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Geography Chapter 8 South Asia

by: Ryan Dodd

Geography Chapter 8 South Asia Geog 2013

Marketplace > Arkansas Tech University > Geography > Geog 2013 > Geography Chapter 8 South Asia
Ryan Dodd
Arkansas Tech University

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These notes cover the notes over chapter 8 South Asia.
Regional geography of the world
Dr. Patrick David hagge
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This 3 page Bundle was uploaded by Ryan Dodd on Wednesday April 13, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Geog 2013 at Arkansas Tech University taught by Dr. Patrick David hagge in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Regional geography of the world in Geography at Arkansas Tech University.


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Date Created: 04/13/16
Chapter 8: South Asia Physical Geography  South Asia  Bounded by high mountain walls and deserts  Vast areas of green habitable lowlands  Diverse cultures, but unified by colonial control of the British Empire (English)  Indian plate collides with Eurasia= Himalayan Mountains  Monsoon  Annual, torrential rains beginning in Summer   Warm, wet ocean air  60 days straight  Agriculture effects? Historical Geography  Indus Valley Civilization  Very ancient: 2500 BC  Technologically advanced (plumbing, etc.)   Major cities: Harappa and Mohenjo­Daro  Aryans  1500BC­ Invading Aryan peoples bring language, spiritual beliefs that become  HINDUISM (religion) and HINDI (language)  Caste system in Hinduism  Aryans brought with them idea of social stratification… CASTES  BRAHMIN ( most powerful; priests)  UNTOUCHABLES (least powerful)  Other religions  Hinduism most identified with INDIA, NEPAL  Buddhism starts in India, majority of BHUTAN, SRI LANKA  Islam spreads to Pakistan and Bangladesh  British influence in India  Colonialism of commerce  “Indirect rule”  Eventual political control  Develop   Cotton industry   Port cities  Railroads  Independence  Decolonialism spreads to S. Asia after WW2, 1940s  South Asia culturally split by RELIGION  (Hindu India, Muslim Pakistan/Bangladesh)  Britain grants independence in 1947, but PARTITIONS South Asia into 2 states…  millions of refugees  India vs. Pakistan today  Several small border wars  Both states have nuclear weapons  Islamist terror against India often by Pakistani­based groups Human Geography  Economic “Neoliberalism”  Old way: economic markets were tightly controlled by central governments  Now: free market “neoliberalism” of economic since 1980s  Privatization of state­run companies  Lowering of international trade tariffs  Reduction of government subsidies  Cutting of corporate taxes  Deregulation  Urban­Rural split  Growth of urban middle class from neoliberalism  Vast majority in S. Asia still poor farmers Regions of South Asia  Pakistan  Overwhelming Muslim  Historically hard to govern: mountains  Refugees from Afghanistan  Local loyalties   Nuclear weapons  India  Mostly Hindu, speak Hindi or English  Home to huge urban areas (Calcutta, Mumbai, Delhi)  Over 1 BILLION people  Most still work in agri  “Green Revolution”  Population still growing  Bangladesh  Majority Muslim  Very DENSE pop.  Very low lands (floods)  Himalayan nations:  Nepal  Mt. Everest, overwhelmingly Hindu  Bhutan  Overwhelmingly Buddhist  Very small, < 1million people Population  Total Fertility Rate (TFR)  Thomas Malthus  Britain’s population growth  Effects of “overpopulation”?  Demographic Transition Model  Countries go through an “expected” pattern of birthrates death rates  *** rapid rise in population growth for a limited time because death rates fall before birth rates fall***  Problems with the theory?  MOST IMPORTANT FACTOR IN LOWERING BIRTH RATE: education of women  Population Polices and Cultural Debates  “Overpopulation” is fixed by lowering the birth rate  Birth control  Marriage Laws  Education of women  Child laws  China  In 1970, TFR was 5  Mid­1970s= 2­child policy  1979= 1­child policy  It worked­ TFR fell…  “4­2­1 problem  SINGAPORE: small, island country, high TFR in 1950s  2 child policy, reward/punishment  “girl or boy two is enough”  It works… to well  “underpopulation” is fixed by raising the birth rate  Financial perks  Japan: underpopulation  “Dependency” ratios


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