Geography Chapter 8 South Asia
Geography Chapter 8 South Asia Geog 2013
Arkansas Tech University
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Date Created: 04/13/16
Chapter 8: South Asia Physical Geography South Asia Bounded by high mountain walls and deserts Vast areas of green habitable lowlands Diverse cultures, but unified by colonial control of the British Empire (English) Indian plate collides with Eurasia= Himalayan Mountains Monsoon Annual, torrential rains beginning in Summer Warm, wet ocean air 60 days straight Agriculture effects? Historical Geography Indus Valley Civilization Very ancient: 2500 BC Technologically advanced (plumbing, etc.) Major cities: Harappa and MohenjoDaro Aryans 1500BC Invading Aryan peoples bring language, spiritual beliefs that become HINDUISM (religion) and HINDI (language) Caste system in Hinduism Aryans brought with them idea of social stratification… CASTES BRAHMIN ( most powerful; priests) UNTOUCHABLES (least powerful) Other religions Hinduism most identified with INDIA, NEPAL Buddhism starts in India, majority of BHUTAN, SRI LANKA Islam spreads to Pakistan and Bangladesh British influence in India Colonialism of commerce “Indirect rule” Eventual political control Develop Cotton industry Port cities Railroads Independence Decolonialism spreads to S. Asia after WW2, 1940s South Asia culturally split by RELIGION (Hindu India, Muslim Pakistan/Bangladesh) Britain grants independence in 1947, but PARTITIONS South Asia into 2 states… millions of refugees India vs. Pakistan today Several small border wars Both states have nuclear weapons Islamist terror against India often by Pakistanibased groups Human Geography Economic “Neoliberalism” Old way: economic markets were tightly controlled by central governments Now: free market “neoliberalism” of economic since 1980s Privatization of staterun companies Lowering of international trade tariffs Reduction of government subsidies Cutting of corporate taxes Deregulation UrbanRural split Growth of urban middle class from neoliberalism Vast majority in S. Asia still poor farmers Regions of South Asia Pakistan Overwhelming Muslim Historically hard to govern: mountains Refugees from Afghanistan Local loyalties Nuclear weapons India Mostly Hindu, speak Hindi or English Home to huge urban areas (Calcutta, Mumbai, Delhi) Over 1 BILLION people Most still work in agri “Green Revolution” Population still growing Bangladesh Majority Muslim Very DENSE pop. Very low lands (floods) Himalayan nations: Nepal Mt. Everest, overwhelmingly Hindu Bhutan Overwhelmingly Buddhist Very small, < 1million people Population Total Fertility Rate (TFR) Thomas Malthus Britain’s population growth Effects of “overpopulation”? Demographic Transition Model Countries go through an “expected” pattern of birthrates death rates *** rapid rise in population growth for a limited time because death rates fall before birth rates fall*** Problems with the theory? MOST IMPORTANT FACTOR IN LOWERING BIRTH RATE: education of women Population Polices and Cultural Debates “Overpopulation” is fixed by lowering the birth rate Birth control Marriage Laws Education of women Child laws China In 1970, TFR was 5 Mid1970s= 2child policy 1979= 1child policy It worked TFR fell… “421 problem SINGAPORE: small, island country, high TFR in 1950s 2 child policy, reward/punishment “girl or boy two is enough” It works… to well “underpopulation” is fixed by raising the birth rate Financial perks Japan: underpopulation “Dependency” ratios
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