GY 105 Semester Notes (Chapter 1-12)
GY 105 Semester Notes (Chapter 1-12) GY 105
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Chapter 1: Concepts of World Geography Intro: Five themes of Geography 1. Location 2. Place 3. Relationships within places – Human-environment interaction 4. Relationships between places – Movement 5. Regions Latitude and Longitude 1. Latitude: Parallels run east-west and measure locations north/south of equator 2. Longitude: Meridians run north-south and measure locations east/west of Prime Meridian 3. Global Positioning System (GPS): System of satellites first used by U.S. military in 1960s Map Projections 1. Difficult to project nearly spherical Earth onto a flat surface without some distortion 2. Mercator projection is best known because of its use for oceanic exploration 3. Robinson projection shows entire world in one image (thethruesize.com) Map Scale • Representative fraction: The cartographic term for ratio between map and area being mapped – (1:63360 or 1/63360) Aerial Photos & Remote Sensing • Remote sensing: The method of digitally photographing Earth’s surface so information is manipulated into electromagnetic bandwidths for analysis Geographic Information Systems (GIS) • GIS: spatial databases that contain vast amounts of data from different sources that is used to analyze human and physical problem and processes Environmental Geography 1. Climate 2. Geology 3. Hydrology 4. Vegetation 5. Environmental Issues Population & Settlement 1. Rate of natural increase (RNI) provides annual growth rate for country/region as percentage – Does not account for migration 2. Crude birth rate: The gross number of births divided by total population 3. Crude death rate: The gross number of deaths divided by total population 4. Total fertility rate (TFR): The average number of children who will be borne by women through childbearing years 5. Population pyramid: graphical indicator of population’s age and sex structure – Displays percentage of population that is male/female in different age cohorts – Reveals structural changes of population 6. Life expectancy: The average length of life expected at birth of a typical male/female in a special country 7. Demographic Transition: A model to track changes in birth rates and death rates over time Global Migration 1. Push forces: The factors that drive people from homeland 2. Pull forces: The factors that attract people to certain locations 3. Informational networks: The connections between push and pull forces 4. Net migration rate: A statistic that indicates whether more people are entering or leaving a region Settlement Geography 1. Population density: The average number of people per area unit – Arithmetic density – Physiological density 2. Urbanized population: The percentage of a country’s population living in cities Culture Coherence & Diversity Culture in Globalizing World 1. Culture: A learned behavior held in common by group of people – Abstract dimensions – Material dimensions 2. Collision of cultures has many results – Culture imperialism: The active promotion of one culture system of expense of another – Culture nationalism: The process of protecting and defending a culture system against diluting expressions while promoting local cultural values 3. Culture syncretism: The blending of forces to form new, synergistic form of culture Gender & Globalization • Gender is linked to values and traditions of specific cultural groups that distinguish the characteristic of two biological sexes Language & Culture in Global Context 1. Language is trait that can divide two cultures 2. Language have multiple classifications – Language family: First-order grouping – Language branch: Closely related subset within language family 3. Dialect: How a language is spoken in a certain region – Lingua franca: A third language used as common tongue The Geography of World Religions • Two major types of religion – Universalizing: A religion that appeals to a large group of people, regardless of local culture and conditions (Ex. Christianity) – Ethnic: A religion closely associated with a specific ethnic or tribal group, often assuming the role of major defining characteristic of that group (Ex. Hinduism) Geopolitical Framework Unity & Fragmentation 1. Geopolitics: The relationship between politics and space and territory – Friedrich Ratzel developed the field in the late 1800s 2. Sovereignty: The ability of government to control activities within its borders. 3. Nation-State: A relatively homogeneous cultural group with its own political territory – Nation represents the people – State represents the government Colonialism, Decolonization, & Neocolonialism 1. Colonialism: The formal establishment of rule over a foreign population 2. Decolonization: The process of a colony gain/regaining control over its own territory 3. Neocolonialism: The ways in which newly independent states remain or become dependent upon other states Economic & Social Development 1. Economic development is typical accepted as desirable because it leads to social improvements 2. Half the world’s population lives on 1% of its land Indicators of Economic Development 1. Development and growth are not interchangeable – Development typically implies structural change and improvements – Growth is an increase in size 2. Gross Domestic Product (GDP): The value of all final goods and services produced within a country’s borders 3. Gross National Income (GNI): The value of goods and services produced in a year by a country regardless of geographic location 4. Purchasing Power Parity (PPP): Exchange rate used to compare output, income, or prices among countries with different currencies Indicators of Social Development 1. Conditions and quality of human life are important 2. Common assumption is that economic development is always positive 3. Human Development Index (HDI): A UN-devised index that measures social development – Combines data on life expectancy, literacy, educational attainment, gender equity, and income Chapter 2: The Changing Global Environment Intro: Geology shapes Earth’s surface 1. Creates landforms 2. Geologic foundation critical to human activities 3. Physical environment presents challenges and hazards Plate Tectonics 1. A geophysical theory that Earth is comprised of large geologic platforms that move slowly across its surface 2. Types of plate boundaries – Collision – Divergent – Subduction Global Climate • Intro: Human activities are closely linked to weather and climate – Severe Weather impacts trade, global level, etc. and has wide ranging effects – Global Warming impacts humans and the environment Climate Controls 1. Solar energy 2. Latitude 3. Interaction between land and water 4. Global pressure system 5. Global wind patterns 6. Topography World Climate Region 1. Weather: The short-time, day-to-day expression of atmospheric processes 2. Climate: The long-term average Chapter 3: North America Intro: 1. Components of NA – U.S. and Canada – Debates exist over name