American Foreign Policy After WWII
American Foreign Policy After WWII HIST 3333
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American Foreign Policy After WWII 01132015 Essay structures 0 Introduction 0 O 0 Topic Issues Authorsfu name at rst and then last names only 0 Each paragraph each paper might have 34 paragraphs 0 O O O O l pose the question Compare what the professor says against what two or more other authors say The comparison should not only focus on the answers but also the reasons for the answer I can address any topic talked about in class or what Thornton has written about No opinion of my own Use an objective and professional demeanor Footnotes 0 0 Book John Smith Title in italics city publisher year pg no don t write p just write the number rst name rst Article John Smith title Journal title in italics month year pg no Essay in book John Smith title in fred jones authoreditor Title in italics city publisher year pg no All page nos end with a period Use American English commas and periods inside quotation marks Use lbid immediately after but if you re quoting the source again use a shortened form Name and page no Authors 011315 0000 O There was a debate between Nixon and Kissinger Nixon wanted containment Kissinger wanted D tente After nixon s resignation Kissinger was in power Gerald Ford acknowledged the presence of a two president situation Similar situation in Carter administration Carter used his sec state and NSA Cyrus vance the sec state wanted d tente Brzezinski wanted containment The only presidents who defeated soviet strategy were Nixon and Reagan but they themselves were overthrown by the d tenteists Authors for this class Nixon o Kissinger Freedman 0 Parker 0 Bergsten O dell Gisselquist 01152015 Authors for this class 0 Hersh o Kissinger o Nixon Tad Szulc Haldeman Garthoff Hannimaki McNamara o Freidman o Bergston 0 Parker When Nixon came into Office he was facing a crisis of strategy There were several troops in Vietnam in a stalemated con ict He couldn t get them out Below the surface the crisis was far deeper 0 Crisis of strategic power wealth and geopolitical position Between 6569 US had gone from a superpower to a world where the US and the USSR were virtual equals in terms of strategic weapons West Germany and Japan had become economic superpowers and were challenging the structure of the Western Alliance The Johnson administration couldn t fund the war and the needs of the people This led to the opening of imports which led to the growth of exporting countries Johnson was forced to cannibalize the containment structure to fund the war He also began to cut back on commitments to the containment structure The US withdrew its role to stabilize the ndoPakistan con ict leaving room for the USSR to Jump in and act as a mediator This led to the USSR to form an alliance with India and establishing India as the stronger power This led to the dismemberment of Pakistan in 1971 The war in Vietnam affected the policy of the war in the middle east The three ways the Russians supplied the North Vietnamese war 0 Through Chines railways Despite the RussoChinese hostility of the time Mao compromised and let them use the railway This compromise was unstable Due to the Great proletariat revolution the railway was compromised USSR put pressure by moving a million men to the Chinese border Due to the single track nature of the transsiberian railway the railways became unfeasible o A sea route starting from Odessa to Cambodia The unfeasibility led to increase in use of sea route through Suez The USSR use of the Suez gave the US an opportunity to intervene in the middle east and take control of the Suez During the 6 day war the US formed a strategic alliance with Israel Two birds one stone US supported Israel and disrupted Soviet war effort USSR supplies to the Vietnam war were not disrupted as they had to go around Africa US began a strong alliance with Israel at this time and the USSR in turn supported the radical islamists polarizing the region Johnson funded the war with an in ationary dollar policy Bretton woods system there were xed and favorable exchange rates for allies like Germany and Japan Nixon s reaction to the crises Nixon s commitment to end the war in Vietnam was to end the war with honor Russia was on the verge of war against China in 1969 Mao looks to the US to resume talks Nixon facilitated China s exit from their ChinaUSSR relationship There were people within each country that had problems with this new balance of power NixonKissinger had different opinions Nixon wanted a stronger containment policy by bringing China into their side Kissinger wanted a d tente with USSR with the USSR as a partner and not an adversary If everybody agrees on strategy the policy argument is productive if there is a difference of opinion on strategy the policy argument is destructive 0 Same strategy allows people to debate and discover the best possible policy to enforce their strategy Military interactions along the border of China and Russia began to increase China stopped the railroad to Vietnam as a silent message Mao ordered the chines troops to re on the Russians on an Island on the border Chenbao Island damansky Island This threat escalated over 9 months and reached a point where Russia threatened a nuclear strike against China Clashes between the two sides shown on a map in Kissinger s bookpg175 On the 14th of March Russia launches heavy attacks on the island Soon After Nixon announces that he ll leave the Vietnam war 0 Function of Paris Peace talks to USSR 0 Function of Vietnamization to the South Vietnamese 0 Function of level of military activity on the battle eldto