomads from inner Eurasia call themselves Aryans quotrespected onesquot Chariots dominate Harappans Do not establish territorial states unlike nomads in Egypt and Mesop Fusion with local populations Religion VVVVV East Asia Longshan gives way to Shang Shang Dynasty gt gt VVVVV V VV Sacred ymns central to culture Veda knowledge known as Vedic people Gods ege Indra war horse deities Never built deples or cult statues For 100 years Vedic people migrate south and east 1600 BC becomes dominant culture among competing Yellow River societies Take longshank elements copper working pottery walled towns and adds bronze writing forces tribute ancestor worship hereditary rulers Wealthy elite emerges 16001200 Shang becomes preeminent society in East Asia Centrality of Bronze Had access to tin and copper in the north Prevented rivals from making bronze massive military advantage Shang easily defeated enemies with wooden clubs and stone spears Got chariots around 1200 BC Larger nicer better built used for elite status and hunting not for battle Shang Armies 393 Massive infantry armies oz Axes spears arrowheads shields helmets all bronze oz Dominated East Asia for centuries Shang eventually get eclipsed by the Zhou formed tribute payer perhaps used chariots Shang society gt gt gt Core organizing principle familial descent to a common male ancestor Patriarchal families lived and worked together Theocracy rulers received authority through guidance from ancestors and gods Ancestor worship main religious belief
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