and dividing line 2. Globalization has reshaped NA – Migration – Tourism – Multinational corporations 3. Region has great cultural and physical diversity 4. Region has benefited from economic growth – Postindustrial economy: An economy shaped by tertiary and quaternary sectors – Environment impact of development has been steep 5. Continuing divide in income and quality of life A Threaten Weather • Human and physical geographies extremely diverse and intimately linked – 2005, Hurricane Katrina – 2010, Gulf of Mexico oil spill – 2011, Flooding along Upper Mississippi River The Costs of Human Modification 1. Globalization, urbanization, and economic growth have altered region’s landforms, soils, vegetation, and climate 2. Energy consumption remains high – Produces 20% of Earth’s greenhouse gas emissions – Debate over hydraulic fracturing Transforming Soils & Vegetation • Arrival of Europeans had major impact on flora and fauna – New species introduced – Grasslands replaced with grains and forage crops – Eastern forests removed Managing Water 1. North Americans consume large amounts of water – Several U.S. cities have outdated water supply systems – Depletion of Ogallala Aquifer – Drought affects many areas of U.S. 2. Many Americans exposed to water pollution – U.S. Clean Water Act and Canadian Green Plan insufficient – Mining and industrial centers create toxic wastewater Altering the Atmosphere 1. Urban neat island effect changing regional climates and composition of atmosphere – Development and urbanization cause nighttime temperatures that are higher than surrounding areas 2. Acid rain and air pollution also are detrimental – Acid rain producers allocated in Midwest and Southern Ontario – Winds distribute phenomena across Northeast and Eastern Canada Growing Environmental Awareness 1. Most initiative focus on local, regional issues 2. Increasing support for sustainable agriculture 3. Renewable energy sources expanding Patterns of Climate & Vegetation 1. Climate and vegetation are diverse 2. Great Lakes creates north/south division while Rockies provide east/west split Climate Change & North America • Effects of global warming already noticeable – Increased coastal erosion – Migration of whales and polar bears impacted – Alpine glaciers shrinking Population & Settlement Intro: 1. North American landscape has changed immensely over last 400 years 2. More than 345 million people currently reside in region Modern Spatial & Demographic Patterns 1. Large metropolitan areas dominate the region – Canada’s “Main Street” – Megalopolis 2. Population has increased greatly since European colonization – U.S. population increased from 2.5 million (1770) to 30 million (1860) – Current rate of natural increase is below 1% Chapter 4: Latin America Intro: 1. Region linked because of shared colonial history 2. Concept of region developed in early 1900s 3. Clear regional divide 4. Economics changed in 1960s 5. Large middle class belies presence of poverty 6. Region undergoing rapid urbanization 7. Area possesses varied natural resource base Environment Intro: 1. Neotropics: The tropical ecosystems of the Western Hemisphere 2. Large sections of region lie outside the tropics 3. Major concerns relate to deforestation, loss of biodiversity, and livability of urban area Destruction of Tropical Rain Forests 1. Amazon Basin and eastern lowlands of Central America and Mexico retain forests 2. Brazil most criticized country 3. Many locations undergoing grassification Urban Environment Challenges 1. Air pollution: Topography and weather factors in Mexico City and Santiago 2. Water: Higher demands and quality concerns (scarcity) 3. Sustainability of cities: Strides in planning Western Mountains & Eastern Lowlands 1. The Andes – Ecologically and geologically diverse – Divided into 3 components – Altiplano in Peru and Bolivia 2. The uplands of Mexico and Central America – Settlement of Mexican Plateau & Volcanic Axis – Agriculture centers 3. Eastern Shields – Brazilian – Patagonian – Guiana 4. River Basins – Amazon – Plata – Orinoco Climate & Climate Change 1. Variable precipitation across the region – Distinct wet and dry seasons 2. Deserts mostly along Pacific coast 3. Midlatitude climates in Argentina, Uruguay 4. Altitudinal zonation illustrates relationship between elevation and temperature that results in changing vegetation 5. El Nino is change in ocean temperatures that occurs that alters typical weather patterns – Impact is widespread 6. Climate change affecting agricultural productivity, water availability, changes in ecosystems, and increases in some diseases Population & Settlement – The Dominance of Cities Intro: 1. Historical population clustered in interior plateaus and valleys 2. Recent growth in coastal regions, especially Atlantic lowlands 3. Brazil, Mexico, Colombia and Argentina account for 70% of region’s population The Latin American City 1. Region has high level of urban primacy 2. Urban form blends colonial origins with modern growth – CBD is colonial remnant – Elite spine reflects modern growth Patterns of Rural Settlement 1. Historically, control of land key to political and economic power th 2. Agrarian reforms of 20 century have faced backlash 3. Governments created agriculture frontiers in response to failed agrarian reforms Population Growth & Movement 1. Natural increase and immigration driving growth in region – 1960s and 1970s saw high levels of growth 2. Decreasing family sizes in many countries 3. After independence many countries encouraged European immigration 4. Chinese and Japanese immigrants arrived starting in late 1800s 5. Political instability has spurred international immigration 6. Mexicans largest migrant group 7. Remittances vital to many in region – 2011 $61 billion sent to region The Decline of Native Populations 1. Indigenous population was 47 million prior to colonization 2. 1650, indigenous population dwindled to nearly 5 million 3. Areas with densest native population have largest current indigenous settlements Patterns of Ethnicity & Culture 1. Four racial categories 2. 2/3 speak Spanish and 1/3 Portuguese 3. Roman Catholic is dominant religion, but notable presence of syncretic religions The Global Reach of Latino Culture 1. Emergency of Spanish – Language TV and radio stations in U.S. 2. Population of Latino futbol player on global global scale 3. Telenovelas exported to China, Russia, Iran, etc. Iberian Conquest & Territorial Division 1. Treaty of Tordesillas divided Atlantic world 2. Portugal and Spain took different approaches 3. 1810, Spanish colonies start revolutions 4. 