Mao North Korea shoots down a recon aircraft EC121 Kissinger says to go in and hammer the North Koreans Nixon doesn t want to do that as he doesn39t want to retaliate as a he doesn t want to build another con ict on the border of China Nixon disclosed that the plane was on international waters because they could read the Russian and North Korean radars He didn t say anything about the Chinese Hence he handled this issue positively with the Chinese China helped North Vietnam to prevent defeat but not to secure their victory Mao responded by shutting down the railway Nixon began bombing Cambodia Ho Chi Minh Trail These events drove the politics between USUSSR USSR realized their strategy was on the verge of defeat The Soviets then generated interest in talks about the middle east to reopen the Suez canal Nixon had been sending messages to Ho chi Minh to end the war Nixon put s Strategic Air Command on Defocon 1 to counter the Soviet nuclear threat to Beijing Nixon said he will extend his nuclear shield to all allies and countries he wished to protect 20012015 Soviets had half a dozen missiles during Cuban missile crisis and in a short period of time overtook the US quantitatively The American foreign policy of the time is a response to that situation 0 Nixon was willing to negotiate with Russia from a position of strength and not pursue a d tente He wanted to strengthen the containment by bringing in China and using this new partner to exit China 0 The Russian buildup of missiles was an overlay in this situation 0 Nixon chose to exit Vietnam by cutting off supply lines bombing Ho Chi Minh trail Gaiduk has written about soviet policy in the Vietnam war they blamed China for being responsible for the Vietnam war They tried to use Vietnam to reinvigorate SinoSoviet relations 0 They also tried to open Suez in 69 71 73 which eventually led to the Yom Kippur war 0 0 They put short range missiles in Cuba cause their long range missile program failed Nixon bombed Cambodia with Sihanouk s approval Cambodia s king 0 Sihanouk tried to alleviate the pressure the pressure North Vietnam put on Cambodia s economy 0 His approval was contingent upon zero civilian casualties Son Ngoc Thanh wikipedia him led a free Cambodia force free Khmer o Sihanouk thinks he can use the clandestine American relationship to leverage against the Russians He wants to take Cambodia out of the war 0 Every January he would go to Paris for a vacation he took his prime minister Lon nol with him They concocted a scheme Lon nol would go back to Cambodia shut down North Vietnamese of ces in North Korea while he goes to Moscow and tells the Russians that Sihanoukville is not going to be available to him anymore Early march of 1970 he puts the plan into action The Russians send him to Beijing as his scheme falls apart The north Vietnamese send troops down the Mekong river to open the port by force The Cambodian legislature votes to depose sihanouk and they put Lon nol in charge Nixon partly accomplished his objective of getting the port closed but can he keep the port open 0 He could engage and keep the port open 0 Nixon takes the small troops ClA s been training to stop them Khmer serai free Cambodia troops o This fails and now he thinks if he should use American troops 0 He does that one of his biggest decisions as president 0 Operation rockcrusher april 28 to June 28 1970 it was an effort to drive out and capture the North Vietnamese headquarters in Cambodia 0 He used the 7th eet 2 divisions of troops and Bombers to achieve this goal The Russians need a new counter strategy and this would be to reopen suez by force and deploying weapons into Cuba The US wanted a peace treaty between Israel and Egypt and then they d open Suez canal Kissinger said that they needed to give more weapons to the Israelis and crush the soviets Nixon does the opposite and holds a summit and holds talks with the Palestinian forces Nixon is trying to move towards a d tente After the initial summit fails Nixon tries to resolve this by offering the opening of the Suez canal Nixon s approach is appealing to Nasser as he knows that the US can push the Israelis He accepts the second rogers plan and accepts a cease re the Russians convince him to use the cease re to forcefully take the canaL The Yom Kippur war s success was contingent upon the Soviets providing support against lsraeli air power over suez They deployed SAM anti aircraft missile along the canal to control the air space So in the summer of 1970 the Russians and Nasser conspired to move SAMs into the canal zone using the American sponsored cease re Nixon sees the movement of the SAMS so he tries to resolve the issue peacefully by talking to the soviets When that fails he gives Israel the technology to beat the SAMs This talk comes in context with the arms control talk Nixon agreed to enter arms control talk with Soviets The US had mirving systems while the Russians still hadn t In those talks the US offered two options 0 Option C an aggregate of land based and sea based launchers to be 1710 Freeze silo construction and 250 MIRV ban They could only have 250 SS9 Russians dismissed this one 0 Option D Same aggregate of 1710 same freeze of silo but his one allowed 250 SS9 to be MIRV This had a build down clause Russians refused this as well After these talks the middle east crisis takes place Nixon makes offer E Aug 4 1970 o 1900 including bombers now same freeze of silos and 250 MIRV No limitations 0 Nixon made this offer without consulting negotiators Newhouse and Smith The Russians stall and continue to build The arms talk had clauses for limits on missile offence and defense They said all they wanted was a