Nutrition and Health Notes from 1/21/15 - 2/9/15
Nutrition and Health Notes from 1/21/15 - 2/9/15 HHP:2310
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This 24 page Bundle was uploaded by Elizabeth Hunter on Monday February 9, 2015. The Bundle belongs to HHP:2310 at University of Iowa taught by Kathy Mellen in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 118 views. For similar materials see Nutrition and Health in Nursing and Health Sciences at University of Iowa.
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Date Created: 02/09/15
Overview of Nutrition 11915 Monday No class MLK Day 12115 Wednesday Lecture 1 Current topics in Nutrition and Health Obesity Physical activity Portion sizes Food marketing Supplement usage Diet the foods and beverages a person eats and drinks Food choices Improve health Increase disease risk What in uences food choices Taste and food preferences Nutrition and weight control Physiological in uences Lifestyle in uences 0 Time 01212015 0 Economics 0 Culture 0 Environmental factors 0 Emotional comfortassociations 0 Social pressure 0 Habit 0 Media 0 Product safety Six Classes of Nutrients Nutrients substances that support growth maintenance and repair of body s tissues 0 Six classes of nutrients Carbohydrate 4 kcalg Lipids 9 kcalg Protein 4 kcalg Vitamins Minerals 0 Water 0 Energy kcal contributor but not a nutrient 0 Alcohol 7 kcalg OOOOO 12615 Monday Lecture 2 Dietary Reference Intakes Includes 0 Estimated Average Requirement EAR Research and policy 0 Recommended Dietary Allowances RDA Adequacy o Adequate Intakes AI Adequacy Appears sufficient o Tolerable Upper Intake Levels UL Safety 0 Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range AMDR CHO 4565 of energy intake Protein 1035 of energy intake Fat 2035 if energy intake 0 Example 0 On average Kevin consumes 45 of his kilocalories from carbohydrate His average daily calorie intake is 2600 kcal per day How many grams of carbohydrate does he consume 2600 kcal X 45 CHO 1170 CHO kcal 1170 CHO kcal 4 kcal 293 g CH0 0 Who do the DRIs apply to Healthy people over 2 years of age Apply to average daily intakes Assume diets contain a variety of foods 0 Each DRI category serves unique purpose 0 Government Sponsored Surveys 0 NHANES nutrition status survey DHHS Measures nutrient intake AND Health Status a Lab tests cholesterol blood glucose etc a Physical exams and measurements height weight blood pressure 0 General Attitudes About Maintaining a Healthy Diet Nutrition and You Trends 2011 I m already doing it more woman than men in this group n 42 I know I should ages 3554 D 38 Don t bother me n 20 o What About College Students 0 Most don t gain freshman 15 0 Body fat gain more common in men than women 52 for men 000 29 for women 0 More than 50 don t Eat 5 cups of fruits and vegetables 0 59 say their diet has declined 0 Changing Eating Habits 0 Develop SMART goals Speci c Measurable Achievable Relevant realistic Timely 0 Examples Smart Goals n 1 My goal is to increase my vegetable intake from 1 cup per day to 2 cups per day by March 1 o Is this SMART YES I 2 My goal is to eat less grains o Is this SMART NO 0 Important Themes for this Course 0 Moderation calorie control balance variety and diet adequacy 0 Total diet approach 0 Foods are main source of nutrients 0 Regular physical activity 0 Diet Planning Principles 0 Adequacy Intake enough 0 Balance 0 Energy Control Nutrient Density Energy Density 0 Moderation 0 Variety 12815 Wednesday Lecture 3 Dietary Guidelines for Americans for a Healthier Life 2010 0 Focus of the Dietary Guidelines 0 Purpose Provide sciencebased advice for ages 2 years and older Including those at increased risk of chronic disease 0 Target audience Policymakers nutrition educators and health professionals 0 Produced by USDA and HHS o How often Updated every 5 years 0 Development of Dietary Guidelines 0 Policy and Communications DGAC CharteredljDGAC Public meetings Review of ScienceljDGAC Report Submitted to Secretaries of USDA amp HHS USDA amp HHS develop policy documentElDGs implemented through federal programs 0 Executive Summary 0 Describes purpose uses and major concepts 0 Includes individuals at high risk of chronic disease 0 Identi es two overarching concepts Maintain calorie balance over time to achieve and sustain a healthy weight Focus on consuming nutrientdense foods and