1825, Brazil gained independence 5. Multiple conflicts changed initial borders 6. Region suffers from political instability, but recently trending toward democracy Trade Blocs 1. Since 1960s, trade organizations have promoted internal markets and reduced tariffs 2. Following growth of Mercosur, Brazil proposed UNASUR Insurgencies & Drug Cartels 1. Guerilla groups control large areas of countries – 2.5 million displaced Colombians since 1980 2. Drug cartels blamed for violence in Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Brazil, and other places Focusing on Neoliberalism Development Strategies 1. Since 1960s, countries had notable presence of multinational organizations 2. By 1990s, neoliberalism policies were adopted throughout region 3. Foreign investment spurred growth and decline of maquiladoras 4. Informed sector crucial to region despite unknown size Primary Export Dependency 1. Since 1960s, mechanization and diversification are the major agricultural trends 2. Agricultural sector becoming more capital-intensive 3. Mining is staple of many economics – Bolivia, Chile, and Peru among top producers of many commodities 4. Logging is important, but controversial activity – Growth of plantation forests due to FDI 5. Brazil, Ecuador, Mexico, and Venezuela meet their own fuel needs 6. Natural gas production increasing in region – Large reserves in Bolivia and Venezuela 7. Brazil dominates biofuels Latin America in the Global Economy 1. Latin America’s role in global economy explained through dependency theory 2. Region’s FDI has increased since mid-1990s 3. Remittances reflects integration of workers in global market place 4. Neoliberalism policies expanded in 1990s – Leads to increased trade and reduced debt payments 5. Financial crises of 1990s led to increased dollarization through region – Implemented to counteract currency devaluation and hyperinflation Social Development 1. Marked improvements in life expectancy, child survival, and educational equity – Step decline in child mortality rate since 1990 – 84% of people have access to adequate clean water – Life expectancy is 74 years 2. Government programs and NGOs have improved social well-being – Brazil’s Bolsa Familia – Catholic Relief Services & Caritas 3. Variation between rural and urban places, between regions, and along ethnic/racial lines 4. Race relations very good in some spheres 5. Racial classification is subjective relative – 11% population black in Brazil’s 2000 Census 6. Indigenous populations possess low socioeconomic positions 7. Division of class often associated with race Chapter 5: The Caribbean Intro: 1. Caribbean was first region in Americas extensively explored, colonized by Europeans 2. Modern regional identity is unclear 3. At crossroads because of isolated proximity 4. Situated between Tropic of Cancer and Equator 5. Greatly altered landscape – Deforestation – Extinction of native plants and animals – Soil erosion 6. Recent preservation of natural areas Island & Rimland Landscapes 1. Caribbean Sea links the region – Great biodiversity – Lacks commercial fishing 2. Most island on Caribbean plate – Fairly inactive 3. Greater Antilles – Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico – Large mountains – Best farmland in region 4. Lesser Antilles – Arc from Virgin Island to Trinidad 5. Rimland States – Belize and the Guianas Caribbean Climate & Climate Change 1. Region received considerable rainfall 2. Temperatures consistently above 70 degree 3. Precipitation defines seasonality 4. Hurricanes – Season runs June to November, peaks in August and September – Average 10.1 named storms, 5.9 named hurricanes, and 2.5 major hurricanes 5. Climate change – Vulnerable to sea-level rise – Impact on biodiversity – Role of CARICOM and REDD program Environment Issues 1. Forests widespread prior to European colonization 2. Deforestation tried to creation of plantations 3. Some forests have recovered 4. Biodiversity less threatened in Rimland 5. Public awareness of deforestation and loss of biodiversity 6. Territorial waters now being protected Population & Settlement Intro: 1. Very dense and highly urbanized population 2. Variation among three subregions – Greater Antilles most populated – Lesser Antilles has small populations, but high density – Rimland very sparsely populated Demographic Trends 1. Mortality rates extremely high during colonial era 2. 1950s and 1960s, growth rates soared 3. Recent stabilization of growth rate 4. Fertility rates decreasing and life expectancy increasing across region 5. Urbanization, education, and access to contraceptives influence family size 6. HIV/AIDs infections rate notably higher North America 7. Multiple programs aimed to lower infection rate 8. Region has one of highest negative rates of net migration – 10% of Jamaica’s population emigrated during 1980s Rural – Urban Continuum 1. Plantation America stretches from Brazil coast to southeastern U.S. – Mono-crop production under plantation system – Communities reflect plantation legacy 2. Caribbean cities have grown since 1960s – Spanish Caribbean cities have grid pattern, central plaza, and fortifications – Many cities blend colonial influences A Neo-Africa in the America The Cultural Impact of Colonialism 1. Massive population decline following arrival of European powers – Colonizers introduced plantation system 2. African slaves imported as new labor source 3. Communities of runaway slaves visible in Suriname 4. African religions widely practiced 5. End of slavery resulted in indentured labor. (Most: S/E/SE Asia) Creolization & Caribbean Identity 1. Creolization is blending of African, European, and Amerindian elements into unique culture systems found in Caribbean 2. Dominant languages are European 3. Role of Creole languages changed since 1960s 4. Home to numerous music types 5. Music mix of African rhythms and European influence 6. Music and dance key component of globalization 7. Baseball is dominant sport 8. Dominican Republic dominates talent pipeline – Influence of San Pedro de Macoris Geopolitics Intro: 1. Colonial history reflects compelling European power fighting over territories 2. European influence diminished following the Monroe Doctrine 3. Minimal foreign investment Life in the “American Backyard” 1. Initial U.S. objectives were to remove European influence and encourage democracy 2. U.S. exerted military dominance over region during early 1900s 3. Business interests typically placed ahead of democratic principles 4. 1898, Puerto Rico comes under U.S. control 5. Island relies on U.S. investment and welfare programs 6. Increased industrialization since 1950s 7. Political future debated – 2009 UN Special Committee on Decolonization resolution – 2012 referendum 8. 1898, Cuba comes under U.S. control 9. 1902, Cubs gains independence 10. State offers strongest challenge to U.S. authority in region 11. Promoted growth through tourism since end of Cold War Independence & Integration 1. 1804, Haiti becomes second independent state in hemisphere 2. Spanish colonies gained freedom by 1900 3. 1960s, British Antilles gained independence 4. Numerous territories till under colonial rule 5. Many countries struggle to meet basic needs 6. Multiple barriers exist to economic integration 7. Since 1960s numerous trade organization failed 8. 