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Date Created: 04/07/14
emcculoughumailucsbedu office hours Monday 330 430 up steps across LLCH and through glass door first door on right Room 2308 Thursday 100 200 or by appointment assignments 1 paper due in week 10 o per paper assignments o more to come Concert Report 0 Must attend a SB Symphony Concert April 12 8pm April 13 3pm May 17 8pm May 18 3pm 0 get ticket information student discount promocode Test amp quizzes Midterm 429 and Final 611 0 listening 0 short answer 0 Essay 5 quizzes given in section throughout quarter 0 5 questions each 0 lowest quiz score dropped 0 no make up quizzes Extra Credit Opportunity Attend an additional classical concert and write a report 3 points See your TA or me for a list of concerts and guidelines 194200 A 186193 A How to do Well in Music 15 Come to class Pay attention and take notes attend section Participate Ask questions Start assignments early Contact one of us for help Turn in assignments on time Periods of Music History helpful but not required to memorize Medieval 4761450 Renaissance14501600 Baroque 16001750 Classical 17501827 Romantic 18201900 20th Century 1900present music appreciation began 19th century we will cover years 1450 1980 music history evolution of music Medieval Began in roughly 476 with the fall of Rome A time of relative isolation slow change Ascendancy of the Christian Church The church was the center of knowledge Most preserved art and music is sacred sacred religious or spiritual in nature secular not religious Charlemange 742 814 Holy Roman Emperor major force in standardizing music able to hold empire together unlike romans 0 had a diverse multiethnic empire 0 needed to consolidate to maintain power consolidated liturgy church texts by standardizing Catholic mass consolidated music by standardizing musical notation and content old school notation different from today sacred music sounds like humming with an open mouth different notes lengths etc all male monks from church singing greek vocals with leader monk secular music sounds a bit different with more variation in sounds Outline I The Renaissance II Sacred Music in the Renaissance a Palestrina Pope Marcellus Mass Gloria III Secular Music in the Renaissance Madri gals a Arcadelt il bianco e dolce cigno b Farmer Fair Phyllis Josquin des Prez Motet Ave Maria gratia plena Virgo serena 0 high notes and low notes hit at the same times Gloria Pope Marcellus mass Palestrina differences between the two rst song 0 high pitches and low pitches come together 0 possible one vocalist 0 has 4 parts second song 0 pitches are ongoing and continue at same time 0 has 6 parts The Renaissance 14501600 0 Constantinople falls in 1453 and the rest of roman empire falls apart 0 Scholars and others ed and went to Italy 0 Increased interest in Ancient greece and Rome 0 Renaissance rebirth of learning and renovation 0 Rise of Humanism 0 Increased interest in life and human value vs Medieval focus on religion and afterlife 0 1300s black death epidemic plague 0 More commercialism and centralized governments 0 Move towards more realistic style in visual arts depth and perspective The Counter Reformation 0 Protestant Reformation Early 1500s 0 sacred music 0 Reaction to corruption in Catholic Church 0 CounterReformation The Catholic church s response 0 an attempt to reform within the church 0 Council of Trent 15451563 I had meetings to discuss changes to minimize members leaving I group of about 255 clergy I established new policies for the Church Music and the Counter Reformation 0 church had become corrupt and people could pay off sins 0 music was shifting secular got a bit out of hand 0 gets dif cult to understand Words complicated too many people singing O defeated purpose of Worship 0 Musical consequences 0 Secular Music and lyrics banned from performance in church 0 A capella music preffered I vocal music without instruments 0 Backlash against polyphony because it obscured the text Polyphony 0 Multiple musical lines sounding simultaneously 0 can make it dif cult to understand Words 0 catholic church did not like this bc they thought it took away from Words of the music which directed listeners to become closer with god and understand religious texts 0 Palestrina The Man who Saved Polyphony 0 Giovanni Perluigi da Palestrina ca 15241595 0 Born in Palestrina Italy near Rome 0 Worked at the Vatican for several different popes 0 Famous for a more conservative restrained style of polyphony O Wrote music for hundreds of masses 0 Mass 0 Type of genre a Way to categorize music based on shared musical traits or function 0 mass The musical setting of the ordinaries from the mass Palestrina Pope Marcellus Mass 0 Required Listening Gloria this is quiz able 0 According to legend the Work that saved polyphony 0 Published 1567 0 Dedicated to Pope Marcellus 0 Proved to the church that polyphony didn t have to be so complicated Secular Music in The Renaissance Amateur Music Making in the Renaissance O Facilitated by the invention of printed music 1501 by Ottaviano Petrucci I able to print music and distribute widely I allowed music to travel faster 0 Rising bourgeois class I a large and more powerful middle class music should t their needs I Music parties I people would hangout and make music by singing music together Genre Madrigal O secular popular from 1520s to 1620s Started in Italy later migrated to England Popular with wealthy amateurs as a participatory activity short 37 mins A capella OOOO General Characteristics of Madrigal 0 text is often highly expressive O Often includes risque content I Double entendres puns sexual allusions 0 Word Painting I word painting occurs when vocal music illustrates the words being sung J aques Arcadelt O worked in italy but was not italian O 250 madri gals 0 His 1st book of madri gals containing Il bianco was the most widely reprinted collection of the time Il bianco e dolce cigno genrezmadri gal published 1538 simple style very clear melody in upper voice 0 melody the tune Subtle word painting 0 di mille mortali di sarei contento I would be content to die a thousand deaths a day during this time death was associated with sex this is what they are referring to a swan singing during death sex Multiple entries on words di mille morti a thousand deaths evoke idea of a high number The Madigral in England Starts with Musica Transalpina 1588 0 Collection of Italian madri gals in english translation 0 Starting in 1590s English composers began to write madri gals in their own style 0 Lighter more playful themes 0 Word painting is less subtle 0 Lyrics often evoke pastoral settings popular in oVer croWded London John Farmer 1591 1601 0 Possibly born c 1570 0 Active in Dublin amp London 0 published farmer Fair Phyllis 0 published 1599 0 Genre 0 word painting up and down up and down O Lecture 3 Tuesday April 8th The Barogue I Handel Outline The Baroque Era The birth of opera handel 0 Opera Giulio Cesare o Oratorio Messiah prof started class with a musical piece Woman singer new there would have been instruments newer versions include instruments such as piano one of first times music was meant for entertainment The Baroque Era 1600 1750 remember prof will never ask us to remember dates 1600 Birth of opera 1750 Death of JS Bach Barouge used to describe music that was overdone Baroque from Portugese barroco a rough or imperfect pearl Style seen by some as being grotesque irregular amp overly embellished Barouque artwork Caravaggio The Seven Works of Mercy 1607 St Charles Borromeo Church Antwerp Built 161521 0 elaborate and involved artwork through architecture similar to music of the baroque era Music in the Baroque Era An important historical moment of music The Common Practice Era Introduction to tonality how to describe this 0 Major sounds happy 0 Minor sounds sad Rise of homophonic texture Greater use of musical instruments changes in economy resulted in more affordable instruments more widespread more complex harmony pitches happening at the same time o sometimes harmony reflects whats happening in the words ex song about dying harmonious minor notes Sometimes characterized as the age of basso continuo Basso Continuo A Baroque music ensemble containing 0 1 chordal instrument eg harpsichord o 1 bass melody instrument eg cello Foundation of many Baroque worlds either alone or as part of a large ensemble 0 often times other instruments will be played as well as basso continuo lt indicator of Baroque music Introducing Opera Opera a play or dramatic presentation set to music Plot tragedy or comedy actors A staged presentation 0 costumes props scenery unlike a play All the text is sung generally Actors are also opera singers The Invention of Opera Invented ca 1600 in Florence by a group of intellectuals o objective to recover expressive power of ancient Greek music Deliberate move away from polyphony to homophony to better express emotion Synthesis of