treaty prohibited defense 0 Nixon agreed to a anti defense treaty if Soviets agreed to a 5 year offense limitation treaty Russians agree to this This treaty would be the basis for the d tente relationship It is a weapons freeze OO 00 This would be called SALT SALT isn t really a treaty but a 5 year agreement the ABM was a treaty as it was permanent Nixon has engaged the Russians even thought they d cheat he brought forth a rapprochement with China and he exited Vietnam Nixon brought forth a new world order Nixon gives the responsibility of upkeeping his order to Kissinger Nixon turns his attention to the allies the growth of W Germany and Japan He contains them with oil policy and exchange rate policy Authors for the class 0 Whetton Snepp Kiernan Etcheson Westmore Pike Shancross o Tran Dinh Tho o Rabin o HeiKaI Rubinstein Newhouse Smith Seymour O dell 0 Blair 0 Adelman gaiduk 22012015 Authors 0 Brandon O dell Seymour Sampson o Rolfe and Burtle 0 Blair 0 MA Adelman o Akins Foreign Affairs SP 1973 o Nolan Turley o Bergsten The US was being squeezed out of the markets by rising powers such as Germany and Japan Nixon focused on two areas to ght that 0 Price of energy 0 Price of money o In the mid 50 s Russia tried to use low oil prices to break containment Eisenhower s response was to undercut the price by placing an embargo on US imports to the middle east This led to oil owing to Europe and Japan hence removing Russia from the market On the basis of cheap oil Germans and Japanese grew into economic behemoths Cheap energy promotes economic growth The US promoted new sources of oil like Nigeria Alaska and Libya Libya became 45th largest oil producer in 60 s There was global system where demand was far lower than supply Sampson has a book 7 sisters about 7 petroleum giants o Texaco BP SOCAL Shell Esso Gulf Exxon BunkerHunt Amoseas mobil gekenberg continental Amerada Hess Marathaon Occidental oasis smaller independent oil companies began to undercut the bigger companies The competition entered US domestic markets and put a downward pressure on prices Nixon maintaining the structure of the alliance relied on his ability to raise the price of oil All the oil companies welcomed the change of price Raising the price of oil made nuclear and coal energy competitive as oil wasn t a cheaper alternative any more The Mark and the Yen was very cheap compared to the dollar due to their exportled growth Nixon adopted a policy of benign neglect 0 Allow the allies to buy dollars and allow them to reach the point where they will have so many dollars that it will get to a point where it will tip over In September 1969 King ldris in Libya was overthrown and Qadda took over By this time Libya was supplying 4 million barrels a day 41 of W Germany s energy imports came from Libya 25 of Western Europe from Libya ln Libya half of their production was in control of small independent companies Largest among them Occidental Wheelis airbase was in Libya largest airbase in the world Qadda asked Occidental to increase the price of oil Hammer resists and qadda cuts their production Hammer gives in The independent producers were being squeezed and this paved the path for Nixon to support the 7 sisters o This would allow him to shift focus to the Arabs where they d get more money from the US to buy guns from the US to defend themselves 0 The leaders of the nations wanted negotiations on price to be done region by region 0 Jim Akins Author was put in charge about negotiations o Rolfe and Burtle The great wheel 0 History of monetary policy 0 State department arranged for negotiations but not the ones the company wanted 0 Nixon authorizes separate region by region negotiations The US moved to increase price instead of moderating price their concern was supply not price 0 His concern was that no matter what the price oil would continue to ow 0 Tehran and Tripoli agreements in Feb March 1971 led to 1520 cent increase of price over 4 years 0 1015 billion dollars more for the countries this eviscerated the small Independent producers The US had to authorize collusive practice US law prohibits collusive practice 0 The US said to the oil companies that they should cooperate This was to ensure the Independent companies can t undercut the 7 sisters O dell The control of Oil good book 0 O dell worked in the treasury department F o Nixon is trying to increase the price gradually If you do anything gradually the opposite side has time to compensate and adapt Limiting the impact on the balance 0 The price of rapidly increased in the Yom Kippur War The price also increased from 7173 0 Nixon would have taken off the market a million and a half barrels a day by squeezing the independent companies and putting them with the 7 sisters 0 As O dell says the price increases after the Yom Kippur war would have been impossible to maintain if there were those million and a half barrels on the market 0 The problem is not raising the price but keeping it raised Promoting the system of cartels OPEC keeps the price up Oil price rising meant pro ts would rise So the oil companies begin to shift their pro t centers from production to distribution re nement ancillary products By the time the Yom Kippur war Nixon s out Kissinger is in power By the spring of 1971 Nixon has put in place a gradually increasing energy cost for the allies not going to affect the US as the US is a domestic producer By the late 60 s most countries have made the transition from coal to oil so more countries are reliant on oil The Bretton woods system was rigid and Nixon needed a exible system to incorporate the vast increase of money being put into banks in the middle east Nixon breaks the