1922, Caribbean Community and common Market (CARICOM) created From Cane Fields to Freedom Intro: 1. Despite poverty, region has higher standard of living than sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia 2. Notable gains in education, health, and life expectancy 3. Linked to global economy through specialized industries From Field to Factories & Resorts 1. Agriculture dominated regional economics 2. Decline of trade agreements with former colonial power has hurt economics 3. Most economics are not diversified – Guyana, Suriname, and Trinidad are exceptions 4. Economic history tried to sugarcane production 5. Demand for sugar and rum led to profitability 6. Along with Brazil region is world’s largest exporter of sugar 7. States in Lesser Antilles rely on banana crop 8. Decline in profits linked to change in guaranteed prices through WTO 9. Farmers experimenting with now crops 10. Puerto Rican economy grew during 1950s due to new assembly plants 11. Free-trade zones (FTZs) are duty-free, tax-exempt industrial parks for MNCs – Caribbean Basin Initiative helped create many FTZs 12. Offshore banking provides confidential and tax-exempt services – 1920s, Bahamas begins industry – 1990s, Bermuda and Caymans new brokers 13. Newest service is Internet gambling – Antigua sued U.S. through WTO 14. Environmental, locational, and economic factors support tourism 15. 6 countries/territories account for 2/3 of region’s tourists 16. Capital leakage is problematic across the region Social Development 1. Economic growth has been inconsistent 2. Social development measures are favorable – Life expectancy above 70 in most countries – Low gender inequality measurements 3. Remittances beneficial to many economies 4. Matriarchal basis of household’s is unique to region 5. Presence of women in workforce increasing 6. Women are more likely to attend college 7. Women recently elected to key political positions 8. High literacy rates throughout region – Haiti proves notable exception 9. Region has undergone brain drain – 40% of skilled migrants living abroad have college education 10. Brain gain more recent phenomenon 11. Emigration increased after World War II 12. Remittances are critical component of economies – Jamaicans and Haitians remit nearly $2 billion annually – Labor-related migration has become standard practice Chapter 6: Sub-Saharan Africa Intro: 1. Among the poorest most rural, and youngest regions 2. Demographically is fastest growing region 3. Regional unity based on colonial experience and common livelihoods 4. Region lacks common religion, language, or philosophy 5. Culturally complex, but contributes globally 6. Economy described as marginal 7. Recent focus of humanitarian efforts The Plateau Continent Intro: 1. Largest landmass straddling the equator 2. Features large areas of geologic uplift 3. Full of environmental contrasts Plateaus & Basins 1. Interior dominated by plateaus and elevated basins 2. Southern region rimmed by Great Escarpment 3. Mountain ranges along Rift Valley Watersheds 1. Congo: Largest watershed in region 2. Niger: Critical for West Africa 3. Nile: Key to North Africa 4. Zambezi: Source of hydroelectric power Soils 1. Most soils relatively infertile 2. Most fertile soils support densest population 3. Grasslands and semi-arid areas possess more fertile soils Climate & Vegetation 1. Mostly lies in tropics 2. Southern tip extends into subtropical, temperate climates 3. Rainfall determine vegetation variation 4. 3 biomes – Tropical Forest, Savanna, and Desert 5. Home to world’s second-largest expanse of tropical rain forest 6. Year-round precipitation 7. Logging and agriculture have cleared western and southern edges of Ituri 8. Numerous conservation efforts undertaken 9. Savanna surrounds rain forest belt 10. Northward rainy season is May to October with decreasing precipitation 11. Large wet savanna with woodlands flank Zambezi River 12. Deserts cover southern, northern boundaries 13. Sahara stretches from Atlantic coast to Red Sea 14. Belt of deserts around Horn of Africa 15. Namib and Kalahari dominate the South Environmental Issues 1. Life in Sahel is balance of limited rain, drought-resistance plants and transhumance 2. Debate over causes of desertification 3. Vegetative recovery occurring in some areas 4. Use of wood or charcoal for household energy needs greatest concern – Village women have planted green belts to supply biofuels 5. Logging has biggest impact on rain forest – Madagascar also suffers from deforestation 6. East and southern Africa have numerous wildlife reserves 7. Poaching major issue throughout region 8. 1989, cities formed to ban ivory trade Climate Change & Vulnerability 1. Climate change poses extreme risks for region 2. Most vulnerable areas – Horn of Africa, Sahel, and West Africa coastal lowlands 3. Population vulnerable to food insecurity Young & Restless Intro: 1. Region has rapidly increasing population 2. Population is young and has large families 3. Low life expectancy 4. 6 countries account for 50% of region’s population – Nigeria, Ethiopia, D.R. of Congo, South Africa, Tanzania, and Kenya Population Trends & Demographic Debates 1. Child mortality declining 2. Rural-to-urban migration increasing 3. HIV/AIDs severely impacted population 4. Family size still large, but changing policies encouraging smaller families Impact of AIDs on Africa 1. 60% of people infected are women 2. During 1980s, many governments ignored problem 3. Epidemic has numerous consequences 4. Several changes since late 1990s Patterns of Settlement & Land Use 1. Population mostly rural – Urban population growing 2. 3 population clusters – West Africa, Ethiopian Highlands, and Eastern South Africa 3. Crop staples are millet, sorghum, and corn 4. Export crops are intermixed with subsistence crops 5. Mastery of yam led to denser population along Niger River 6. Agriculture generally unproductive because of poor soils 7. Agricultural exports are critical 8. Bulk of exported goods are primary products – Coffee, Cacao, and Rubber 9. Nontraditional exports are increasing – Floriculture – Winter produce 10. Animal husbandry critical in semiarid zones 11. Tsetse files have restricted areas utilized for grazing – Eradication programs opening new regions Urban Life 1. Urban sprawl consequence of growth 2. Primary dominates many countries 3. European colonialism influenced urban structure 4. West Africa has most developed urban network 5. Most cities in West Africa are located on coast 6. Pre-colonial cities were walled and gated 7. Most West African cities are hybrid 8. Cities in Southern Africa have colonial origins 9. South African cities reflect apartheid Culture Coherence & Diversity – Unity Through Adversity Intro: 1. Region lacks traditional culture and political connection 2. Region shaped by history of slavery and colonialism 3. Culturally diverse region united by adversity Language Patterns 1. Most countries have multiple languages 2. Indigenous languages restricted to rural areas 3. Indo-European and Afro-Asiatic languages also widely spoken 4. 