the arts became a social event popular to go to representative of social status Baroque Opera Characteristics secular plot performed ONLY during Carnival season not LENT Venue theaters of opera houses Audience aristocracy mostly o upperclass people went to operas length 24 hours staged drama The ingredients of Opera Opera has many movements 0 movement A self contained section within a larger music work Recitative 0 Singing that sounds more like a dialogue than a song for dialogue action moving the plot along Aria o A song for solo voice with orchestral accompaniment generally expressing intense emotion o proves ones skill and masterfulness George Frideric Handel 1685 1759 Born in Germany birth name Gail english translated him to George Trained in Italy Lived last 50 years in his life in London internationally famous during his lifetime 0 traveled a lot he got around gt became famous Best known for operas that he wrote 0 operas italian o Oratorios english Handel Giulio Cesare 3 acts 1724 Librettist Nicola Haym o Librettist writes the words to opera mostly fictional story of love triangle 0 Cliapatro is in love with caesar he is god she thinks she is dead and she is imprisoned by her brother Recitative E pur cosi Aria Piangero la sorte mia 0 Da capo aria repeat over again A type of aria that is organized in three parts 1 A 2 B 3 A a repetition of the first section with elaborations to satisfy viewers often improvised reflecting change in plot Handl s Messiah 1742 listened to in class follows De capo arial A B A Premiered in Dublin Of Hande s 2 oratorios only one depicting New Testament stories 3 acts 0 christmas story Aria Rejoice greatly A for soprano soloist and orchestra 0 easter story He is the righteous B o redemption of the World through Faith Rejoice A Oratorio different from opera sacred substitute for opera 0 they are religious unstaged no costumes sets or acting often performed in theatre same ingredient as opera chorus plays bigger role o chorus a groupe of people singing a movement for a group of people singing 24 hour Lecture 4 Thursday April 10 Gauchospace forum for symphony carpooling Conce look at prompt before going to concert se we know what to look for look at articlesvideos associated with concert prompt go to concert pick 2 movements to write about 0 early on 0 later on TAs and prof are understanding that early on in this class music writing may be less detailed must hand in ticket stub at end of concert recommended to read articles regarding concert and listen to music beforehand Lecture Barougem Music ll Bach Outline Bach Biography Baroque Instrumental Music 0 back little fugue BVN 579 Music after the Reformation o Bach sacred cantata WachetAuf Review of Baroque Vocal Genres Introducing Baroque Instrumental Music couldn t play video Baroque Instrumental Music During the Baroque o Familiar instruments are developed 0 Instruments begin to be highlighted by themselves Increasing interest in timbre tamher 0 Characteristic tone color that distinguishes once voice or instrument from another Johann Sebastian Bach 16851750 Born in central Germany amp never left the country Composer of both sacred amp secular worlds 0 over 200 church cantatas o LOTS of Keyboard Music 0 No operas 20 kids 0 some of them became composers Not well known during his lifetime Keyboard Music type of genre fugue A form in which one or more melodic themes are developed through carefully controlled imitative polyphony Melody is called the subject wach youtube video Music Appreciaition The Fugue explained Plays Lady Gaga fugue on youtube Little Fugue in G minor BVN 578 17031707 Genre fugue Fourvoice imitation o for separate and distinct entrances of subject at beginning 0 Any section without the subject melody is called an episode Music after the Reformation Martin Luther headed up a reform of the worship service Chorale German hymn tune in the Lutheran tradition Protestant o in The vernacular o Integral education about Biblical texts 0 United the congregation Sacred cantata Developed c 1700 as part of the Lutheran service Based on a chorale melody Used as a central part of church service Multiple movements arias recitatives choruses duets and chorales Between 15 and 30 mins long Cantana no 140 WachetAuf sleepers awake 1731 Genre sacred cantata 1st movement choral fantasia o Choral Fantasis Polyphonic work for voices 0 Listen for chorale tune in soprano line slow 0 Sung by trained choir 4th movement chorae o unison chorale unison all voices singing together 0 Based on a second verse of original chorale text 0 Chorale tune is in vocal line tenors Instrumental part is countermelody an accompanying melody heard against the principal melody o Sung by congregation Other movements are similar to operaoratorio genre comparison Operea secular theater 14 hours staged Oaratorio sacred theater 14 hours unstaged Cantata sacred church 1530 mins unstated Handel vs Bach Handel German trained in italy lived in england known for italian operas and english oratorios internationally famous during lifetime Bach German trained in germany lived in germany never left germany known for instrumental works and catatas never famous during his lifetime WEEK 3 Lecture 5 Tuesday April 15 The Composer in the Classical Period I Haydn Moving from Baroque period to classical period Baroque Bach and Handel Classical Haydn today and Mozart Thursday Announcements and reminders My office hours this week Today 12 or by appt My office hours starting next week Wednesday 230 330 and Thursday 12 or by apt Extra Credit Concert 0 Beauty and the Beast Philip Glass Ensemble April 30 Granada Theatre arrive no later than 745pm FREE ticket StudentS Outline introduction to the Classical Period Franz Josef Haydn 0 Symphony no 94 Surprise movement ii 0 String Quartet op 76 no 3 movement iii Now entering the Classical Era started 1750 Death of Bach ended 1827 Death of Beethoven this end date is not solid Socio Economic Changes Political transition amp upheaval revolutions 0 Early strong aristocratic rulers 0 later several revolutions 1775 American Revolution begins 1789 French Revolution begins Rise of the Public Sphere 0 Critical Rational debate 0 Beginning of Industrial Revolution Arts and Culture in the Classical Era Often called the Age of Reason or Enlightenment Emphasis on rational thought and science Back to Ancient Greek and Rome 0 is becoming stylish again 0 Classical style Aesthetics of the time valued often displayed in architecture balance amp symmetry simplicity amp gracefulness The Historical Significance of Music in the Classical Era Previous music based on texts or vocal models Rise of instrumental music without reference to words Form becomes VERY important 0 convey musical meaning without text 0 lntelligible to attentive audiences 0 Form The design and organization of a musical work based on the repetition contrast and variation found in its over a structure architecture of music Theme Musical idea used as a basic building block in a composition Motive a short melodic or rhythmic unit a fragment of a theme MultiMovement form Three Movements Four movements Fast Fast Slow Slow Fast Dancelike medium tempo Fast Franz Joseph Haydn 1732 1809 Hideing Austrian 0 Austria was a very large empire ruled my monarch Born in Vienna In 1761 he started working for Esterhazy family 0 very wealthy family powerful 0 Family hired Haydn to write pieces and play music in their home and for house events securejob took orders from fan write this write that o Lived and worked there for most of his life Very prolific o 104 symphonies 0 many operas 0 String Quartets Visited London as a celebrity composer in 1790s Chamber Music Ensemble music for small groups with one player per part String Quartet A type of chamber music ensemble 0 Two violins Viola Cello An intimate genre 0 played for players and possibly audience Haydn String Quartet Op76 No3 Emperor 1 Allegro 2 Pico adagio cantabile slow songlike 3 Menuetto Allegro 4 Final Presto 2nd movement based on a hymn Haydn wrote for the Austrian emperor Form Theme amp Variations o A A A A Qw Symphony Large work for orchestra generally in 4 movements 0 multiple movements gives chance to exercise argument through symphony Hot genre of the 1700s Haydn Symphony no 94 Surprise 1792 towards end of his life written for London where he was a celebrity composer Second movement 0 Theme and Variations 0 Simple folklike theme Lecture 6 April 17 2014 The Composer in the Classical Era ll MOZART Announcements amp reminders section assignment 1 Mozart s Magic Flute 0 on gauchospace Midterm is Tuesday April 29th Outline for today Wolgang Amadeus mozart the composer in society form revisited 0 sympohony 41 Jupiter movement i 18th century opera 0 Die Zauberflote excerpts Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 1756 1791 Raised in Salzburg was in Austria composed first opera by age of 14 Toured Europe as a child prodigy keyboard and violin o perfectly