chapters 7, 8, 9 study guides
chapters 7, 8, 9 study guides Kin 290
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This 13 page Bundle was uploaded by Leonard Carey on Monday April 11, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Kin 290 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Dr. Satern in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Anatomy & Physiology in Kinesiology at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 04/11/16
1 Chapter 7 – The Skeleton In this chapter, you will learn that: The axial skeleton supports and protects, while the appendicular skeleton allows mobility by comparing: PART 1: THE AXIAL SKELETON supports PART 2: THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON PART 1: THE AXIAL SKELETON, and exploring 7.1 The skull 7.2 The vertebral column 7.3 The thoracic cage PART 2: THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON, and exploring 7.4 The pectoral girdle, and 7.5 The upper limb 7.6 The pelvic girdle, and 7.7 The lower limb PART 1:THE AXIAL SKELETON 7.1 The skull consists of 8 cranial bones and 14 facial bones Learning Objectives Name, describe, and identify the skull bones. Compare and contrast the major functions of the cranium and the facial skeleton. Check your Understanding 1. Johnny was vigorously exercising the only joints in the skull that are freely movable. What would you guess he was doing? 2. What bones are keystone bones of the facial skeleton? 7.2 The vertebral column is a flexible, curved support structure Learning Objectives Describe the structure of the vertebral column, list its components, and describe its curvatures. Indicate a common function of the spinal curvatures and the intervertebral discs. Discuss the structure of a typical vertebra and describe regional features of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae. Check your Understanding 7. What are the five major regions of the vertebral column? 8. In which two of these regions is the vertebral column concave posteriorly? 9. Besides the spinal curvatures, which skeletal elements help to make the vertebral column flexible? 10. What is the normal number of cervical vertebrae? Of thoracic vertebrae? 2 7.3 The thoracic cage is the bony structure of the chest Learning Objectives Name and describe the bones of the thoracic cage (bony thorax). Differentiate true from false ribs. Check your Understanding 12.How does a true rib differ from a false rib? 14. Besides the ribs and sternum, there is a third group of bones making up the thoracic cage. What is it? PART 2: THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON 7.4 Each pectoral girdle consists of a clavicle and a scapula Learning Objectives Identify bones forming the pectoral girdle and relate their structure and arrangement to the function of this girdle. Identify important bone markings on the pectoral girdle. Check your Understanding 15. What two bones construct each pectoral girdle? 16. Where is the single point of attachment of the pectoral girdle to the axial skeleton? 17. What is the major shortcoming of the flexibility allowed by the shoulder joint? 7.5 The upper limb consists of the arm, forearm, and hand Learning Objectives Identify or name the bones of the upper limb and their important markings. Check your Understanding 19. Which bones play the major role in forming the elbow joint? 20. Which bones of the upper limb have a styloid process? 21.Where are carpals found and what type of bone (short, irregular, long, or flat) are they? 7.6 The hip bones attach to the sacrum, forming the pelvic girdle Learning Objectives Name the bones contributing to the os coxae, and relate the pelvis girdle’s strength to its function. Describe differences in the male and female pelves and relate these to functional differences. Check your Understanding 22. The ilium and pubis help to form the hip bone. What other bone is involved in forming the hip bone? 23. The pelvic bone girdle is a heavy, strong girdle. How does its structure reflect its function? 3 24. Which of the following terms or phrases refer to the female pelvis? Wider, shorter, sacrum; cavity narrow and deep; narrow heartshaped inlet; more movable coccyx; long ischial spines. 7.7 The lower limb consists of the thigh, leg, and foot Learning Objectives Identify the lower limb bones and their important markings. Check your Understanding 25. What lower limb bone is the second largest bone in the body? 27. Which of the following sites is not a site of muscle attachment? Greater trochanter, lesser trochanter, gluteal tuberosity, lateral condyle 28.Besides supporting our weight, what is a major function of the arches of the foot? 29. What are the two largest tarsal bones in each foot, and which one forms the heel of the foot? NOTE: Check your answers with those provided in the Answers Appendix on p. A1 of the textbook. 