3 of 6 language groups are unique to region 5. Niger-Congo group most important to region – Bantu farmers diffused language and agriculture – Swahili most important language 6. Ethnic identity and language unstable for many years, but colonialism imposed divisions 7. Few countries are linguistically homogenous 8. European languages introduced for administrative reasons 9. Colonial education stressed literacy in European language 10. 2 main blocks of European language – English and French Religion 1. Native African religious classified as animistic 2. Christianity and Islam entered region before 1000 AD th – Rapid spread of religions since 20 century – Millions combined animist beliefs with Christianity and Islam 3. 300 AD, Christianity arrives in northeast 4. 1600s, European settlers influential 5. 1800s, missionaries find converts in animist areas 6. Division between Protestants and Catholics based on colonial history 7. Islam introduced around 1000 years ago 8. Islam spread to Sahel through Berber traders 9. Trade saw diffusion in West Africa 10. Some countries have extremely complicated religious composition 11. Nigeria has experienced high levels of conflict within past decade 12. Northeastern are has long history of conflict Globalization & African Culture 1. Slave trade influenced culture in Americas – Modern African diaspora also important 2. Musical centers in Nigeria, Mali 3. Ethiopian and Kenyan pride in distance runners Geopolitical Framework – Legacies of Colonialism & Conflict Intro: 1. First African states formed around 700 AD in Sahel 2. Prior to European colonization, region had mix of kingdoms, states, and tribal societies 3. Current conflicts typically have roots in colonial divisions European Colonization 1. Early European colonization limited to coast due to diseases 2. 1884, Berlin Conference divided Africa 3. Germany principal instigator of scramble Decolonization & Independence 1. 1950s, decolonization begins peacefully 2. 1963, Organization of African Unity (OAU) mediates regional disputes 3. Violence occurred in Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) between whites and blacks 4. Rebellions in Angola and Mozambique led to civil wars during Cold War 5. 1990s, apartheid challenged in South Africa 6. 1994, Nelson Mandela elected president 7. Remnants of apartheid visible on landscape Enduring Political Conflict 1. Colonial boundaries stimulate ethnic conflicts – Loyalty centers on tribalism 2. Ethnic conflicts widespread 3. Multiple secessionist movements Economic & Social Development – The Struggle of Rebuild Roots of African Poverty 1. Multiple causes for region’s poverty 2. Economic nationalism led to inflated currencies, which damaged exports 3. 1980s, government focus on cheap supply of food staples led to food insecurity 4. Widespread corruption limits economic potential Links to the World Economy 1. Limited trade within and outside the region 2. Connections exist because of aid and loans 3. World Bank and IMF have reduced debt levels, which has stimulated social improvements Economic Differentiation 1. Regional trade blocs support development – SADC and ECOWAS most powerful 2. Mineral and oil rich countries have highest per capita CNI, but have economic disparity 3. Region’s poor struggle to find sustainable jobs Measuring Social Development 1. Modest improvements in child mortality rates 2. HIV/AIDs, extended conflicts lower life expectancies 3. Many children lack basic education 4. Women noticeable participants in workforce 5. Community organizations improving economic opportunities for women Chapter 7: Southwest Asia & North Africa Intro: 1. Southwest Asia & North Africa is awkward and complex term 2. Difficult to define regional boundaries 3. Global culture hearth that exemplifies globalization 4. Many states belong to Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) 5. Trends influencing region – Islamic fundamentalism advantages adhere to traditional practice – Islamism challenges global popular culture and advocates merging civil and religious authority Legacies of A Vulnerable Landscape 1. Environmental history reflects short-sighted and resourceful practices 2. Island of Socotra illustrates vulnerability and globalization’s threat to ecosystem 3. Deforestation and overgrazing long-term problem 4. Most of forests reduced to grass and scrubs 5. Many countries have launched reforestation programs 6. Irrigation has caused buildup of salts in the oil 7. Long history of managing drainage systems and water flows at local level 8. Fossil water taps into underground resources 9. Hydropolitics has raised tensions throughout region Regional Landforms 1. Atlas Mountains dominate Maghreb across Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia 2. Interior rocky plateaus and desert lowlands cover North Africa 3. Levant has mountains 20 miles from coast reaching 10000 feet 4. Arabian Peninsula is titled plateau 5. Highlands north and east of Arabian Peninsula 6. Small lowlands in Southwest Asia Patterns of Climates 1. Complex pattern due to latitude and altitude 2. Nearly continuous belt of desert 3. Plant and animal life adapted to extreme conditions 4. Atlas Mountains, Levant have Mediterranean climates Climate Change 1. Temperature changes will produce higher evaporation rates and lower soil moisture 2. Sea-level changes will impact Nile Delta 3. Possible political and economic impact Population & Settlement – Pattern in An Arid Land Geography of Population 1. Intimate tie between water and life 2. Some areas sparsely populated while others suffer from overcrowding 3. Physiological density very high by global measure Rural Settlement 1. Health of plant and animal domestication 2. Activity focused on Fertile Crescent 3. Irrigation and rise of states diffused agriculture 4. Pastoral nomadism dominates in drier portions 5. Permanent oases exist near high groundwater levels or deep-water wells – Walled villages with intensely farmed fields – Recent incorporation into global economy 6. Densest settlements tried to irrigated river valleys 7. Mediterranean climate permits dry land agriculture dependent on seasonal moisture – Mechanization, crop specialization, fertilizers changing settings The Urban Imprint 1. Mesopotamian urbanization began by 3500 BC 2. Islam left mark on cities – Walled core – Central mosque – Bazaar serving as market – Housing districts with narrow streets 3. Colonial impact seen in North Africa 4. Cities have become global gateways 5. New investment, industrialization, and tourism are key A Region on the Move 1. New migration reflects global economy and recent political events 2. Attractive location to foreign workers 3. Political forces shaping refugee movements Shifting Demographic Patterns 1. Still has high population growth 2. Great variation within region 3. Patterns connected with urbanization, religion Culture Coherence & Diversity – Signature of Complexity Pattern of Religion 1. Jews and Christianity trace roots to eastern Mediterranean hearth – Roman occupation led to Jewish diaspora – Christian minorities presents in Egypt, Lebanon, and other countries 2. Islam originates in Hejaz region 3. Quran is book of teachings received by Muhammad from God 4. 