could identify notes and pitch of keys father left his job to tour with his child son through Europe to make money composed many operas quartets and more pieces by the time he was 18 in 1780 he went to Vienna to play for the Austrian Emperor Worked in Archbishop of Salzburg 1781 moved to Vienna to freelance lots of works 0 41 symphonies 0 many operas o sacred music Died at age 35 in 1791 by unknown causes The Composer in Society Few courts could afford musical establishments 0 used to have composer orchestra but got too expensive Freelance newest form of income 0 private students 0 publishing music 0 giving concerts Form revisited becomes especially important in classical period Sonata allegro form 0 a detailed organizational scheme for a movement of instrumental music 0 Misleading term notjust in sonatas sonata is a type of piece not always allegro tempo 0 Where do you find Sonata Allegro form In first movements typically aka first movement form sometimes shows up in last movement 0 4 main parts 1 exposition hear twice hear main themes that movement is based around stable feeling 2 development themes of exposition come back but are developed different not stable feeling 3 Recapitulation repeat of exposition 4 Coda confirms that you are back to where you started from end of movement Mozart Symphony 41 Jupiter his last symphony summer 1788 Grand points towards larger romantic symphonies 0 hence the name Not written for a commission unusual 0 not requested he just wrote it movement 1 Sonata form prof plays piece first movement 18thCentury Opera Libretto o The text or script of an opera which a composer sets to music A person who writes a libretto is a librettist Recall Recitative vs Aria o Recitative Singing that sounds more like a dialogue than a song for dialogue action moving the plot along 0 Aria A song for solo voice with orchestral accompaniment generally expressing intense emotion proves ones skill and masterfulness Die Zauberflote The magic flute 1791 0 one of the last works mozart finished Some spoken dialogue Singspiel lt German word 0 unusual for opera Librettist Emanuel Schikaneder Symbolism in Die Zauberflote 0 Both Mozart and Schikaneder were masons o Freemasons had enlightened views made the austrian government antsy 0 ideas of brotherhood and freedom brotherhood of priests in opera 0 Story is allegorical Characters 0 Tamino a prince 0 Three Ladies servants of the Queen of the Night 0 Papageno a bird catcher employed by the Queen Tamino s sidekick Excerpts from opening of Act 1 0 Less clear delineation between movements designed to flow there may be a small pause 0 1st part Zu Hilfe x3 help X3 Tamino arrives being chased by a serpent aria Three ladies kill the serpent and argue trio 0 2nd part Ein Vogelfanger bin ich ja Im a birdcatcher Papageno s intoductory aria Tuesday April 22 Lecture 7 Announcements Reminders Midterm Next Tuesday in class 0 study guide on gauchospace 0 worth 40 points 20 of grade 0 Be prepared for Listeing questions ID composer title basic information about the piece Term definitions be able to define musical terms that are listed on the gauchospace study guide include example to confirm you know what you re talking about presented 5 words choose 3 to define Short Answer 78 questions fill in the blank write a few sentences comparing composers or eras Essay 58 sentences 1 selected from 5 given on study guide Outline Ludwig van Beethoven The Pathetique Sonata Symphony no 7 movement ii Allegretto Ludwig van Beethoven 17701827 Born in Bonn Germany Transitional figure bridges Classical and Romantic Freelance composer no permanent patron fiercely independent and slightly antisocial by early 1800s Beethoven started to become deaf 0 completely deaf by end of life contented to compose Some of his most important works include o 9 sympohonies o 32 piano sonatas o 5 piano concertos o 1 opera Beethoven s Three Periods 1 Early Period 1770 1802 o in the footsteps of Haydn and Mozart 0 his work in the period resembles music more from the classical era 2 Middle Heroic Period 18031814 o Bolder more personal style 0 Heiligenstadt Testament 1802 testament that claimed he was loosing his hearing resulting in behavioral issues he is a nice guy though He considered suicide because he was becoming deaf 0 Theme of fHeroic struggle against adversity o Longer weightier works 3 Late Period 18151827 0 More experimental music unusual for time o more introspective and personal Sonata A multimovement instrumental work usually 3 or 4 for one instrument or a small ensemble Beethoven Sonata no 8 in C minor op 13 Pathetidue sonata 179798 Often wrote in C minor during this period becoming deaf not public yet struggling with it on his own Beginning to break rules of Classical period 0 shift from classical music to Romantic second movement Adagio canabile o live performance on stage by a gentleman named Scott Beethoven Symphonies 1 1800 2 1803 3 1805 Eroicaquot 4 1807 5 1808 6 1808 pastoralquot 7 1813 8 1814 9 1824 Choral Symphony no 7 Written between summer 1811 and spring 1812 Premiered in December 1813 Emphasis on rhythm esp in movement ii 0 theme and variations played in the background of the final climactic moment of King s Speech Thusday April 24 Lecture 8 The Gamechanger Beethoven ll Announcements Reminders Midterm Tuesday 0 Study Guide on GS 0 Bring a bluebook 0 Sample definition madrigal A madrigal is a short polyphonic vocal work popular during the Renaissance It often served a social purpose as after dinner entertainment An example of an Italian madrigal is Jacques Arcadelt s l bianco el dolce cigno Outline Late Beethoven Context The Private works 0 late string quartets o op 130 movement v Cavatina The 9th symphony Finale Ode to Joy Late Beethoven 1815 1827 first part of the late Beethoven period was not relatively productive works from this period were different from common musical pieces Totally deaf by 1818 Family Issues Napoeon s defeat 1815 gt post war depression amp governmental oppression in Austria Musical implications 0 large worlds more difficult to produce 0 Beethoven s music gt more introspective intimate experimental Late Beethoven The Music more difficult strange o more difficult for audience to understand and appreciate 0 pieces were less popular initially Back to the Baroque emphasis on fugue More religious 0 writing Masses not focused on in early career Contrast with large public works mass 9th prof plays GroBe fugue by Beethoven sounds much different from other musical pieces we have heard Late String Quartets Wrote quarters in all 3 periods 5 late auqrtets Emphasis on human voice 0 idea of vocal music in Beethoven s head influence of vocal writing String Quartet Op 130 in Bflat Major mvt 5 Cavatina breaking rules 0 6 movements not 4 o Ends with a fugue this is uncharacteristic and listeners were not appreciative Cavatina o movement 5 o evokes specific type of simple aria prof plays song in class The 9th Symphony Idea 1819 written 1823 1824 completely unprecedented rule breaker 0 length 0 inclusion of chorus at end of symphony text Schiller 0 Beethoven knew this poem very well and inspired his work 0 Themes of freedom and brotherhood was used in 1998 olympics fantastically in ceremony prof shows video in class Stu G U Refer to weekly notes for more information Pieces Pope Marcellus Mass Gloria Composer Palestrina Genre Mass sacred music ConceptsMusical terms polyphonic Time Period Sacred Renaissance Pieces ll bianco e dolce cigno Composer Arcadelt Genre Madrigal ConceptsMusical terms melody Time Period Pieces Fair Phyllis Composer Farmer Genre Madrigal conceptsmusical terms word painting choral acapella Time Period Renaissance Pieces Giulio Cesare Composer Handel Genre opera ConceptsMusical terms De capo aria A B A Time Period 1724 Baroque Era Pieces Messiah Composer Handel Genre oratorio ConceptsMusical terms Time Period Baroque Era Pieces Fugue in G Minor Composer Bach Genre fugue ConceptsMusical terms Fourvoice imitation Time Period 1703 1707 Baroque Era Pieces Wachet Auf 1st movement choral fantasia o Choral Fantasis Polyphonic work for voices 0 Listen for chorale tune in soprano line slow 0 Sung by trained choir 4th movement chorale o unison chorale unison all voices singing together 0 Based on a second verse of original chorale text 0 Chorale tune is in vocal line tenors Instrumental part is countermelody an accompanying melody heard against the principal melody o Sung by congregation Composer Bach Genre Sacred cantata ConceptsMusical terms Time Period 1731 Baroque Era Pieces String Quartet Composer Haydn Genre ConceptsMusical terms A type of chamber music ensemble 0 two violins Viola Cello Pico adagio cantabile slow smooth songlike Form Theme amp Variations o A A A A QN Time Period Classical Period Pieces The Surprise Composer Haydn Genre symphony ConceptsMusical terms Theme and variations Time Period 1792 Classical Period Pieces Jupiter Composer Mozart Genre symphony