connection between the dollar and gold The new liquidity tripled prices He even put a 10 surcharge on imports angering the allies Smithsonian agreement of December 1971 begin to revalue their currencies to remove the 10 surcharge 27012015 Authors Nixon Kissinger Freedman Garthoff Nolan Palmer Turley Sadat Whetton Rubinstein o Blechman Anderson Snepp Nguyen Tien Hung Yao Ming lee The Soviets became relatively passive after the Cuban Missile crisis 0 In the meantime they were building up their weapons arsenal numerical increase in land missiles and stronger conventional forces 0 Could they get the US to limit their offensive capability and to not defend themselves Kissinger offered the Russians a deal with SALT and ABM treaty Russians managed to enforce a inde nite ban on defensive missiles but faced a 5 year ban on offensive build up Russians needed to open sianoukville to turn the tide or they had to change strategy 0 There was a two arms storage in Khe Sanh operation Lam Son 719 to destroy these arms caches The US could ve invaded Laos but that would be like Macarthur invading north korea invoking China s intervention 0 No combat forces entered laos because laos bordered china same reason combat troops didn t invade north Vietnam 0 Nixon had no intention of putting troops into laos Operation LAMSON depended on how well the South Vietnamese army had been vietnamised The US lost close to a 1000 helicopters in this operation 0 South Vietnamese pulled back after 3000 casualties Nixon called it a victory but a psychological defeat as they only dealt with 1 arms cache 0 For the Soviets this meant that sianoukville would remain closed and their strategy was failing 0 Within 9 years the Soviets had a rst strike capability against the US in the land based missile category 0 US still had advantage in sea and air bombing capability There were close to 2000 warheads a sea the risk was in accuracy The ICBM by 1971 is a very precise weapon in terms of guidance capability o The real end of the cold war comes with the deployment of the trident 2D5 o Missiles when they came out were city busters they weren t very accurate This was counter value 0 Counter force was that this could target a building in a city hence ability to target missile silos Because Russians had more land based missiles they had a growing advantage in counter force missiles The US will transfer trade and technology to the Russians The limited Success of LAMSON told the Russians that their strategy couldn t work forcing them to the negotiating table to discuss the arms treaty The rst geopolitical problem the Russians dealt with was Egypt 0 The Russian position is very iffy in the Middle east the center piece was what was happening in Egypt Russians opening the canal failed with the death of Nasser There was a power struggle between Anwar Sadat and Sabri Sadat wanted to move Egypt to the west This depended on the fact if he could reach a deal with Israel 0 He had to be careful on how he dealt with the Russians He struck a balance between the two contradictory positions 0 His idea is to reach an agreement with Israel but at the same time he wanted to reopen the canal Israelpro US canal pro Soviet He wanted to build a middle east federation of states Libya Egypt Sudan Syria and Iraq Russians ask Ali Sabri to oppose him In the Arab political battle Sabri has the advantage Egypt has a politburo with 8 men Sabri has 5 on his side Sadat takes the issue to the central committee where he has overwhelming majority and issues an arrest for Sabri Russia sends their no 3 to Egypt to make sadat sign a friendship treaty This limits the damage done to the Soviets as he gets Sadat to sign a promise that they won t adopt an anti soviet policy Sudan didn t sign the arab league due to a similar political con ict in Sudan between Numayri and Mahgoob The Russians have a bright side between 1971 and 1973 West Germany reconcillates with eastern Europe West Germany wanted to become the dominant power in Europe Establishing relationships with Warsaw pact states gave them access to trade and technology The soviets are happy to help West Germany as they need European countries to sell oil to West Germany was degrading the containment structure Greater opportunity for soviets in South Asia Relationship between EastBangladesh and West Pakistan became increasingly tense Russians began to manipulate the balance of power between India and Pakistan By 1970 India has established a superior military force China began to develop a relationship with Pakistan Militarily China couldn t help Pakistan build up it s forces Americans wanted Yahya khan to dissolve east Pakistan He called for elections to resolve this but that only reinforces the separatist feeling Rahman decided to take Pakistan on a separatist course leading to the creation of Bangladesh From March 1971 was in Open revolt Yahya Khan sent his army to put down the revolt Indira Gandhi saw this as an opportunity to dismember Pakistan and become the dominant power in the subcontinent Through the summer of 1971 Indians say they don t want an alliance with the Soviets lndia begins to support guerilla warfare Chinese tell the Indians to not attack Bangladesh so they wait until it snows so china can t attack June 15 Henry Kissinger leaves Beijing and the US and China are going to have a summit meeting Now Indira Gandhi has to reckon with the prospect that both US and China are going to help Pakistan lndira decides to form a treaty with Soviets Theoretically what the Russians are trying to do is what the US did when they had military superiority They want to hold the ring and deter foreign involvement and allow India to win 0 Despite