5 pillars of Islam key components of religion 5. Division within Islam occurred after death of Muhammad in 632 CE 6. Islam dominates region 7. Region dominated by Sunni Muslims 8. Shiites connected to Islamist movement 9. Smaller branches of Islam along periphery 10. Jerusalem holds significant for Jews, Christianity, and Muslims 11. Utilization of sacred space is key to conflict – Western Wall – Church of the Holy Sepulchre – Al-Haram Al-Sharif: a. k. a Temple Mount Geographies of Language 1. Afro-Asiatic languages dominate region – Arabic most widespread – Hebrew reintroduced with creation of Israel – Older languages survive as Berber 2. Iranian Plateau and nearby mountains dominated by Indo-European languages 3. Turkish is core language of Turkey Regional culture in Global Context 1. Islam links region with global Muslim population 2. Conflicts between retaining traditional values and benefits of economic growth 3. Technology contributes to culture and political change Geopolitical Framework – Never Ending Tension Intro: 1. Arab Spring brought many government changes 2. Focus of Arab Spring – Government corruption – Limited opportunities for democracy – Rapidly rising food prices – Enduring poverty and high unemployment The Colonial Legacy 1. 1550-1850, Ottoman Empire dominated area 2. France, Great Britain major colonial players – 1869, Suez Canal connects Mediterranean and Red Sea 3. Persia, Turkey never occupied by colonial powers 4. 1950s-1960s, most states gained independence Modern Geopolitical Issues 1. North Africa has seen dramatic changes – Tunisia removed dictator – Libya removed Qaddafi, who ruled since 1969 – Egypt forced resignation of Hosni Mubarak – Sudan faces issues with South Sudan and Darfur 2. 1948, Israel created 3. Numerous armed conflicts through 1970s 4. Political fragmentation of Palestinian has impacted negotiations 5. Syrian civil war ongoing since March 2011 6. Future of Iraq as multinational state 7. Protests in Bahrain seeking democratic reforms 8. Iran’s nuclear ambitious pose threat to region Economic & Social Development – Lands of Wealth & Poverty Intro: 1. Region exhibits extreme wealth and poverty 2. Distribution of oil and natural gas resources divides region 3. Political instability causes economic turmoil 4. Large oil and gas reserves in Persian Gulf and North Africa Regional Economic Patterns 1. Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, UAE are wealthiest states due to oil reserves 2. Economics susceptible to fluctuation due to world oil markets 3. Depletion of reserves could harm states 4. Political variables have affected economic growth 5. Israel thrives, but Palestinian conflict saps potential 6. Turkey has diversified economy around agriculture, industry, and tourism 7. Political instability and lack of resources causes of poverty – Sudan suffers from political unrest – Egypt endures brain drain aimed economic downturn – Yemen poorest country in region with minimal oil resources A Woman’s Changing World 1. Female labor rates amongst lowest in the world 2. Women’s access to social activities limited in conservative areas 3. Women’s roles are changing, which stirs debate about niqab and chador Global Economic Relationships 1. Region connected to global economy primarily through oil and gas resources 2. OPEC does not control oil prices, but influences availability 3. Turkey, Israel illustrate diversified economies of region 4. 2005, Arab League members created Greater Arab Free Trade Area (GAFTA) – Other agreements with Mediterranean states 5. Tourism draws visitors to historic sites, beaches, and wildlife Chapter 8: Europe Intro: 1. Very diverse region with 500 million people 2. Blend of language, religions create diverse culture 3. Current trend promotes economic, political, and culture unity Environment Intro: • 4 factors influence environment diversity – Complex geology – Latitudinal extent – Influences of Atlantic and major seas – Long history of human settlement Landform Regions 1. European Lowland – Economic focus of western Europe – High population density, intensive agriculture, major cities and industrial regions 2. Alpine Mountain System – Spine of Europe – Distinct regional names 3. Central Uplands – Contains raw materials 4. Western Highlands – Oldest mountains in region – Thin soils Europe’s Climate • 3 principle climates – Moderate, moist marine climate – Continental climate with not summer and cold winter – Dry Mediterranean climate in the south Seas, Rivers, and Ports 1. 4 major seas circle continent 2. Multiple navigable rivers connected by canals and lacks Environmental issues 1. History of agriculture, resource extraction, manufacturing, and urbanization 2. Air pollution, acid rain widespread 3. More problems in eastern Europe until recently Climate Change 1. Global warming evident on many levels 2. EU attempting to reduce emissions while promoting industry 3. 2005, EU implemented emission trading scheme Population & Settlement Low (or No) Natural Growth 1. Major population themes – Low or nonexistent natural growth – Patterns of internal and international migration – High levels of urbanization 2. Most countries have slow natural growth 3. Many governments promote pro-natal policies Migration Within Europe • Schengen Agreement facilitates movement of people across region – 26 members – 4 members who are not part of EU – 2 EU members have opt-outs International Migration to Europe 1. Workers flooded region after World War II 2. Collapse of Soviet Union led to influx from eastern Europe 3. Current border situation described as “Fortress Europe” The Landscapes of Urban Europe • 3 periods dominate urban landscape – Medieval – Narrowing winding streets – Renaissance – Baroque, open spaces with ceremonial building, monuments – Industrial – Factories, railroad stations, and sprawl Cultural Coherence & Diversity Intro: 1. Varied mix of language, customs, religions, and livelihoods 2. European cultures have played key role in globalization 3. New waves of global culture influencing region Geographies of Language 1. Language key aspect of nationalism and group identity 2. 