ConceptsMusical terms sonata allegro form movement 1 Time Period 1788 Clasical Period Pieces Die Zauberflote The magic flute 1 first part quotZu Hilfe Zu Hilfe Zu Hilfequot 2 second part quotEin Vogelfanger bin ich jaquot Composer Mozart Genre opera ConceptsMusical terms Libretto Recitative vs Aria Time Period 1791 Classical period Pieces Pathetique sonata Composer Beethoven Genre Sonata ConceptsMusical terms Adagio canabile 2nd movement Time Period early period classical era starting to resemble romantic period Pieces Symphony no 7 mvt 2 Allegrettoquot Composer Beethoven Genre Symphony ConceptsMusical terms theme and variations Time Period middle period romantic Pieces String Quartet mvt 5 Cavatinaquot Composer Beethoven Genre string quartet ConceptsMusical terms Time Period late period romantic Pieces Symphony no 9 mvt 4 Composer Beethoven Genre Symphony ConceptsMusical terms unprecedented style Time Period late period romantic Te Reference the weekly notes for more information Week 1 Renaissance The rebirth of learning and renovation after the fall of the Roman empire Increased interest in Ancient Greece and Rome and a Rise of Humanism Humanism Increased interest in life and human value vs Medieval focus on religion and afterlife Counter reformation The Church s respond to corruption in the Catholic church This movement was an attempt to reform within the the church Council of Trent established new policies for the Church Palestrina The man who saved polyphony wrote music for hundreds of masses including Gloria Pope Marcellus mass Mass Type of genre the musical setting of the ordinaries from the mass Sacred music is an example of this genre Ottaviano Petrucci He contributed to amateur music making in the Renaissance by the invention of printed music 1501 which enabled people to print music and distribute it Madrigal Type of genre secular music that is a cappella short 37 minutes the text is often highly expressive through word painting Jacques Arcadelt Composer worked in Italy but was not italian He wrote 250 madrigals including ll bianco e dolce cigno John Farmer Composer active in Dublin amp London published Fair Phyllis a madrigal Week 2 Baroque Era Began with the birth of opera Baroque was used to describe music that was overdone Introduction to tonality major amp minor rise of homophonic texture and sometimes characterized as the age of basso continuo Basso continuo This is an indicator and foundation of Baroque music It is an ensemble containing 1 chordal instrument and 1 bass melody instrument Opera a staged dramatic presentation set to music usually of 2 4 hour duration with a secular plot Invented as a deliberate move away from polyphony to homophony to recover the expressive power of ancient Greek music Ingredients of Opera consist of many movements within a larger music work Includes recitative and aria components Aria A song for solo voice with orchestra accompaniment generally expressing intense emotion and proves ones skill and masterfulness Recitative Singing that sounds more like a dialogue than a song Used to move the plot along George Frederic Handel Born in Germany trained in Italy he was internationally famous during his lifetime Best known for operas and oratorios that he wrote including Giulio Cesare and Messiah Rejoice Greatly Librettist writes the words to opera Da capo aria A type of aria that is organized in three parts A B A A is a repetition of the first section with elaborations to satisfy the viewer and reflect change in the plot Oratorio Sacred substitute for opera they are religious Unstaged no costumes sets or acting performance in a theatre and chorus plays a bigger role Johann Sebastian Bach Composer of both sacred and secular works over 200 church cantatas lots of keyboard music but no operas Born in central Germany and never left the country he was not well known during his lifetime Fugue Type of genre A form in which one ore more melodic themes are developed through carefully controlled imitative polyphony Melody is called the subiect Martin Luther lead the Reformation to the worship service Introduction of the Chorale and Cantata Chorale German hymn tune in Lutheran tradition Protestant Integral education about Biblical texts united the congregation Cantata Developed c1700 to be used as a central part of the Lutheran church service Multiple movements of arias recitatives choruses duets and chorales Between 15 and 30 minutes long Week 3 Classical Period 1750 1827 Includes Haydn and Mozart The Age of Reason or Enlightenment Emphasis on rational thought and science Form The design and organization of a musical work based on the repetition contrast and variation found in its over a structure Franz Josef Haydn Lived from 1732 1809 Wrote 104 symphonies and many operas Chamber music Ensemble music for small groups with one player per part String quartet Composed by Haydn a type of chamber music ensemble with two violins a viola and a cello Theme amp variations Demonstrated in the 2nd movement of Haydn s String Quartet but not limited to Follows the form A A A Aquot Symphony A large work for orchestra generally in 4 movements gives change to exercise argument through symphony Hot genre of the 1700s Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart composer toured Europe as a child prodigy excellent with keyboard and violin Composed first opera by age of 14 Many works include symphonies operas and sacred music Libretto The text or script of an opera which a composer sets to music A person who writes a libretto is a librettist Week 4 Ludwig van Beethoven composer born in Germany and is a transitional figure bridging Classical and Romantic He was a freelance composer and became completely deaf during his life Beethoven s Three Periods 1 Early Period resembles music more from the classical era Middle Heroic Period resembled a bolder more personal style with theme of Heroic struggle against adversity in response to his struggle of becoming deaf Released Heiligenstadt testament 3 Late Period continued to be more introspective and personal More experimental music unusual for time Heiligenstadt Testament Testament that claimed he was loosing his hearing resulting in behavioral issues he was living a tough life refer to the study guide that professor posted on gaucho space to become familiar with midterm material information not covered in this study guide can be found in weekly notes Week 5 Tuesday Midterm Thursday May 1st Romanticism I Art Song and the Commercial Composer AnnouncementsReminders Midterm scores posted by next Tuesday May 6th Term paper promote posted Tuesday May 8th Schedule for rest of quarter posted on GauchoSpace Outline i Romanticism amp the 19th century ii Middle Class Music Making iii the song i Schubert Erkcbnig ii Schumann in the Lovely Month of May The Romantic Era 18201900 prof plays example songs of Classical vs Romantic Introduction to the Romantic Era Congress of Vienna 1814 1815 o redrew map and country boundaries of Europe 0 resulted in centralization 0 rise of Nationalism Industrial revolution continues 0 Benefited musical instrument industry Middle class is now a major economic force 0 Middleclass music making Arts and Culture in the Romantic Era A reaction against the rationality of the previous century 0 No more balance emotional gt cerebral 0 Focus on the individual and expression of the self Looking back on Medieval times romantic period 0 a way to escape urbanization in city life Some important themes 0 Nationalism amp Exoticism 0 Interest in the unknown Folklore the supernatural powerful emotion 0 Man vs Nature Music in the Romantic Era More emotional than cerebral Pieces are extreme o extremely long or short works 0 unbalanced phrases Expanded orchestras and fuller sounds Nationalism MiddleClass Music making More money and leisure time 0 music making became a popular hobby 0 could purchase instruments and pay for lessons More music available 0 increase of printing invention of lithography London went from having 30 music stores to 150 music stores in just 30 years Popular especially with women and children 0 common to stay at home and play instruments The Romantic Song Popular in the 19th century 0 Allowed for intimate personal expression 0 Combined music and poetry 0 Descriptive imagery and folk style Performed in homes and salons by middleclass amateurs L A regular social gathering typically in a private home for the purpose of performing and discussing artistic worlds as well as other intellectual topics 0 public room in private home E The German word for song generally used to specify a short work for vocalist and piano accompaniment o Plural Lieder Lied Forms 0 Poetry with one subject expressing a personal feeling or viewpoint Strophic A section of music repeats with different words each time example Mary had a little lamb Each part has different words but familiar sounds one part one strophic 0 Poetry with narrative or dialogue Throughcomposed