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Bio 108 Chapters 14 and 18

by: Taylor Notetaker

Bio 108 Chapters 14 and 18 BSC 108

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Biology > BSC 108 > Bio 108 Chapters 14 and 18
Taylor Notetaker
Troy University
GPA 3.8

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How Biological Diversity Evolves- 14 Intro to Ecology and Biospheres- 18
Introductory Biology for Non Majors
christine yates
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This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by Taylor Notetaker on Monday April 11, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BSC 108 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by christine yates in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology for Non Majors in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 04/11/16
Chapter 14 How Biological Diversity Evolves  Microevolution­ Changes in allele frequencies within populations  ● Can be measured from one generation to the next  ● Associated with adaptation  Macroevolution­ Major changes in history of life  ● Origin of new species  ● Generates biodiversity  Biological Species Concept  Species­ A population or group of populations who have the potential to interbreed with one  another in nature to produce fertile offspring and reproductively isolated from other such groups  How Do New Species Form? 1. Allopatric Speciation­ Evolve in geographic isolation, usually associated with  geographic barriers, keep species from reproducing together, involved independent  evolution of the species after barrier arises  2. Sympatric Speciation­ Evolue without isolation, species remain together,  associated with mutation. Pace of Speciation ● Gradualism­ Slow and steady accumulation of small changes over vast periods  of time,fossil records show numerous forms in a series of changes from ancestral  records.  Fossil Records  ● New species appear suddenly, and old species disappear suddenly  Punctuated Equilibrium ● By Eldredge and Gould  ● Species diverge in spurts in rapid change, followed by long periods of stasis Evolutionary Change  ● Includes both gradualism and punctuated equilibrium  Prezygotic Barriers­ prevent mating or fertilization between species (no zygote is ever formed)  is a result from natural selection.  1. Temporal Isolation­ ex) western and eastern spotted skunk 2. Habitat Isolation­ ex) garter snakes (one’s water, and one's land)  3. Behavioral Isolation­ ex) blue footed boobie bird display selective mating  habits, and because others can’t mimic those habits they can’t mate.  4. Mechanical Isolation­  ex) certain snails can't mate because of the shapes of  their shells  5. Gametic Isolation­ ex) urchin species sperm and eggs cannot bind to one  another because of the proteins on the surfaces  Postzygotic Barriers­ prevent survival or reproduction of hybrid offspring (can form a zygote) is not a result from natural selection  1. Hybrid Inviability­ offspring fail to completely develop keeping the gene pool of  the two species isolated from one another  2. Hybrid Sterility­ Different species may mate and produce viable offspring that  are sterile preventing further mixing of the gene pools  3. Hybrid breakdown­ F1 generation may be viable and fertile but due to genetic  factors the offspring of these hybrids are weak and sterile  Evolutionary Development ● Scientific interface between evolutionary biology and embryonic development  ● Plate Tectonics­ continents are constantly moving,the arrangements affect  species distribution, and affect climate  ● Fungi (heterotrophs)  ○ Decomposers ­ recycle nutrients from dead organic materials  such as fallen leaves, feces, and other organisms.  ○ Plant Symbiosis­ help roots absorb water and nutrients from  trees and other plants  ○ Medicine­ fungi are cultured to produce drugs and antibiotics  ○ Food­ mushrooms, added to dough to make bread, fermented to  make beer and wine  Domain­Kingdom­Phylum­Class­Order­Family­Genus­ Species  Chapter 18 Intro to Ecology and Biospheres  Ecology­ the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and their  environments  Abiotic­ non living chemical and physical factors in the environment  Biotic­ living factors in the environment Ecology Hierarchy (highest to lowest) 1. Ecosystem­ include all abiotic factors in addition to the  community of species in certain areas. Focuses on energy flow and cycling of  chemicals among abiotic and biotic factors  2. Community­ assemblages of populations of different species.  Focuses on interactions between species effects on communities structure and  organization  3. Population ­ groups of individuals of the same species living in  the same area. Concentrates on factors that affect population density and growth ex) the population of UA students  4. Organismal­ concerned with evolutionary adaptations that enable individual organisms to meet the challenges posed by their abiotic environments  Habitats­ specific environments in which organisms live  Abiotic Factors of the Biosphere  1. Energy Source­ solar energy powers almost all ecosystems, the availability of  sunlight can affect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. However sea animals that live  deep in the ocean get energy from inorganic materials because they don’t need the  sunlight to survive.  2. Temperature­ is important for its effect on metabolism  3. Water­ aquatic organisms can face problems with water balance and terrestrial  animals main problem is with water drying out  4. Wind­ can affect plant growth, some organisms depend on their nutrients being  blown to them by the wind, and other organisms like plants depend on the wind to  disperse their pollen and seeds 5. Rocks and Soil­  Soil variation contributes to the patchiness in terrestrial  landscapes and in streams/ rivers the composition of soil can affect water chemistry  Biomes Aquatic Biomes­ 75% of the Earth’s surface, determined by their salinity and other physical  factors  1. Freshwater Biomes­ lakes, streams, rivers, and wetland. Usually a salt  concentration of 1%. About 6% of all species live in freshwater, used for drinking, crop  irrigation, sanitation, and industry.  2. Marine Biomes­ Oceans, intertidal zones, coral reefs, and estuaries. Have about 3% salt concentration  Two Types of Freshwater Biomes 1. Standing water­include lakes and ponds  2. Flowing Water­include rivers and streams  Lakes and Ponds  ● Communities of plants, animals, and algae are distributed according to depth of  water and its distance to shore(Benthic realm) Rivers and Streams  ● Body of water flowing in one direction ● Human activities have affect many streams and rivers such as pollution, dams  (hoover dam), invasive species, and recreation(fishing, boating) Wetlands  ● Transitional biome between aquatic ecosystem and a terrestrial one. It’s rich in  species diversity.  Marine Biomes  ● Estuaries­ areas where freshwater streams/rivers merge with the ocean ● They are one of the most biologically productive environments on Earth  Terrestrial Biomes ● Determined by climate (temperature, and rainfall) based on latitude on Earth ● Altitude affects vegetation and animals distribution  ● Tree line­ is at about 12,000 feet elevation, and its when trees stop growing,  normally animals also don’t live up there because of the lack of food from the lack of  trees  ● Proximity to large bodies of water and presence of landforms (mountains) affect  climate Terrestrial Biomes 1. Tropical Forest  2. Savanna 3. Desert 4. Chaparral 5. Temperate Grassland  6. Temperate Broadleaf Forest 7. Coniferous Forest  8. Arctic Tundra  9. Mediterranean  Water Cycle ● All parts of the biosphere are linked by the global water cycle and by all nutrient  cycles  Human Impact of Biomes ● Humans use more and more resources from the environment  ● Freshwater source have been overused 


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