90% of Europeans speak Germanic, Romance, or Slavic language 3. EU recognizes 24 official languages 4. Germanic – German, English two dominant languages 5. Romance – Strong regional dialects 6. Slavic – Largest Indo-European Sub-family; Divided into northern and southern groups Geographies of Religion 1. Current tensions result of historical events 2. Large immigrant populations add to tension levels 3. Schism between Western and Eastern Christianity – 1054, split between eastern Orthodox Christianity and western Christianity 4. Protestant Revolt – 1500s, split occur within Roman Catholicism 5. Islam – History of Christianity crusades to reclaim Jerusalem – 1453, Turks conquer Constantinople 6. Judaism – Jews persecuted by many authorities – 1939, 9.5 million Jews living in Europe 7. Contemporary patterns – 250 million Roman Catholics – 100 million Protestants – 13 million Muslims European Culture in Global Framework 1. European culture spread through colonialism 2. Region currently experiences reverse flow of migrants 3. Ethnic clustering created ghettos and issues of assimilation 4. Gender inequality continues in government, business 5. Eastern Europe, Balkans has large female workforce 6. Migrant cultures cause legal tension Geopolitical framework Redrawing the Map Through War 1. Concept of nation-state emerged in region 2. Region has legacy of geopolitical problems 3. Numerous hotspots tied to regional autonomy th 4. Two wars reshaped map during 20 century 5. New states created, empires dismantled 6. Many states promoted irredentism during interior period 7. Economics contributed to geopolitical issues A Divided Europe 1. 1945-1990, Europe divided into two geopolitical and economic camps – East dominated by communism – West created alliance to counter communist influence 2. Yalta Conference laid groundwork for division of post-World War II Europe 3. Soviet Union wanted buffer zone from west 4. 1950s, military alliances of NATO, Warsaw Pact created 5. 1989, Berlin Wall opened 6. Several factors led to downfall of communist governments 7. Map reshaped again due to ethnic nationalism The Balkans: Geopolitical Nightmare 1. Southeastern Europe has long history of geopolitical instability – Balkanization 2. 1918, Yugoslavia created 3. 1945, communists take control 4. 1991, Slovenia, Croatia and Macedonia declare independence 5. 1991-1999, country breaks into civil war 6. 2008, Kosovo declared independence 7. Slovenia and Croatia now members of EU Economic & Social Development Intro: 1. Industrial capitalism originated in region 2. Effort to promote economic integration since World War II 3. Western Europe experienced post-World War II economic boom 4. Currently in situation of economic uncertainty Europe’s Industrial Revolution 1. 1750s, Industrial Revolution started in England 2. English textile industry first to blossom 3. Ruhr district heart of continental industry Rebuilding Postwar Europe 1. 1951, European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) formed – 6 members 2. 1957, European Economic Community (EEC) created 3. 1965, Brussels Treaty established groundwork for political union 4. 1991, Maastricht Treaty creates EU 5. 2004-2013, EU admits 13 members – Mostly former Eastern Bloc states – 6 official candidates – 2 potential candidates 6. European Monetary Union led to replacement of national currencies – 19 members – 2 members have permanent opt-outs – 4 microstates use with authorization – 2 countries use without authorization Economic Transition in Eastern Europe 1. Eastern Europe has historically been less developed – Not as rich in resources as west – History of explosion by outside interests 2. Collapse of Soviet Union led eastern European economies being redirected toward west – Transition from socialist-based economy to capitalist economy Economic Disparities & Uncertainty • Economic and social disparity visible throughout the region – Domestic migration, international migration cause tension – Recent fiscal crises stir debate about strength of Euro “€” Chapter 9: The Russian Domain Intro: 1. Includes Russia and some neighboring states 2. Dynamic and unpredictable region 3. Stretches from Baltic Sea to Pacific Ocean 4. Includes industrial centers, vast farmlands, and large expanses of tundra and taiga Environment Intro: • Kamchatka Peninsula is relatively untouched – Habitat unique to many salmon species – Domestic and foreign oil companies hold drilling, rights – Numerous national parks consolidated recently A Devastated Environment 1. Air quality is poor in many cities 2. Private automobile ownership making air pollution worse 3. Urban water supplies degraded by many sources 4. Oil spills have affected many rivers, lakes, and seas 5. Soviet Union’s nuclear programs ignored environmental safety 6. Chernobyl nuclear plant disaster affected northern Ukraine A Diverse Physical Setting • 4 major regions 1) European West 2) Ural Mountains and Siberia 3) Russian Far East 4) Caucasus and Transcaucasia 1. European West – River-and-canal system creates integration – Cold winters, cool summers – 3 sub-environments a) North: Oil Fox b) Central: Chenal Exam c) South: Chenal Exam 2. Ural Mountains & Siberia – Urals are relative low, but have valuable mineral resources – Siberia has very cold climate, little precipitation – 3 main rivers – Siberian vegetation 3. Russian Far East – Proximity to Pacific Ocean shapes region – Milder climate, longer growing seasons – Fertile river valleys – Transition 4. Caucasus & Transcaucasia – Located between Black & Caspian Seas – Diverse topography – Complex weather and climate patterns – Diverse agriculture Climate Changes Potential Benefits 1. Agriculture zones may increase 2. Less severe winters my increase energy exploration, development 3. Better commercial fishing in Arctic Ocean Potential Hazards 1. Rising sea level may flood low-lying cities 2. Indigenous people, flora, and fauna impacted by changes Population & Settlement Intro: 1. Region has 200 million people 2. Widely dispersed across region, but concentrated in cities 3. Distribution influenced by natural resources and governmental policies Population Distribution 1. European West is most heavily populated area 2. Population within Russia unevenly distributed 3. Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine have combined 60 million 4. European Core – Home to largest cities, largest industrial centers, and most productive farms – River valleys dominate population clusters 5. Siberian Hinterlands – Isolated, sparsely populated – Largest cities found along rail lines: Trans-Siberian Railroad & Baikal-Amur Mainline Regional Migration Patterns 1. Eastward movement fueled by search for natural resources 2. Peasants migrated east for agricultural opportunities, and political freedom 3. Tsarist, Soviet governments relocated millions – Gulags – Russification 4. In post-Soviet era, Russification has reversed 5. Immigrants from non-Slavic regions 6. Ease of movement has led to brain drain Inside the Russian City 1. Core has superior transportation, shopping, housing, and important offices 2. Mikrorayons serve as bedroom communities 3. Multiple factors spur suburban growth Demographic Crisis 1. Russia faces crisis of declining population, low birthrates, and high mortality 2. Governments have imitated programs to spur population growth The Legacy of Slavic Dominance Heritage of the Russian Empire 1. 900 AD, Slavic power grew through intermarriage with warriors from Sweden 2. State of Rus extended from Kiev to Baltic Sea th th 3. Empire expanded during 16 and 17 centuries with aid of Cossacks th 4. 