No largescale repetition the entire song is one large unit Franz Schubert 1797 1828 Born in Vienna Among the earliest Romantics Wrote symphonies and chamber music 0 prof played Symphony 8 The Un nished Best known for his Lieder o Wrote more than 600 songs wow 0 Focus on death Suffered from syphilis Schubertiad this is essential a salon with a focused theme on Franz Schubert Schubert Erlkonig 1815 Lied Text Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Form Throughcomposed Legend Erlkonig 0 From Denmark 0 A little like the grime reaper o seduces children and kills themmother would tell you to stay away Setting Dark and Stormy night Four characters one singer o Narrator middle range 0 Father low range 0 Son high range 0 Erlkonig middle range amp change of tone 0 Piano Horse Romantic Themes 0 Supernatural o Folklore based on Danish folk legend prof plays video of performance in class no verse or chorus that repeats continuous story Song Cycle A set of songs or Lieder written by a composer as a set Typically concocted by common musical and thematic elements Intended to be performed together as one large work Robert Schumann 1810 1856 Born in Germany Important both as composer amp music scholarcritic Married Clara Wieck a pianist amp composer Symphonies short piano works Lieder Later suffered form debilitating mental disorder 0 possibly suffered from syphillis o institutionalized for last 10 years of life because tried to jump in to a frozen river R Schumann Dichterliebe song cycle A Poet s Love Song cycle published 1840 Poems by Heinrich Heine Theme different phases of a relationship from new love to bitter break up the piece that we are looking at from this 16 piece song cycle is m Wunderschonen Monat Mai In the Lovely Month of Mayquot First of 16 songs Genre Lied from a song cycle Form strophic o 2 verses with the same music How is the text set to the music 0 Each verse rises to a climax on words did love rise up Strophe 1 and longing and desire Strophe 2 o Ends with unresolved feeling in harmony Unrequited love performance of pianist and vocalist on stage 2x week 6 Tuesday May6 Lecture Romanticism amp the Piano Outline Announcements amp reminders The Piano in the Romantic Era o Chopin Polonaise in A Major 0 Brahms Intermezzo in A Major 0 Liszt La Campanea Etude Announcements I Reminders Midterm grades posted this evening score out of 40 Section assignment on Wagner posted in Week 6 Block on GS TAs will assign due dates Term Paper prompt and materials posted in top block of GS Term Paper Due dates 0 preparation Due in Section 8 25 points 0 Final Paper Due Tuesday June 3 11am 40 points Length 56 pages Purpose Compare two pieces and their context Select 0 Haydn Symphony Haydn String Quartet 0 Chopin Polonaise Liszt La Campanellaquot Sources 0 must be reputable academic sources 0 Must be preapproved by Emma or TA 0 Must be cited citations in paper any format be consistent worlds cited page at end 0 Suggestions listed on prompt posted on GS Preparation 0 Topic selection 1 point 0 4 sources 4 points 0 Thesis statement 10 points o 1 paragraph of prose 10 points Introduction Section on piece 1 music context Section on piece 2 music context Comparison section musical contextual comparison Conclusion The Piano in the Romantic Era single most important instrument 0 industrial revolution made them easy to produce and affordable advancements to the instrument were made private and public performances 0 important instruments in lieder songs and for at home entertainment piano social status plus status symbol expressive big dynamic range Technical improvements 0 more keys 0 metal frame allows string to be extra tight compared to wood in past 0 pedals tempo rubato flexibility of the beat 0 slow it downspeed it upsow it downetc 0 allows for expression Character Pieces History 0 Romantic Era o for domestic or public performance 0 usually evokes certain mood or image Musical Characteristics 0 solo piano 0 often three part form A B A 0 one movement relatively short Examples 0 polonaise Chopin o intermezzo Brahms 0 etude Liszt Frederic Chopin 1810 1849 Nationality Polish amp French Wrote domestic salon music didn t like big concerts Always sickly o Died of TB age 39 Works almost exclusively for piano 0 rubato Military Polonaise 1838 Polonaise 0 Polish dance nationalism Musical Characteristics 0 form A B A A LongShortLong rhythm B L S S L L L L rhythm o Rubato 0 big chords 0 Loud loud performance by Scott includes demonstration of rubatto form Johannes Brahms 1833 1897 German Close friends with the Schumanns Perfectionist o destroyed many of his works unfortunate for listeners Works 0 most genres except opera symphonic piano music lots of other things NOT OPERA Intermezzo in A major 1893 Intermezzo 0 goes in between other things movements of other work acts 0 nowjust goes by itself Musical Characteristics 0 form A B A A major tonality B minor tonality soft chords LOUD minor section A major tonality o rubato Franz Liszt 1811 1886 Hunganan Big womanizer early on his life eventually became very religious Piano virtuoso 0 one of the greatest piano players of all time o Lisztomania o 12inch hand span difficult to recompose Works best known for piano works and symphonic poems La Campanella Etude The Little Bell published in 18381851 etude 0 study 0 piece designed to focus on a particular technical challenge Based on a melody by violin virtuoso Niccolo Paganini Musical Characteristics 0 form theme and variations 0 very virtuosic requires excellent pianist capable of moving hands quickly and hitting notes all across the keyboard very fast prof plays 2 video performances of this piece Thursday May 8 Announcements and Reminders Brief assignment due Tuesday 8pm 0 1 question for SB Symphony cellist o GauchoSpace week 7 block Term paper How to use Grove Music Online 0 UCSB library pageog inArtices amp ndexesGGrove Music Online Richard Wagner amp German Opera Outline Wagner 0 biography and legacy Tristan und Isolde Die WaLire Richard Wagner Born in Leipzig Germany 18131883 Largely sef taught Created his own new style of opera which he called music dramas Wagner s Music Revolutionary operas music dramas 0 Continuous music endless melody No aria vs recitative distinction o Pushing boundaries of tonality Gesamthunstwerk direct translation is quotcomplete artwork This is Wagner s idea of all opera components in unity seamlessly intricate 0 music stage lights singing etc 0 all perfect in a way Leitmotif leitmotiv leitmotive Wagner s term for a melody representing a person object place idea emotion etc Wagner s ideas were revolutionary too perfect to be played in traditional theater Bayreuth Festival theater Designed by Wagner specifically for the needs of his works Hightech modern design for the 19th century The orchestra played in a pit near the stage that was out of sight to the audience so that no attention was detracted from the stage Wagner s Writings Controversial writings on future of music Dramatic music superior to symphonic music Extremely Antisemitic o Appropriation by Hitler this blacklists Wagner and makes him less popular Tristan and Isolde Began 1854 Premiered 1865 Arranged Prelude amp Liebestod for concert Hugely influential o Tristan chord prof plays video with Stephen Fry english comedian in class 0 described as weird music shocking to audience builds up to a climax then gets interrupted is paired to the scene on stage 0 no sense of resolution The Ring of the Nibelung AKA The Ring Cycle Super Wagner Opera Libretto by Wagner 18501876 0 big chunk of his career One epic plot 4 long operas 0 1718 hours total remarkably difficult to reproduce Wagner Die WalltL39ire Benning Act III Scene The Ride of the Valkyries Plot based on legend fok tae supernatural Valkyrieswarrior princesses Orchestra is integral part of the drama Ride Leitmotif prof plays destruction scene from Apocalypse Now has Wagner music Week 7 Tuesday May 13 Czech nationalism Opera Nationalism belief that people who share a common language history and culture should constitute on independent nation free of foreign domination Czech nationalism a desire from independence from AustroHungarian Empire 0 two regions Bohemia and Morovia 0 Return to czech language 0 creation of national culture nationalsim and Music Two ways music can be national 1 Sound like the music of the nation 2 Depict scenery or events from that nation Nationalsim and Opera Opera is a key genre for nationalism 0 Message gets to large groups all at once 0 In the vernacular o No need for literacy higher education Rembmer need to create a Czech national culture music Czech target opera as a nationalist opera theater Narod sobe The nation for itself Held a contest to create the first Czech operaSmetana won Bedrich Smetana 18241884 Czech Grew up during a time of increasing nationalism 0 He became a nationalist himsef writes a lot of Opera music in Czech Often fok ike melodies Traditional Czech dances