the fact that India would invade East Pakistan on Nov 21 there would be voices in the US in the state dept that deny any invasion took place 0 These voices instead said that Pakistan invaded India on Dec 3 o The US had a public agreement with Pakistan that the US would support Pakistan if they were attacked by a communist power 0 A secret agreement made by JFK with Pakistan that we would come to assist Pakistan if India attacked o The con ict in the state department was created to extricate the US from intervening Gartho talks about it o Nixon instead wanted to honor the strategic agreement 0 That is why Yahya khan activated the agreement and moved towards attacking on DEC 3 Nixon said he could end this by putting pressure on the Russians o Nixon sends message to Brezhnev that task force 74 is going to go into bay of Bengal and that chinese troops are going in to Sikkim He also says if India invades west Pakistan the arms summit will be called off 0 So Russians send message to Gandhi asking her to stop 29012015 Authors 0 Nixon o Kissinger o Ehrlichman Haldeman Oglesby Hougan Colodny amp Getlin o Liddy o Hersh 1 KAR 1031 1978 0 Dean 0 Boettcher McCord Nixon was about to win across the board 0 Vietnam 0 Oil 0 Against allies Middle east Nixon was one of the most liberal presidents according to domestic policy Joan Hoff writes book on his liberalism Nixon s internal opponents didn t want him to win reelection as they d be locked out of the government Nixon s rapprochement with China meant that he could extricate the troops from Vietnam Since the Soviets were failing they needed a change in strategy They realized that they needed to facilitate the American Withdrawal from South Vietnam Then they needed to secure a treaty ensuring that the US don t come back in Then they funded North Vietnam to take over the south Nixon s visit to Beijing in February and then his visit to Moscow in May Russians wanted North Vietnamese presence in South Vietnam to control the negotiations The invasion was designed to engage south Vietnamese armed forces and open the door for north Vietnamese political cadre to control the villages The main issue that USChina are communicating about are Taiwan At the end of march the invasion begins On may 8 Nixon orders the mining of the harbors he also ordered airstrikes against ships in the harbor The Russians ignored this and went ahead with the summit cause they knew it was important The Russians were running out of ways to supply the Vietnamese Nixon and Kissinger got into a ght over the end game Just after being reelected after winning one of the largest majority he loses the battle to Kissinger This happened due to the clash between the Rockefeller republicans and Nixon s republicans OglesbyYankee and cowboy war Most wars don t talk about Watergate in an international affairs perspective As part of the withdrawal from south Vietnam there was going to be a much smaller presence of troops in Asia NSDM48 was the order where one division out of the two in south korea was removed The Korean president lobbied congress against the president to keep more troops in SK Talked about in Boettcher s book 0 Korean American relations KAR 1031 1978 While removing the division the US promised a 5 year military modernization plan for SK However this was not enough for ParkJung yi the president Korean lobbyists were trying to get senators on their side with money Nixon decided to increase surveillance on this foreign threat Hoover ironically disapproves nixon s govt surveillance Nixon drops the idea cause he thought Hoover would sabotage it John Dean and John Mitchell came up with a different scheme that would target only certain people Park chung hee had a brothel at the Columbian plaza There was a dedicated phoneline from here to the democratic national congress Nixon wanted to bug the activities of the brothel To nd out which congressmen are involved Nixon uses two cia men Jim mccord and Hunt to control the surveillance They 39retire to set up a private org with john Mitchell as it s only client When Nixon rst came into power he was concerned about Kissinger He authorizes the tapping of 17 people in the administration to prevent leaks 7 of them in the National security council Kissinger included He shuts it down in 1971 cause he learned nothing In a week or two he sets up a different kind of system he activates a voice activated taping system in the white house and the Camp david He does this through Secret Service Robert tayor head of the secret service led the surveillance He will be the guy who takes these tapes and gives them to Rockefeller and he uses the tapes against him Haldeman talks about Nixon s reasoning for surveillance As long as Nixon can hold onto power he can do this Nixon s politican opponents are looking for an opportunity to overthrow him The Rockefeller republicans Their plan is to blackmail the president They try to get him involved in a campaign mistake prod him to cover it up and then threaten to expose him So they could gain leverage over him But Nixon gives them an opportunity to gain leverage and seize presidency This is the story of the battle between 02032015 Authors McCord o Barker Sturgis o Martinez Gonzales 0 Hunt o Liddy Baldwin Edgar allan poe take a loot at his essay on how he wrote the raven He wrote it very purposefully It will teach you how to write Woodward and Bernstein s book look it up they did what poe did Their story was completely false Hougan s book takes it apart There were 4 times all to do with President deaths and scandalsin recent history that fundamentally changed American history Two chronologies to be looked at Watergate chronology 0 