1 Chapter 8 – Joints In this chapter, you will learn that: Joints determine how bones move relative to each other by first asking: 8.1 How are joints classified? then exploring 8.2 Fibrous joints 8.3 Cartilaginous joints 8.4 Synovial joints and looking closer at Movement of synovial joints 8.1 Joints are classified into three structural and three functional categories Learning Objectives Define joint or articulation. o Joints, also called articulation: sites where two or more bones meet. o Give skeleton mobility and hold skeleton together. Classify joints by structure and by function. o Structural: Fibrous Cartilaginous Synovial o Function Synarthroses: Immovable joints (bones fused together) Amphiarthroses: Slightly moveable joints Diarthroses: free movable joints. (space between the bones) 8.2 In fibrous joints, the bones are connected by fibrous tissue Learning Objectives Describe the general structure of fibrous joints. Name and give an example of each of the three common types of fibrous joints. o Sutures: Rigid interlocking joints of skull Allow for growth during youth In middle age sutures ossify and fuse o Syndesmoses: Bones connected by ligaments, bands of fibrous tissue Fiber length varies, so movement varies Short fibers offer little to no movement (inferior tibiofibular joint) Longer fibers offer a large amount of movement (Ex. Interosseous membrane connecting radius and ulna) o Gomphoses: teeth 8.3 In cartilaginous joints, the bones are connected by cartilage Learning Objectives 2 Describe the general structure of cartilaginous joints. Name and give an example of each of the two common types of cartilaginous joints. o Bones united by cartilage, like fibrous joints, have no joint cavity, not highly movable. Synchondroses: bar or plate of hyaline cartilage unites bones, almost all are synarthrotic (immovable) Symphyses: Fibrocartilage unites bone in symphysis join, symphyses are strong, amphiarthrotic (slightly movable) joints 8.4 Synovial joints have a fluidfilled joint cavity Learning Objectives Describe the structural characteristics of synovial joints. o Have six general features (also look at highlighted area) o Have bursae and tendon sheaths associated with them o Stability is influenced by three factors o Allow several types of movements o Classified into six different types Compare the structures and functions of bursae and tendon sheaths. o Bags of synovial fluid that act as lubricating “ball bearing” o Bursae: reduce friction where ligaments, muscles, skin, tendons, or bones rub together o Tendon sheaths: elongated bursae wrapped completely around tendons subjected to friction. List three natural factors that stabilize synovial joints. o Shape of articular surface (minor role) o Ligament number and location (limited role) o Muscle tone keeps tendons taut as they cross joints (most important) Name and describe (or perform) the common body movements. o All muscles attach to bone or connective tissue at no fewer than two points Origin: attachment to immovable bone Insertion: Attachment to movable bone o Muscle contraction cases insertion to move toward origin o Movements occur along transvers, frontal, or sagittal plans. Name and provide examples of the six types of synovial joints based on the movement(s) allowed. o Origin: attachment to immovable bone o Insertion: attachment to movable bone o Nonaxial: slipping movements only o Uniaxial: movement in one plane o Biaxial: movement in two planes o Multiaxial: movement in or around all three planes 3 o Gliding: one flat bone surface glides or slips over another similar surface o Angular: Increase or decrease angle between two bones, along sagittal plane (flexion and extension) Abduction: movement along frontal plane, away from the midline Adduction: movement along frontal plane, toward midline Circumduction: Involves flexion, abduction, extension, and adduction of limb. o Rotation: turning of bone around its own long axis, toward midline or away from it. Medial: rotation toward midline Lateral: rotation away from midline o Special Movements: Highlighted in notes Six types of synovial joints o Plane: gliding Nonaxial o Hinge: uniaxial o Pivot: uniaxial o Condylar: biaxial o Saddle: biaxial 1 Chapter 9 – Muscles and Muscle Tissue In this chapter, you will learn that: Muscles use actin and myosin molecules to convert the energy of ATP into force beginning with: 9.1 Overview of muscle types, special characteristics, and functions, next exploring SKELETAL MUSCLE and investigating 9.2 Gross and microscopic anatomy 9.3 Intracellular structures and sliding filament model, then asking 9.4 How does a nerve impulse cause a muscle fiber to contract? and 9.5 What are the properties of whole muscle contraction? and 9.6 How do muscles generate ATP? and 9.7 What determines the force, velocity, and duration of contraction? and 9.8 How does skeletal muscle respond to exercise? then exploring SMOOTH MUSCLE and asking 9.9 How does smooth muscle differ from skeletal muscle? 