Known for o czech operas o symphonic poems 0 died ofsyphiis The Bartered Bride Prodana Nevesta Premiered 1866 final version 1870 Libretto Karel Sabina Additions included nationalistic dance Became the most popular Czech opera 0 Archetypal village opera Excerpt Beer Chorus To pivecko Nationalism Beer Ends with nationalist dance furiant Dvorak 1841 1904 Czech composer and violist Wrote in many genres Best known for 0 9 symphonies o Cello Concerto o Symphonic poems and other orchestral worrs Also wrote 11 operas not very well known Internationally famous as a nationalist composer o Brahms hooked him up Opera 0 Dvorak considered himself primarily a composer of opera not seen as such today 0 Wrote 11 operas throughout his career 0 Some are traditional Mozart clearly defined recitatives and arias 0 Others are influenced by Wagner Continuous music 0 Rusalka based on a folk story found in many cultures water nymph longs to be human basically little mermaid Premiered in Prague 1901 Librettist Jaroslav Kvapil Shows Wagnerian influence continuous music system of motives Harmonic language The only one of Dvoraks operas regularly performed outside of the Czech Republic Excerpt song to the moon act 1 aria Asking the moon to tell her beloved that she loves him Analogous to Part of Your World Harp represents the moon Thursday May 15 AnnouncementsReminders go on gauchospace and look at the concert prompt if you are going to the concert this weekend Class begins with cellist guest performerspeaker Patricia Garvey prof asks her submitted questions this held place for the first 20 minutes of class Outline Dvorak Cello Concerto movement I Smetana Ma vlast uP Antonin Dvorak 18421904 Dvorak in America 0 18921894 amp 18941895 Hired to teach American students to write national music Many of his most famous works written here in America Concerto A multimovement work for orchestra featuring a soloist Dvorak Cello Concerto Frist draft written 1894095 in America revised ending in Bohemia Only surviving cell concerto Possible connection to sisterin law Movement 1 0 first movement concerto form sonata form with soloist 15 minute piece that we watchlisten to in class switch composers Smetana Genre symphonic poem AKA tone poem a one movement work for orchestra that tells a story program the story provided by the composer Smetana Ma vlast cycle of 6 symphonic poems nationlistic composed 18741879 Smetana Vltava symphonic poem musical depiction of various Czech themed scenes along the river Smetana Die Moldau Two streams River Hunting scene Peasantdance Nymphs More river Castle Week 8 Tuesdsay May 20 Outline 0 Romantic Choral music 0 Brahms O Elin Desu Requi 0 Verdi O Verdi Requiem 0 Romantic Period Round up Romantic Choral Music 0 Choral singing was a group activity for amateur musicians 0 creative outlet for the masses 0 no need for expensive instruments or lessons 0 Aligned with new Romantic interest in democracy 0 Choirs sang older pieces but the popularity of choirs led to a need for new repertoire 0 smaller genres 0 part songs small scale genre often 4 part 0 Large scale genres O oratorio and mass 0 Often found a Wider audience in the concert hall Johannes Brahms 18331897 0 Born in Germany 0 Friend of Robert and Clara Schumann O Brahms as Beethoven s successor 0 Music was stylistically conservative Requiem Mass A musical setting of the Roman Catholic Mass for the Dead Brahms Ein Deutsches Requiem 0 quotA german requiemquot 0 1868 0 Written after the deaths of Robert Schumann and Brahms mother 0 Brahms was not religious raised protestant 0 Function mirrors Catholic tradition of service for dead 0 Emphasis on comforting the living acceptance of death 0 Unlike Catholic requiem 0 Does not use standard Catholic requiem texts 0 Written in German not Latin For soloists four part chorus and orchestra 0 Seven movements I forms an arch 17 26 3 5 4th movement 4th movement Wie Lieblich sind deine Wohnungen 0 How Lovely is Thy Dwelling Place 0 Text Psalm 84 0 Form A B A C A 0 B section shift to minor imitative polyphony 0 C section martial sounding back to polyphony Giuseppe Verdi 1813 1901 0 Italian 0 Involved in Italian nationalist movement 0 28 operas 0 Became Italy s favorite composer 0 Viva Verdi Verdi Requiem 0 1874 0 Catholic requiem text but on a much larger scale 0 Written to commemorate the death of writer Alessandro Manzoni 0 Seen by many as too theatrical for a church setting LIbera Me Final movement 0 Prayer asking for mercy upon the dead this movement recalls sections from earlier movements 0 quotday of wrathquot 0 quotgrant them rest Verdi s Requiem at Terezin 0 Nazi internment camp ghetto 40 miles from Prague 0 Model camp for Red Cross home to many notable Jews artists scholars musicians 0 Remarkable cultural life Rafael Sch ichter 0 1905 1945 0 Composer conductor pianist 0 Led vibrant musical life at Terezin 0 20 performances of Verdi s Requiem incl for visiting Nazi and Red Cross of cials Romantic Period Review Lieder character pieces 0 schubert Erlkonig 0 Schumann Wunderschonen Mai 0 Chopin quotMilitaryquot polonaise 0 Brahms Intermezzo 0 Liszt La Campanella Wagner Prelude amp Liebstod 0 Wagner Ride of the Valkyries 0 Smetana Beer Chorus 0 Dvorak Song to the Moon Orchestral Pieces 0 Dvorak Cello Concerto mvt 1 0 Smetana Vltava Thursday May 22 Announcements and Reminders 0 Paper due date Tuesday June 3 0 Final 0 not cumulative 0 see more info about nal and term paper on Gauchospace Outline 0 Late Romantic Ballet traditional 0 Tchaikovsky Sleeping Beauty 0 Music in the age of Modernism The 20th Century 0 Modern Ballet 0 French Impression I Debussy s music Comparison between Romanticism and Modernism prof has us do a listening in class 0 Romanticism Smetana From Bohemia s Meadows and Fields 19th century 0 melodic has a tune you can start to hum O sounds soothing 0 Modernism Stravinsky Rite of Spring 20th century 0 not melodic unpredictable O sounds nerve racking and grabs attention with instruments Late Romantic Ballet Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky 18401893 0 Russian 0 Late Romantic 0 End of the century pessimism O Sexual identity he was homosexual This was not well accepted during his lifetime his later marriage with a woman was unhappy Music was an outlet and composition carried on 0 Carried on Romantic era traditions 0 Successful Tchaikovsky and the Ballet 0 The music depended on ballet dancers to complete expression and art form this is a general characteristic of ballet performances 0 Ballet thrived in Russia 0 Tchaikovsky s popular ballets O O O Swan Lake Sleeping Beauty The Nutcracker Tchaikovsky Sleeping Beauty 0 1890 written in 40 days 0 Ballet 0 Three acts 0 Choreography Marius Petipa 0 Excerpt Waltz Act 1 0 Listen for O Romantic melodies and harmonies Music in the Age of Modernism The 20th centurv Modernism 0 A 20thcentury movement self c0nsci0us break this the past O WWI had a dramatic impact on music 0 Create works that are wholly new O Make it new Ezra Pound 0 No centralized style umbrella term for many isms O O O O Impressionism Debussy Primitivism Stravinsky Expressionism Schoenberg Many more Modernism in Music How to detect it 0 Unconventional non traditional plot for ballet opera or program music 0 Radical concept or performance style 0 trying to make music new and different from prior music 0 Harmonic language for each music ism 0 very unfamiliar unprecedented Harmonic Options after 1900 0 Tonality isn t the only option anymore 0 Harmony now based on different scalepitch combinations 0 Debussy exotic scales 0 Stravinsky Polytonality O Schoenberg Atonality Claude Debussy 18621918 0 Deh byu see 0 French 0 Paris Conservatory at age 11 played piano 0 In uenced by O Impressionism in painting I example Impression Sunrise Claude Monet 1872 O Symbolism in poetry 0 Exotic scales encountered at Paris World s Fair in 1899 Symbolism in poetry 0 Late 19thcentury French movement 0 Characteristics O O N I missed the preceding points from the lecture but will update when information is gathered Debussy s Music 0 Floating sensations obscured meter 0 Exotic scales obscured tonic 0 Intensely colorful orchestral sounds O Selective use of orchestral colors 0 Impressionist Symbolist 0 Sense of detached observation 0 Evokes moods rather than explicit feelings Debussy Prelude to The Afternoon of a Faun 0 1894 0 Genre originally written as a symphonic poem 0 Inspired by a poem by Mallarme 0 in 1912 turned into a modernist ballet by the Ballet Russes O Choreographed by Vaslav Nijinsky 0 Listen for O Prominent ute solo amp other solo instruments 0 Ambiguous meter and tonality The Ballet Russes Founded in Paris by Serge Diaghilev the baet s Impresario producer Russian and French musical influences Employed many great dancers and choreographers of the day Many modernist productions week 9 Tuesday May 27 no class Thursday May 29 Changes Paper 0 New due date Thursday June 5 0 Reduced length requirement now 45 pages Final 