Vietnam negotiation chronology Those two timelines meet on December 12th There are 2 chronologies but 3 developments 0 Endgame negotiations Nixon surveillance of Koreans o Nixon s political opponents try to entrap him to gain leverage on policy Those three are all connected Nixon authorized Jim McCord to begin surveillance in August 1971 Decision was made to give legal cover to the operation They put McCord s role in the Committee to reelect the president he authorizes the establishment of campaign intelligence operation inside the committee to reelect the president This campaign is a legal cover forJim McCord is doing Mitchell hires Gordon Liddy to run the CREP He was a loose cannon he fancied himself as james bond Liddy was supposed to be the fall guy for Watergate He did not know that McCord and Howard Hunt worked for him they were doing something else Nobody knew what those two were doing least of all Liddy their boss Mitchell tells liddy to set up a campaign intelligence plan In late January 1972 Liddy comes up with the plan Gem somethin The plan was to rough up protestors and entangle democratic leaders Also wire tapping was part of the plan This plan cost a million dollars when he told Mitchell in the office John dean was present and he said this shouldn t be talked about in the attorney general s office Mitchell cuts out everything else and focuses on wiretapping He authorizes 250000 dollars for wiretapping End of march early april McCord has set up his operation McCord was looking at line of sight to the brothel from the howard room Was the bugging of the democrats an opportunity to turn it against Nixon On the 6th of April J Edgar Hoover raids the office of Phil Bailey and he has all the names of all the girls in the brothel They put Phil Bailey in a mental hospital this was illegal Nixon is worried about the possibility of his implication so he leaves the operation and asks the CIA to take over After the raid occurs McCord puts in an order for new equipment The equipment was designed to connect to the satellites Hoover wanted FBI to incharge of surveillance Nixon disagreed this was source of hostility The Rockefeller republicans saw Nixon moving away from the operation as an opportunity to use the existing committee CREEP against Nixon On the 13 of may the people who did the Watergate break into the Chilean embassy to make this issue seem international The move was to go into the DNC to plant bugs but this is a false narrative McCord had already done that in the fall of 71 to the brothel Nixon wanted to make sure that this should all go according to plan he asked Mitchell to resign and become the head of CREEP When Mitchell resigns he no longer has secret service protection so he brings on McCord as his security guy That meant that McCord is going to see Mitchell everyday and Mitchell lives in Watergate After the raid Mitchell wanted to give better cover to McCord so he made him drive his daughter to school everyday This means he had perfect access to the Watergate building McCord never implanted 2 bugs in the DNC office Not even in 1971 In late 1972 the head of the secret service that ran the taping system began taking the tapes from the Whitehouse to the Rockefeller republicans this knowledge was distilled and given to woorward and Bernstein Felt wasn t deepthroat at most he was a messenger Woodward says he was the maestro lrony is that Nixon was deepthroat in the tapes The entrapment is a two step process rst they have to go in and put the bugs in the DNC may 2628 operation After they plant the bugs McCord says that they had to go back in due to technological difficulties This was the entrapment part The decision to go back in came due to the Phil bailey verdict was announced On june 9 The call girl ring was connected to the white house This is what made Nixon agree to send them back in they had to retrieve a book with the pictures of the girls They had to break the connection between the DNC and the call girls because they wanted the surveillance to continue For Nixon going back in was a chance to get the book For the Rockefellers this was a chance to entrap him The rationale for going in was to repair a bug but there was no bug Hougan says McCord s role in going back in was to lead them in to a trap and escape Once they went in to the DNC and tried to open the door they couldn t open the door their only option was to knock off the hinges this required McCord s help he couldn t escape Meanwhile undercover cops are waiting outside to go in McCord wasn t supposed to get caught but he got caught Martinez who had the key to the lock to the desk drawer that had the book tried to swallow the key neither the key or the book are ever discovered The police claim that they were alerted by the guard at the Watergate building Frank Wills They said that he saw that Frank Wills saw that the doors were taped to prevent locking This turns out to be a false story once the story broke out Frank wills disappeared The doors were taped all the time and the guard knew that The June 17 breakin and arrests immediately went to grand jury The question arises who supported the breakin people Nixon says that he wasn t responsible Through the summer of 1972 Nixon is careful that he is not entangled in the issue His private lawyer provided money for the legal needs of the Watergate seven On September 15 the grand jury says that this doesn39t extend to the white house Nixon had red Mitchell and Mitchell is a private individual Mitchell is assigned to pay the needs of the Watergate 7 He assigns it to Larue but this money doesn t get to them So there is pressure on the Watergate 7 to talk Mitchell comes back to Nixon