beverages a Basic premise nutrient needs met by consuming foods 0 Lists a Key Recommendations 0 Nutrient Dense o Nutrientdense foods and beverages Provide vitamins minerals and other bene cial substances and relatively few calories without a Solid fats in the food or added to it D Added sugars I Added re ned starches D Added sodium Retain naturally occurring components such as dietary ber All vegetables fruits whole grains seafood eggs beans and peas unsalted nuts and seeds fatfree and lowfat dairy and lean meats and poultry are nutrient dense when prepared without solid fats or sugars Balancing Calories to Manage Weight 0 Epidemic of overweight and obesity in all segments of our society Environmental factors contribute to weight gain 0 Calorie balance over time is key 0 Important modi able factors Calories consumed in foods and beverages Calories expended in physical activity 0 Strong evidence for no optimal proportion of macronutrients for weight loss 0 Top 5 Calorie Sources for Adults 0 Grainbased desserts 0 Yeast breads 0 Chicken and chicken mixed dishes 0 SodaEnergy DrinksSports Drinks 0 Alcoholic beverages Principles for Promoting Calorie Balance 0 Monitor food and beverage intake physical activity and body weight 0 Reduce portion sizes 0 When eating out make better choices 0 Limit screen time 0 Foods and Food Components to Reduce 0 Topics covered Sodium yeast breads chicken pizza pasta n Reduce intake to less than 2300 mg per day a Further reduce intake to 1500 mg per day for 0 Adults ages 51 0 African Americans ages 2 0 People ages 2 with high blood pressure diabetes or chronic kidney disease The 1500 mg recommendation applies to half the total population ages 2 and to the majority of adu s Immediate deliberate reduction in sodium content of foods is needed Fats cheese pizza grainbased desserts dairy desserts n Saturated fatty acids less than 10 of calories 0 Less than 7 reduces risk of CVD further 0 Replace with poly and monounsaturated fatty acids not with sugar or re ned grain n Trans fatty acids as low as possible a Cholesterol less than 300 mg per day 0 Effect small compared to saturated and trans fats Egg yolks up to 1 per day Calories from solid fats grainbased desserts pizza cheese sausage and added sugars soda energy drinks grainbased desserts fruit drinks a Reduce intake of calories from solid fats and added sugars SoFAS n SoFAS provide 35 of calories 0 Do not contribute nutrients El El a Only 5 to 15 of calories from SoFAS can be accommodated in healthy diets Re ned grains yeast breads pizza grainbased desserts torillas n Limit consumption of re ned grains especially those that contain solid fats added sugars and sodium n Enriched re ned grain products provide some vitamins and minerals but not the ber provided by whole grains n Replace re ned grains with whole grains Alcohol u If alcohol is consumed consume in moderation For men up to 2 drinks per day 0 For women up to 1 drink per day a Speci c guidance for breastfeeding women n Circumstances in which people should not drink alcohol listed 0 Foods and Nutrients to Increase 0 While staying within calorie needs increase intake of Vegetables Fruits Whole grains Milk Seafood in place of some meatpoultry Oils 0 Nutrients of public health concern Potassium Fiber Calcium Vitamin D 0 Building Healthy Eating Patterns 0 Research on overall eating patterns Considerable evidence for health outcomes from DASH and traditional Mediterranean eating patterns Some evidence for vegetarian 0 Common elements of healthy eating patterns identi ed 0 To promote health follow USDA Food Patterns or DASH Eating Plan Similar to each other and to the healthful eating patterns identi ed in the research 0 Follow food safety recommendations USDA Food Patterns 0 Changes for 2010 Dietary Guidelines Vegetarian adaptations n Lactoovo and vegan Two food groups renamed n quotMeat and Beansquot became quotProtein Foodsquot n Milk became quotDairy Productsquot Forti ed soy milk included Milk for 4 to 8 year olds increased by 12 cup per day At least 8 oz per week of seafood for adults n 3 to 6 oz for children Vegetable subgroups n Amounts revised n Orange revised to quotRed and Orangequot 0 Helping Americans Make Healthy Choices 0 Current food and physical activity environment is in uential for better and for worse 0 All elements of society have a role Individuals and families