9.1 There are three types of muscle tissue Learning Objectives Compare and contrast the three basic types of muscle tissue. o Skeletal Muscle: attached to bones and skin Fibers longest of all muscle and have striations (strips) Also called voluntary muscle: can be consciously controlled Contract rapidly; tire easily; powerful o Cardiac: Found only in heart, makes up hearts walls Striated Involuntary: cannot be controlled consciously o Smooth: Found in walls of hollow organs (stomach, bladder, airways) Not striated Involuntary: cannot be controlled consciously. List four important functions of muscle tissue. o Produce movement: responsible for all locomotion and manipulation o Maintain posture and body position o Stabilize joints o Generate heat as they contract 9.2 A skeletal muscle is made up of muscle fibers, nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissues 2 Learning Objectives Describe the gross structure of a skeletal muscle. o Skeletal Muscle is an organ made up of 3 different tissues with three features: Nerve and blood supply, connective tissue sheaths, and attachments. Nerve and Blood Supply Each muscle receives a nerve, artery, and veins Contracting muscle fibers require huge amounts of oxygen and nutrients Connective tissue sheaths Wrap around and protect the muscle Sheaths from external to internal: o Epimysium: outer surface of the entire muscle o Perimysium: wraps around a group of muscle fibers o Endomysium: wraps around individual muscle fiber Attachment Muscle attach to bone in at least two places o Insertion: Attachment to movable bone o Origin: attachment to immovable or less movable bone. Can be direct or indirect o Direct (fleshy): epimysium fused to periosteum of bone or perichondrium of cartilage o Indirect: connective tissue wrappings extend beyond muscle as ropelike tendon or sheetlike aponeurosis 9.3 Skeletal muscle fibers contain calciumregulated molecular motors Learning Objectives Describe the microscopic structure and functional roles of the myofibrils, sarcoplasmic reticulum, and T tubules of skeletal muscle fibers. o Myofibrils: densely packed, rodlike elements Single muscle fiber can contain 1000s Features: Striations Sarcomeres runs from z disk to z disk Myofilaments orderly arrangement of actin (thin filaments) and myosin (thick filaments) myofilaments within sarcomere Molecular composition of myofilaments o Thick filaments (A bands): Composed of protein myosin. Myosin are offset from each other, resulting in staggered array of heads at different points along thick filament. Attach to the actin to for a cross bridge. 3 o Thin filaments (I bands): composed of fibrous protein actin. Tropomyosin and troponin are regulatory proteins bound to actin. o Sarcoplasmic reticulum: Network of smooth endoplasmic reticulum tubules surrounding each myofibril Most run longitudinally Terminal cisterns from perpendicular cross channels at the AI band junction SR functions in regulation of intracellular Ca levels 2+ Stores and releases Ca o T tubules: Tube formed by protrusion of sarcolemma deep into cell interior. Calcium is stored Increase muscle fiber’s surface area greatly Lumen continuous with extracellular space Allow electrical nerve transmissions to reach deep into interior of each muscle fiber Tubules penetrate cell’s interior at each AI band junction between terminal cisters Triad: area formed from terminal cistern of one sarcomere, T tubule, and terminal cistern of neighboring sarcomere. Describe the sliding filament model of muscle contraction o Contraction: The activation of cross bridges to generate force o Shortening occurs when tension generated by cross bridges on thin filaments exceeds forces opposing shortening o Contraction ends when cross bridges become inactive Z discs are pulled toward M line I bands shorten Z discs become closer H zones disappear A bands move closer to each other 9.4 Motor neurons stimulate skeletal muscle fibers to contract Learning Objectives Explain how muscle fibers are stimulated to contract by describing events that occur at the neuromuscular junction. Describe how an action potential is generated. Follow the events of excitationcontraction coupling that lead to cross bridge activity. Check your Understanding 7. What are the three structural components of a neuromuscular junction? 8. What is the final trigger for contraction? What is the initial trigger? 4 9. What prevents the filaments from sliding back to their original position each time a myosin cross bridge detaches from actin? 10. What would happen if a muscle fiber suddenly ran out of ATP when sarcomeres had only partially contracted? 9.5 Wave summation and motor unit recruitment allow smooth, graded skeletal muscle contractions Learning Objectives Define motor unit and muscle twitch, and describe the events occurring during the three phases of a muscle twitch. Explain how smooth, graded contractions of a skeletal muscle are produced. Differentiate between isometric and isotonic contractions. o Isometric = Same length o Isotonic = Muscle shortens 9.6 ATP for muscle contraction is produced aerobically or anaerobically Learning Objectives Describe three ways in which ATP is regenerated during skeletal muscle contraction. o Direct phosphorylation of ADP by creatine phosphate (CP) Only in muscle cells o Anaerobic pathway: glycolysis and lactic acid formation o Aerobic respiration Define EPOC and muscle fatigue. List possible causes of muscle fatigue. o For a muscle to return to its preexercise state: Oxygen reserves are replenished