and says that something needs to be done for these guys Bob haldeman nixon s top aide authorizes on mitchell s suggestion 350000 of white house slush money to the Watergate 7 This was a mistake and an obstruction ofjustice Now the Rockefeller people have leverage A week after the election Howard hunt demands millions of dollars as blackmail December 8 Howard Hunt and his Wife darthy bought tickets to Chicago He doesn t go cause he s on parole she goes though This ight crashed and she died Inside the luggage was 2 million dollars With these two the Rockefeller people have leverage December 8 Vietnam endgame negotiations Nixon wants the invasion to end negotiations for the end game are underway Nixon wants the same resolution as the Korean war and the Geneva convention of 1954 Henry wants a united Vietnam that includes Cambodia and Laos He wants a different global strategy He wants d tente with the Soviet Union which meant dismantling containment From Europe to Japan As a way of showing Bona de Kissinger s global strategy is tri lateral and tri polar Tri lateralUS West Europe and Japan Tri polar US USSR China Nixon thinks he s directing the negotiating Nixon does wants a settlement after the election Kissinger prods him the other way After the October round of negotiations Kissinger springs it on Nixon that there s peace at hand Nixon disagrees and now this becomes a public battle Open war between president and N security advisor After election Nixon wants to reach a settlement fast now Kissinger reverses his position and now he doesn t want a settlement Kissinger doesn t want to settle because if it drags out it will become clear that North Vietnam want to conquer south vietname and then Nixon s hand will become stronger in attaining a stronger South Vietnam Kissinger says he wants to bomb the North Vietnamese that would compel them to sign an immediate settlement Nixon doesn t want that There s a November round and an early December round Throughout this negotiation with the twist and turns what it shows is that Nixon is in control of the negotiations Until December 11 On the 12 of December cabe comes to Kissinger from Nixon that he has reversed his position He accepts Kissinger s recommendation They decide to bomb NV into submission but the idea is to get out and not come back in Read Oglesby Yankee and cowboy war Nixon tried to ght the establishment instead of sticking to the Rockefeller imposition The scandal erupts from McCords letter from jail to the judge This leads to hearings which leads to scandal which leads to Nixon 05022015 Authors Rojas Sandford Harmer Davis Church committee Haslam Gustafson Hersh Hahnimaki Kissinger Hitchens Johnson Divine FA 78 2014 Kissinger was in power by December 1972 January 1973 Kissinger began to effect the new world strategy d tente Set up tri polar and tri lateral structures Kissinger failed to stop the invasion of South Vietnam and the Yom Kippur war In march 1973 in a titanic nancial struggle with their allies shifted the currency to a universal oating exchange rate The restriction of imports on oil were lifted by the US The US was importing more oil in 1973 they were taking oil off the market to make the price rise Kissinger wanted to preemptively change the relations with other countries instead of gradually how Nixon did it Nixon had encouraged Sadat and Golda meir to draw up a peace treaty this was gradual Kissinger s approach was different Nixon was putting pressure on the Israelis whereas Kissinger wanted to encourage war as then the US and USSR would be able to negotiate a peace Egypt sends their NSA to restart the diplomatic talks between Egypt and Israel Kissinger doesn t want to do that Sadat s conclusion is that he needs to go to war Mao is assuming that the US and USSR are still adversaries Mao wants out of USSR and into US In april 1973 during a state dinner for sianouk Deng Xiaoping is there Deng is back in power There is a power struggle in China again Even though Kissinger is trying to put in place a new strategy it is failing USChina relations faces a deep freeze for 5 years Containment is being dismantled and the rst step is Vietnam Kissinger commits to this thinking that the Russians will be friends and that they will cooperate due to his dismantling containment They don t see it like that they see his steps as a weakening of capitalism and they move against them In august of 1973 the Russians had began to modernize 4 new missile systems all of them would be mirvd system Russians begin rearmament approach that gives them rst strike capability by Carter s time Chile Long social democratic tradition for Chile From 5864 Alisandri a Christian democrat was president Salvador Allende ran against him Allende was an intellectual socialist In 196470 Frei won the elections Allende lost For the 1970 election the Christian democrat splits He was given the job with the requirement that he keep the government democratic and not socialist He wanted to transform the system so chose Lenin strategy Chile had close to half a billion dollars in reserves Allende was to take control of the industrial plants and conduct agricultural research The rst year of Allende s rule saw great economic results The tide began to turn and people started going out of business due to lack of pro ts He began to print more money to x problem Minute you get into in ation black markets start At that point castro comes in and he says you can t win by playing capitalist rules He says you should launch a revolution 0 Nate Davis got a good book The last two years of allende 0 Terry Harmer has a recent report Castro says you need a revolution to x the problem Allende refuses But