Communities Business and industry All levels of government 0 Work together to improve the Nation s nutrition and physical activity 0 Summary Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 o Evidencebased nutritional guidance Promote health Reduce the risk of chronic diseases Reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity 0 Integrated set of advice for overall eating pattern 0 Consumerfriendly advice and tools coming 0 Steps in developing food intake patterns for MyPIate 0 Determine calorie needs 0 Set nutrient goals Goals based on Dietary Reference intakes andor Dietary Guidelines standards for n 9 Vitamins n 8 Minerals n 8 Macronutrients Protein carbohydrates fats Separate nutrient goals set for each agesex group based on their needs 0 Calculate nutrient pro les for each food group based on Nutrient content of foods in group Food consumption A pro le is calculated for all nutrients in each food group and subgroup Calculations are based on quotnutrient dense formsquot of each food lean or lowfat with no added sugar Nutrient pro le of food group sumnutrient contribution of each food X Likelihood of each food being eatenn 0 Construct food patterns that meet goals Establish initial amount from each food group Compare resulting nutrient content to nutritional goals Change amounts from food groups stepwise n Identify groups or subgroups that are the most feasible nutrient sources a Check amounts recommended against typical consumption Remaining calories after nutrient needs were met were identi ed as quotdiscretionary empty caloriesquot 0 Empty Calories Total estimated energy requirement Essential calories 0 May be used to Increase amount of food selected from a food group Consume foods that are not in the lowest fat form such as 2 milk or mediumfat meat or items that contain added sugars Add oil fat or sugar to foods Consume alcohol for those who consume alcohol Whole grains 0 1 ounce equivalents 1 slice of bread 1 cup of readytoeat cereal 12 cup of cooked ricepastacereal Dark green vegetables 0 Broccoli Greens Spinach romaine endive Red and orange vegetables 0 Carrots Pumpkin Red peppers Tomatoes Legumes Beans and Peas 0 Dry beans and peas such as black garbanzo kidney pinto soy Starchy vegetables 0 Corn green peas white potatoes Other vegetables 0 Bean sprouts cabbage cauli ower celery cucumbers Meat substitutes o 1 ounce equivalents 1 egg 14 cup cooked beans 1 tablespoon of peanut butter 12 ounce of nuts 2215 Monday Lecture 4 Food Labels 0 What food labels MUST include 0 Common or usual name of the product 0 0 Name amp address of the manufacturer packer or distributor May come in codes Used to track food especially in recalls Net contents in terms of weight measure or count Ingredients in descending order of predominance by weight Information within parentheses still relates to original ingredient n Ingredient with combination of ingredients will be listed out Essential warnings such as allergens Ex peanuts wheat soy milk shell sh eggs Nutrient contents of the product Nutrition Facts panel Required components a Serving sizeservings per container n Caloriescalories from fat a Total fatsaturated fattrans fat n Cholesterol n Sodium a Total carbohydratedietary berssugars added naturally present combinedcurrent issue a Proteins n Percent daily values Nutrient standards that are printed on food labels Based on nutrient and energy recommendations for a general 2000 calorie diet WHY DRI values vary from group to group too many to list not feasible 0 On a label one set of values must apply to everyone 0 The Daily Values DV re ect the needs of an quotaveragequot person 0 Soon the DV will be updated to re ect current DRI intake recommendations DV are ideal for allowing comparison among foods Because the DV apply to all people they are much less useful as nutrient intake goals for individuals a Nutrients Claims 0 Nutrient 2 vitamins 2 minerals Descriptive terms page 5455 D Fatfree less than 05grams fat per serving 0 Health o FDAp o Altern Approved list page 56 Sodium and hypertension Quali ed health claims Claims backed by weaker evidence Label must state strength of evidence Structurefunction claims Describe effect of substance on body but cannot make reference to disease Legal but largely unregulated El El El El El Proposed Nutrition Facts Panel roposed changes Servings larger bolder type