0 Study Guide posted on GS 0 Reduced listening list 0 4 essay choices 0 Exam will be straightforward Wind Ensemble Concert Tonight 8pm in this room FREE ecture today The Ballet Russes Founded in Paris by Serge Diaghilev the baet s Impresario producer Russian and French musical influences Employed many great dancers and choreographers of the day Many modernist productions Igor Stravinsky 1882 1971 Russian later lived in France then America Los Angeles 0 Was not well known in Russia but became very popular when he moved to France Stravinsky s the Rite of Spring Le Sacre du Printemps in 1913 it was a ballet 0 Later it is mostly a concert work Nijinsky choreographed Ballet Russes Exoticism Primitivisim 0 Extensive use of Russian folksongs o Pagan rituals of Ancient Russiasacrifice Musical Elements of Stravinsky s The Rite of Spring Revolutionary use of rhythm 0 Changing beat organization 0 Shifting accents o Intentionally frustrating expectations Dissonance Polytonal more than one tonic at the same time Blocks of music repeating European Modernism Concluded Expressionism amp Schoenberg Expressionism Artistic trend to portray dark side of the unconscious Munch art Kafka literature Freud psychoanalysis Musical expressionism jarring chaotic 0 wide leaps o extremely high amp low notes 0 Extremely dissonant Arnold Schoenberg 18711951 Born in Vienna Austria Early music was in a post Wagnerian Romantic style 0 Transfigured Night In early 1900s introduces new atonality to music Leader of Second Viennese School c 1921 invented the 12 tone method a composition aka serialism Left for America in 1933 to avoid Nazi persecution In 1940s taught at USC amp UCLA music that is not tonal even anti tonal No tonic no home pitch No major or minor pitches not related to each other or to a tonic Result pitches sounds as though randomly chosen Emancipation of the Dissonance Dissonance is freed from old rules that regulated when amp how dissonance is allowed so that it can occur in music without restraint or resolution 77 Schoenberg Pierrot Lunaire 1912 Song cycle 21 movements Text by Belgian poet Albert Giraud Based on the stock character Pierrot A naive and eccentric clown 5 players 8 instruments Use of 2 new musical techniques 0 Klangfarbenmelodie A 20thcentury technique in which the individual notes of a melody are distributed among different instruments klang tone farben color melodie melody o Sprechstimme German for spoken voice Avocal style in which a melody is spoken in approximate pitches to a specified rhythm Invented by Arnold Schoenberg European Modernism Summary Debuss Stravins Schoenbe Prelude to the The Rite of Spring Pierrot Lunaire Afternoon of a faun Impressionism Primitivism Expressionism Symbolism Exoticism Atonality Exotic scales Polytonality Klangfarbenmelodie Orchestral colors Rhythm Sprechstimme oating sensation Repeated chord Week 10 Tuesday June 3rd The Musical AvantGarde Avant garde A group active in the invention and application of new often experimental techniques in a given field especially the arts John Cage 1912 1992 Born in LA Attended Pomona College lntrest in nonwestern philosophy Pushed boundaries of music Involved with performance amp conceptual art movements John Cage s Sonatas and interludes excerpt Sonata V prof plays piece in class doesn t sound like normal piano Prepared Piano A piano temporarily modified by inserting specific items bolts screws pieces of wood or rubber etc into the strings in order to modify their timbre 39 I V g 7 h s V X Cage Sonatas and interludes excerpt Sonata V 1948 Set of 16 sonatas and three interludes For prepared piano Evocative of nonwestern instruments 0 Javanese Gamelan Popularized the prepared piano Sonata V 0 From AA B B American Nationalism Aaron Copland Aaron Copland 1900 1990 Born in New York Studied in Paris In 1920s wrote music with both jazz and atonal influences In 1930s changed to a more populist style Music often described as being distinctively American 0 Fanfare for the Common Man 0 Rodeo Hoe Down Copland Appalachian Spring 19445 Genre Ballet suite Populist simple accessible 0 Wanted to use radio to reach wider audience Topic American rural life Martha Graham lead dancer choreographer Section 7 Theme and Variations o Them is an old Shaker tune Simple Gifts simple folk like Nationalistic American sound Copland and Appalachian Spring Wanted to write music that could speak to his fellow Americans 0 Accessible tonal rather than atonal What makes it modern 0 Harkening to the simpler times of the past 0 Used elements of modernism when needed Subtle dissonance and shifting meters Thursday June 5th Announcement Final review Tuesday 610 300 430 pm LLCH Final exam Wednesday 611 1200 200 pm 0 Please be early 0 Bring blue book amp Outline The Broadway Musical 0 Bernstein West Side Story Course Evals Music and Film 0 Williams Raiders March The Broadway Musical Newly accepted as appropriate for serious musical study Similar to opera but typically includes some spoken dialogue Originally had silly plots that existed only to showcase the songs In the mid 1940s plot became more important and more serious Leonard Bernstein 1918 1990 Born in Massachusetts Very well known conductor 0 New York Philharmonic Music is often a blend of popular and classical styles Best known for stage works 0 On the Town 1944 o Candide 1956 0 West Side Story 1957 West Side Story 1557 Librettist Stephen Sondheim Choreographer Jerome Robbins Updated Romeo and Juliet set in New York City 0 White vs Puerto Rican gangs Music reflects Latin influence Also influenced by Wagner 0 Elaborate system of motives West Side Story Mambo Mambo Afro Cuban dance Tony and Maria meet at a dance Music 0 Fas o Rhythmic o Mostlylnstrumental o Occasional shout of Mamboquot West Side Story Tonight Quintet Gangs anticipating the big fight Rhythmic music from other gang members Alternates with love duet Complex polyphony Music and Film Many Classical composers wrote music for films 0 Aaron Copland Of Mice and Men 1939 Film music influenced by Western art tradition 0 Free interchange of musical languages Tonal Atonal o Wagnerian ideals leitmotives John Williams b 1932 One of today s leading film composers Wrote Music for 0 Jaws 0 Star Wars Films 0 Indiana jones 0 ET 0 Jurassic Park 0 Harry Potter Uses Wagner s leitmotif technique to create unity 0 Our ex Raiders March Indiana Jones Music 15 Final Study Guide Section One Listening Identification Title quotDer Erlkonigquot Composer Schubert Time Period Romantic Period Genre Lied Misc supernatural folklore theme based on Danish folk legend Through composed form Title Military Composer Chopin Time Period Romantic Period Genre Polonaise Misc polish nationalism rubato Title La Campenellaquot Composer Liszt Time Period Romantic Period Genre Etude Misc very difficult to play Franz Liszt had 12 inch hand span that enabled him to play radical notes Title Ride of the Valkyriesquot Composer Wagner Time Period Romantic Period Genre revolutionary opera music dramas Misc Valkyries warrior princesses Title Beer Chorus from The Bartered Bride Composer Smetana Time Period Romantic Period Genre Czech Opera Misc nationalistic theme of Beer Title Song to the Moon from Rusalka Composer Dvorak Time Period Late Romantic 1901 Genre Opera Misc based on multicultural folk story shows Wagnerian influence Title Cello Concerto mvt 1 Composer Dvoark Time Period Romantic Period Genre Concerto Misc Only surviving cello concerto sonata form with soloist Title Waltz from Sleeping Beauty Composer Tchaikovsky Time Period Late Romantic Period Genre Ballet Misc romantic melodies and harmonies Title Prelude to The Afternoon of a Faun Composer Debussy Time Period Modern Genre Symphonic Poem Misc Piece was later turned into a modernist ballet by the Ballet Russes Impressionism Symbolism Title Excerpts from Rite of Spring Dance of Youths and Maidens Game of Abduction Composer Stravinsky Time Period Modern Genre Ballet Misc Polytonal choreographed by Nijinksy Ballet Russes Primitivism Exoticism Title Der Mondfeck from Pierrot Lunaire Composer Schoenberg Time Period Modern Genre Song Cycle Misc Klangfarbenmelodie Sprechstimee Expressionism Atonality Title Sonata V from Sonatas and interludes Composer Cage Time Period Modern Genre Sonata amp Interlude Misc Avant garde prepared piano Form AA B B Title Appalachian Springquot Composer Copland Time Period Modern Genre Ballet suite Misc Tonal subtle dissonance and shifting meters distinctively Americanquot Title Mambo from West Side Story Composer Bernstein Time Period Modern Genre Broadway Musical Misc Afro Cuban dance fast amp rhythmic Title Tonight from West Side Story Composer Bernstein Time Period Modern Genre Broadway Musical Misc Gangs anticipating big fight complex polyphony Title Raiders Marchquot Composer Williams Time Period Modern Genre Music in Film Misc used in Indiana Jones John Williams is one of today s leading film composers Section Two General Knowledge