he does accept arms and ammunition Cuba starts supporting an extreme left organization MIR By the spring of 1971 Allende is having electoral dif culties A lot of chile works is by a trucking system The trucking system is crucial to the economy and they go on strike he faces his rst coup attempt by small businessman and low level soldiers He brings the military into the govt so he brings in the Chilean general Prats to keep the relationship with the military alive He passed a law to search for weapons to combat the leftist movement set up in the cities Foco The society is becoming polarized towards the military and the left Since this is spreading to the cities the civilians organize themselves to protect themselves SACO Colonel media of Brazil is sponsoring opposition against Chile The Brazilians from 1964 are heavily involved in the matter with the Chileans If there is anybody who is instrumental in allende s demise it is Brazil In September of 1973 the Chilean military takes over They go after all the Foco and compartamentes Jack divine CIA station chief look at what he says 0 Compare divine and Davis Pinochet came in at the last minute he was not part of it If the US did have a role it was Kissinger and not Nixon 0 Take a look at Christopher Hitchens book 10022015 3 weeks after the Chilean coup the Yom Kippur war starts You can t have d tente and containment simultaneously Containment required a whole series of relationships with countries along the sino soviet bloc D tente required the dismantling of containment Germans were already moving towards some warsaw pact countnes Kissinger thought withdrawal from Vietnam would leave China surrounded by USSR and pro soviet Vietnam so they d have to support USA In South asia and in Iran US had a similar problem In late 1972 after Watergate scandal began to heat up the US sent the head of the CIA Richard helms to be the ambassador to Iran It wasn t a move to prevent him from testifying as he spent more time in Washington anyway His job was to dismantle American intelligence system in Iran In early 1973 the Shah began to talk to the US and wondered what D tente meant to him The Shah tries to turn Iran into the 4th largest power on the planet The Shah bought 19 billion worth of weapons from the US Western Europe was on the path to unity by 1980 but it wouldn t come for 15 years because of the Yom Kippur war Minimum outcome for Soviet union in the middle east is Suez canaL Kissinger wants to ease Egypt into the American sphere alleviating the situation for Israel where they only face a threat from the north He wanted to restructure the middle east to avoid Israel ghting a two front war Ha z Ismael goes to US US says no diplomatic support so Sadat sends him to Moscow where the USSR negotiates the largest arms deal in soviet history On the 26th of April he tells his parliament that there s not going to be a diplomatic solution so he says they re going to have to ght Israel Syria wants the return of Golan heights minimum outcome the Russians provide them with tanks All this is happening in the spring of 73 Saudis nance the arms package provided by Russians for the Egyp ans They also say they re going to use the oil weapon in the war Kissinger said that that s the weapon they re going to use against the West Europeans Israel and the US knew the attack was coming but the US asked Israel to not preempt Cause if they preempted the US couldn t support them The Russians are willing to support Sadat in this endeavor The outcome is most likely going to be a restructuring of the region The Russians begin to strengthen the northern tier They take a stronger position in Afghanistan US policy towards Afghanistan has a long history After WWII the US promoted the Shah to power the Russians immediately went to Afghanistan their man was prince Daoud From 1953 to 1963 Daoud was head of Afghanistan and was prosoviet After that the US backed the return of King Zahir In July 1973 there is a silent coup where Daoud came back with support of Russians He reaches agreement with Afghan communist party and allows them to run the government Everybody is trying to get more than their minimum outcomes Sadat doesn t tell Russians when the war is going to start Sadat s plan was high minarets the plan was to cross the canal and use the air defense bubble and stop there Israel uses the Schleiffen plan use majority of force and destroy Syria They neeed Egypt to move out of air defense bubble into the sinal peninsula Pressure is building on Sadat as the Syrians and Russia are asking for his help He takes 250 tanks from the reserve and moves them across the canal On the 13th the US begins to resupply Israel Israel moves across canal and destroys the SAM sites taking their bubble of ine and making the army vulnerable There is a major crisis between the US and Israel because Israel is continuing on defeating the last divisions of the Egyptian army despite them signing a UN treaty and cease re Egyptians start ring SCUDS against the Israelis The Russians have sent nuclear weapons to Egypt through the Bosporus straights Kissinger super imposes a superpower pressure to prevent the war from escalating Over the next couple of months Egypt and Israel agree to a cease re agreement same for Syria and Israel As ofJune 1975 the canal is opened but by that time it didn t matter as south Vietnam already fell As the war wound down the Saudis said we oppose the americans we re going to jack up the price They doubled the price They doubled it again as the negotiations took place Started at 3 a barrel but shot up to 40 a barrel This caused worldwide recession
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