Serving sizes update Calories larger type Updated Daily Values DV comes rst New added sugars Change of nutrients required Actual amounts declared New footnote to come ate Format Quick facts Avoid too much u Saturated fat n Trans fat I Cholesterol n Sugars n Sodium Get enough a Nutrients n Vitamins Smart Supermarket Shopping 0 Best locations for products sell best Eye level End of aisles quotend capsquot n quotPile them high and let them yquot Cash registers a Phone distractions 0 Shop the perimeter Produce dairy meat counter whole grains Packaging of food combos together 0 Shop from a list Buy more amp impulses without any lists 0 Don t go shopping hungry 2415 Wednesday Lecture 5 Food Safety Foodborne lHness o Salmonella o Hepat o E coli Eggs chicken Symptoms diarrhea fever cramps vomiting Onset of symptoms 13 days Duration of symptoms 47 days itis A viral Found in urine amp feces Spread from infected food handlers Symptoms diarrhea dark urine jaundice yellowing of skin Onset of symptoms 1550 days Duration of symptoms 2 weeks to 3 months bacteria Beef lettuce spinach raw fruits Crosscontaminated by cattle Symptoms severe diarrhea often bloody abdominal pain vomiting usually no fever Onset of symptoms 18 days Duration of symptoms 510 days a Seek immediate treatment for elderly and children weaker immune system sick complications o Noroviruses Gastroenteritis viral Spread from infected food handlers Seen often on cruise ships Symptoms nausea diarrhea headache lowgrade fever Onset of symptoms 1248 hours Duration of symptoms 1260 hours 0 Listeria infection Special populations pregnant amp breastfeeding women amp young children under age of 6 Smoked sh meats soft amp wet cheese blu cheesefeta cantaloupe Symptoms fever muscle aches vomiting fatal to babieschildren Onset of symptoms 121 days Duration of symptoms 34 days to several weeks 0 Infections and Intoxications Caused by bacteria toxins 0 Fight BACK 0 1 Clean hands Surfaces n Avoid cross contamination Foods n Vegetables and fruits n SHOULD NOT wash Seafood meat and poultry o 2 Separate Separate foods when shopping and storing Separate foods when preparing and serving 2915 Monday Lecture 6 Food Safety cont 0 3 Cook and chill 0 Keep cold foods at 40 degrees F or below 0 Keep hot foods at 140 degrees F or above 0 Avoid the temperature danger zone 0 Use proper cooling techniques Put food into smaller containers to cool quickly 0 Food Safety Campaign 0 Foodsafetygov videos 0 Food Safety App o Is My Food Safe Effectiveness of HACCP Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points 0 Reduction in o E coli Healthy People 2010 goal met 0 Salmonella Still leading cause of hospitalizations and deaths 0 Due to better practices in 0 Processing 0 lnspchons 0 Food establishments 0 Consumer Reviews Other Issues 0 Mercury 0 Certain individuals more susceptible Pregnant women breastfeeding women young children 0 DO NOT EAT o Sword sh Shark Tile sh and King mackerel Limit other sh to 12 ozweek o Albacore tuna 6 ozweek Digestion and Absorption Digestive Tract Organs o Mouth chews and mixes food 0 Esophagus passes food 0 Stomach churns mixes and grinds food O 0 Small intestine digests CHO protein and fat and absorbs nutrients Large intestine reabsorbs water and minerals Accessory Orga ns 00000 O Salivary glands secrete saliva Liver produces bile Gallbladder stores bile Bile duct carries bile Pancreas produces enzymes and bicarbonate Pancreatic duct conducts pancreatic juices Sphincter Muscles O O 0 Cardiac or lower esophageal sphincter Pyloric valve lleocecal valve 0 Anus Mechanical and Chemical Digestion O O Mouth crushing and grinding action Tongue moves food around Saliva helps moisten food particles Taste receptors Esophagus after swallowing food enters this tube Peristalsis Epiglottis helps prevent choking Stomach cells release gastric juice Powerful muscles Protective mucus lining Holding capacity Gastrin Gastric inhibitory hormone Small intestine major organ of digestion and absorption Villi and microvilli absorb nutrients which pass into blood or lymph 3 Sections duodenum jejunum and ileum Liver synthesizes bile Bile is reabsorbed Gallbladder stores bile Cholecystokinin CCK Pancreas critical role Manufactures bicarb Secretin Manufactures enzymes Large intestine only undigested food is passed to colon
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