Lactic acid is reconverted to pyruvic acid Glycogen stores are replaced ATP and creatine phosphate reserves are resynthesized o All replenishing steps require extra oxygen, so this is referred to as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (formally known as oxygen debt) o Muscle Fatigue: Physiological inability to contract despite continued stimulation Usually occurs when there are ionic imbalances + 2+ Levels of K , Ca , Pi can interfere with EC coupling Prolonged exercise may also damage SR and interferes with Ca2+ regulation release Lack of ATP is rarely a reason for fatigue, except in severely stressed muscles 9.7 The force, velocity, and duration of skeletal muscle contractions are determined by a variety of factors 5 Learning Objectives Describe factors that influence the force, velocity, and duration of skeletal muscle contraction. o Force: Number of muscle fibers stimulated (recruitment): the more motor units recruited, the greater the force Relative size of fibers: the bulkier the muscle, the more tension it can develop. Muscle cells increase in size (hypertrophy) with regular exercise Frequency of stimulation: the higher the frequency, the greater the force Stimuli are added together Degree of muscle stretch: muscle fibers with sarcomeres that are 80120% their normal resting length generate more force If sarcomere is less than 80% resting length, filaments overlap too much and force decreases If sarcomere is greater than 120% of resting length, filaments do not overlap enough so force decreases o Velocity: how fast a muscle contracts and how long it can stay contracted is influenced by: Load: muscles contract fastest when no load is added The greater the load, the shorter the duration of contraction The greater the load, the slower the contraction Recruitment: the more motor units contacting, the faster and more prolonged the contractionzAaaaaaaaa iykqh`n1bne#j@whnbn m#@w<@ Describe three types of skeletal types of skeletal muscle fibers and explain the relative value of each type. o Muscle fiber type: classified according to two characteristics Speed of contraction – slow or fast fibers according to: 6 Speed at which myosin ATPases split ATP Pattern of electrical activity of motor neurons Metabolic pathways used for ATP synthesis Oxidative fibers: use aerobic pathways Glycolytic fibers: use anaerobic glycolysis Most muscle contain mixture of fiber types, resulting in a range of contractile speed and fatigue resistance o Different muscle types are better suited for different jobs Slow oxidative fibers: lowintensity, endurance activities Fast oxidative fibers: medium intensity activities Fast glycolytic fibers: shortterm intense or powerful movements 9.8 How does skeletal muscle respond to exercise? Learning Objectives Compare and contrast the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise on skeletal muscles. o Aerobic (endurance) exercise, such as jogging, swimming, biking leads to increased: Muscle capillaries Number of mitochondria Myoglobin synthesis Results in greater endurance strength, and resistance to fatigue May convert fast glycolytic fibers into fast oxidative fibers o Resistance exercise (typically anaerobic), such as weight lifting or isometric exercises, leads to: Muscle hypertrophy Due primarily to increase in fiber size Increased mitochondria, myofilaments, glycogen stores, and connective tissue. Increased muscle strength and size 9.9 Smooth muscle is nonstriated involuntary muscle Learning Objectives Compare the gross and microscopic anatomy of smooth muscle cells to that of skeletal muscle cells. o Spindleshaped fibers: thin and short compared with skeletal muscle fibers Only one nucleus, no striations o Lacks connective tissue sheaths Contains endomysium only o All but smallest blood vessels contain smooth muscle organized into two layers of opposing sheets of fibers Longitudinal layer: fiber run parallel to long axis of organ 7 Contraction causes organ to shorten Circular layer: fibers run around circumference of organ Contraction causes lumen of organ constrict Compare and contrast the contractile mechanisms and the means of activation of skeletal and smooth muscle. o Mechanism of contraction (skeletal muscle): Slow, synchronized contractions Cells electrically coupled by gap junctions Some cells are selfexcitatory (depolarize without external stimuli) Contraction in smooth muscle is similar to skeletal muscle contraction in following ways: Actin and myosin interact by sliding filament mechanism + Final trigger is increased intracellular Ca2 level ATP energizes sliding process o Contraction in smooth muscle is different from skeletal muscle in following ways: + Some Ca2 still obtained from SR, but mostly comes from extracellular space. Ca2 binds to calmodulin, not troponin Activated calmodulin hen activates myosin kinase (myosin light chain kinase) Activated myosin kinase phosphorylates myosin head, activating it Leads to crossbridge formation with actin. NOTE: Check your answers with those provided in the Answers Appendix on p. A1 of the textbook.
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