Questions relating to terms used in class Other questions regarding the Syllabus listening examples Details of music in historical context Composer Biographies see weekly lecture notes for composer biographies and other general knowledge Section Three Definitions Terms People to Know Nationalism o belief that people who share a common language history and culture should constitute on independent nation free of foreign domination Lied o The German word for song generally used to specify a short work for vocalist and piano accompaniment Salon 0 A regular social gathering typically in a private home for the purpose of performing and discussing artistic worlds as well as other intellectual topics Strophic A section of music repeats with different words each time Through composed No largescale repetition the entire song is one large unit Franz Schubert 0 One of the earliest Romantic composers Wrote symphonies and chamber music best known for his Lieder which happened to be focused on death he suffered from syphilis Song Cycle 0 A set of songs or Lieder written by a composer as a set Typically connected by common musical and thematic elements Intended to be performed together as one large work Robert Schumann 0 Born in Germany importnat as a composer amp music scholarcritic Composed symphonies short piano works and Lieder Generally song cycles Rubato o This is about tempo flexibility of the beat that allows for expression Frequent and unpredictable speed ups and slow downs of music Character piece 0 Both for domestic and public performances usually evokes certain mood or image Often solo piano piece one movement relatively short Examples Polonaise Intermezzo Etude Frederic Chopin 0 Polish and French composer wrote domestic salon music almost exclusively for piano with rubato tempo Died of TB at age 39 always sickly throughout his life Franz Liszt 0 Hungarian composer with 12inch hand span difficult to recompose Best known for piano works and symphonic poems Big womanizer early on his life eventually became very religious Johannes Brahms 0 German perfectionist composer who destroyed many of his works His works composed of most genres NOT OPERA composed Intermezzo in A major Bedrich Smetana 0 Czech nationalist composer known Czech operas and symphonic poems Symphonic poem 0 A genre a onemovement work for orchestra that tells a story Many written by Smetana Antonin Dvorak o A Czech composer and violist who considered himself primarily a composer of Opera Today he is best known for symphonies Cello Concerto symphonic poems and other orchestral work He was internationally famous as a nationalist composer Richard Wagner 0 Composer born in Germany Largely sef taught and created his own new style of opera which he called musical dramas continuous music with an endless melody Wagner s idea Gesamthunstwerk Bayreuth o Wagner s ideas were revolutionary too perfect to be played in traditional theatre Bayreuth Festival Theater was designed by Wagner specifically for the needs of his work The orchestra played in a pit near the stage that was out of sight to the audience so that no attention was detracted from the stage Gesamtkunstwerk o Translates to Complete art work This is Wagner s idea of all opera components music stage lights singing etc in unity seamlessly intricate Leitmotif o Wagner s term for a melody representing a person object place idea emotion etc Ring of the Nibelung o AKA The Ring Cycle This is a Super Wagner Opera it was a big chunk of his career One epic plot consisting of4 long operas 1718 hour total Remarkably difficult to reproduce Peter llych Tchaikovsky o A Russian composer from the late Romantic Period He is best known for his Ballets which were very popular in Russia and depended on Ballet dancers to complete the art form He was homosexual and ended up having an unhappy marriage with a woman composing music was his outlet and passion Modernism o A 20thcentury movement that breaks apart from the past There is no centralized style the goal of modern pieces Claude Debussy o A French modern impressionism composer influenced by impressionism in painting and symbolism in poetry His works evoke moods rather than explicit feelings Composed symphonic poems such as Prelude to an Afternoon Faun Impressionism 0 Music a style of composition associated esp with Debussy in which clarity of structure and theme is subordinate to harmonic effects characteristically using the whole tone scale Symbolism 0 One of the modern ism associated with Debussy s Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun Sense of detached observation evokes mood rather than explicit feeling Stephane Mallarm o The French poet Stephane Maarme1842 1898 was the master of the symbolist writers in France His poetic theories and difficult allusive poems separated him from the general public but won him intense admiration within the circle of his initiates Vaslav Nijinksy o A Russian choreographer for The Ballet Russes He choreographed Stravinsky s Rite of Spring Ballet Russes o Founded in Paris by Serge Diaghilev Russian and French musical influences employed many great dancers and choreographers to make many modernist productions Serge Diaghilev o The Ballet s Impresario producer Founder of The Baller Russes Impresario o a person who organizes and often finances concerts plays or operas Igor Stravinsky 0 Russian composer who became popular when he moved to France Composed the Rite of Spring ballet choreographed by Nijinsky Associatied with Exoticism and Primitivism extensive use of Russian folksongs Primitivism o Modernistic ism displayed by Stravinsky39s Rite of Spring Extensive use of Russian folksongs Expressionism o Artisitic trend to portray dark side of the unconscious Musical expressionism has wide leaps extremely high amp low notes and is very dissonant Displayed by Arnold Schoenberg Arnold Schoenberg 0 An Austrian modernist composer who introduced atonality to music in the early 1900s Leader of the second Viennese school and invented the 12tone method His early music was in a post Wagnerian Romantic style Atonal 0 Music that is not tonal having no tonic no home pitch no major or minor The pitches sound as though they are randomly chosen Relevant in Schoenberg s Pierrot Lunaire Der mondfleck Klangfarbenmelodie 0 German word translates directly to tone coor meody It is a 20th century technique in which the individual notes of a melody are distributed among different instruments Musical technique of Schoenberg Sprechstimme 0 German word translates directly to spoken voice A vocal style in which a melody is spoken in approximate pitches to a specified rhythm Invented by Arnold Schoenberg half singing have speakingquot Arron Copland 0 An American nationalist composer who wrote music with both jazz and atonal influences in the 1920s In 1930s he changed to a more populist style He composed Appalachian Spring a Ballet suite Martha Graham 0 The lead dancer and choreographer of Appalachian Spring composed by Copland John Cage 0 American composer born in LA Pushed boundaries of music involved with performance amp conceptual art movements Avantgarde Used a prepared piano composed Sonatas and lnterludes Prepared Piano 0 A piano temporarily modified by inserting specific items bolts screws pieces of wood or rubber etc into the strings in order to modify their timbre Leonard Bernstein 0 American Modern composer his music is often a blend of popular and classical styles he is best known for his stage works of Broadway Musicals Example West Side Story John Williams 0 One of today s leading film composers Used Wagner s leitmotif technique to create unity example Raiders March from Indiana Jones Section Four Short Answer You will be asked to answer one of the following four questions on the exam 1 Discuss the rise of musical nationalism in the 19th century How did composers write music that was seen as embodying a nation What role did opera play in nationalism Include references to at least two works and composers from the syllabus We talked about modernism as an umbrella term for many smaller musical styles that coexisted during the early twentieth century Discuss two of these styles or isms encompassed by the early 20th century early European musical modernism and their intersection with culture and other arts Cite one composer and musical example per style you discuss Discuss the role of the amateur musician in the Romantic Period What types of music did they engage in in what settings and for what purposes Be sure to give at least one example of a piece and composer Explain how Wagner revolutionized opera Using terms from class discuss Wagner s unique ideas about opera and compare these to another opera from the Romantic Period To formulate answers to these questions refer to the weekly lecture notes and generate a short answer 5 8 sentences for these questions to prepare yourself for the test
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