19 century, empire expanded into Central Asia Geographies of Language 1. Belarus is closely a notion-state 2. Ukraine has language split between west and east 3. Russia has pockets of indigenous and non-Russian speakers 4. Transcaucasia has several isolated cultural groups Geographies of Religion 1. Most Russians Belarusians, and Ukrainians are Eastern Orthodox 2. Religious revival following fall of Soviet Union 3. 20 million Muslims in North Caucasus, Volga Valley, and hear Kazakhstan Russian Culture in Global Context 1. Socialist realism dominated Soviet period 2. Soviet government subsidized high arts 3. 1980s, younger generation inspired by fashion and music from the West 4. Mass-consumer culture gained popularity after fall of communism – Telenovelas imported from Latin America – Movies imported from Hong Kong and India Chapter 10: Central Asia Intro: 1. Region is at center of Eurasian continent 2. Physical geography dominated by arid plains and basins 3. Regional boundaries highly debated Environment Geography Aral Sea Issues th 1. Aral Sea is one of 20 century’s greatest environmental tragedy 2. Water diverted from rivers for irrigation 3. Resulted in culture, economic, and ecological damage Other Environment Issues 1. Relatively clean region due to low population density 2. Overgrazing, poor farming practices have led to desertification 3. Caspian Sea suffered water loss from irrigation 4. Massive dam-building projects have led caused political tension Physical Regions 1. Central Asian Highlands – Created through collision of Indian subcontinent with Asian mainland – Created world’s highest mountains, and several other ranges – Tibetan Plateau 2. The Plains & Basins – 2 subregions 1) Central belt of deserts o In west, arid plains of Caspian, Aral basins o Taklamakan and Gobi dominate east 2) Northern strip of semiarid steppes Climate Change & Central Asia 1. Global warming has reduced permafrost and caused mountain glacier retreat in Tibetan Plateau 2. Reduced precipitation expected in lowlands Population & Settlement Highland Population 1. Nomadic pastoralism dominates highlands 2. Farming is limited to valleys in southern Tibetan Plateau 3. Transhumance vital in mountainous areas Lowland Population 1. Majority lives in narrow area where mountains meet basins and plains 2. Intensive agriculture occurs on alluvial fans 3. Nomadic pastoralism dominates steppes Population Issues 1. Generally low population density 2. Birth rates vary widely within region 3. Former Soviet republics have high birth rates and outmigration Urbanization in Central Asia 1. Valleys have been urbanized for thousands of years 2. Islamic, Soviet planning and designs visible in many cities 3. Highlands are primarily rural Cultural Coherence & Diversity History Overview 1. Rivers valleys, oases were sites of early agricultural communities 2. Farming villages date to 8000 BCE 3. Earliest languages were Indo-European-Altaic language Linguistic & Ethnic Geography 1. Turkic, Mongolian languages dominate 2. Few native Indo-European languages remain in southwest 3. Tibetan is part of Sino-Tibetan language family 4. Several dialects exist 5. Primary language of Tibet Autonomous Region and provinces of Qinghai, Sichuan 6. Mongolian includes many related dialects – standard version called Khalkha 7. Retained own script, but adopted Cyrillic alphabet 8. Dominates Mongolia, but prevalent in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region 9. Turkic languages are numerically dominant group 10. 5 of 6 former Soviet republics draw name from Turkic origins 11. Uyghur dominant in in Xinjiang province 12. Tajikistan dominates by Indo-European speakers – Mountain Tajik, Uzbek, and other primary languages 13. Afghanistan’s linguistic geography is complex – Half speak Dari – Uzbek, Pashtun, and others widespread Geography of Religion 1. Religious divide between west and east – Islam dominates west – Buddhism dominates east 2. Different traditions of Islam found in region – Sunni primary belief – Shiism dominant in central Afghanistan and with Azeris 3. Chinese Muslims now enjoy freedom of worship 4. Buddhism primarily found in Mongolia, Tibet 5. Until Chinese invasion, Tibet functioned as theocracy 6. Tibetan Buddhists persecuted under Chinese rule, but recently granted more freedoms Central Asia Culture in Global Context 1. Western part closely linked to Russia 2. Eastern area aligned with China 3. Poorly integrated into global cultures 4. Western influence most visible in Caspian Basin Geographical Framework Intro: 1. Historically region has played minor role in global politics 2. Prior to 1991 entire region under Soviet or Chinese control (2 exceptions) 3. Collapse of Soviet Union led to 6 new states Partitioning of the Steppes 1. Prior to 1500, region was power center 2. Mid-1700s, Manchu Dynasty had conquered Mongolia, Xinjiang, Tibet, parts of Kazakhstan 3. Mongolia, Tibet gained independence in early 1900s 4. Mid-1800s, Russia and Britain failed to conquer Afghanistan Under Communist Rule 1. 1917, western part came under communist rule 2. 1924, communist take control in Mongolia 3. 1949, Chinese revolution led to communist rule Soviet Central Asia 1. Soviet Central Asia divided into “union republics” that had some cultural autonomy – Leaders replaced by Communist Party officials – Russian immigration encouraged – Local languages had to be written in Cyrillic script 2. Region’s high birth rates led to fears of Soviet Union dominated by Turkic-speaking Muslims Chinese Geopolitical Order 1. China’s communist leaders promised political, cultural autonomy to Xinjiang 2. Tibet refused to relinquish independence, which led to occupation in 1950 3. Following Soviet model, China created autonomous regions in areas Independence in Former Soviet Union 1. Collapse of Soviet Union created 6 new states 2. Remnants of Soviet boundaries have led to numerous border disputes – Fergana Valley at center of dispute Strike in Western China 1. Indigenous population in Xinjiang, Tibet want independence 2. Anti-China protests have been put down multiple times 3. China views region as part of national territory, and covets natural resources War in Afghanistan 1. War in Afghanistan began in 1978 with Soviet invasion – Pakistan, Sandi Arabia and U.S. provided arms to anti-Soviet forces 2. Taliban movement emerged in 1995 3. U.S. & U.K. invade International Dimensions of Tensions 1. Collapse of Soviet Union led to emergency of Central Asia as key area of global tensions 2. Two treaty organizations promote security, trade – Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) – Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) 3. Afghanistan remains most pressing concern Economic & Social Issues/Development Post-Communist Economics 1. Communist planners attempted to spread development 2. Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan benefit from energy sources – Caspian Sea 3. Uzbekistan is large cotton exporter, and has gold deposit 4. Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan hold majority of region’s water supply, but remain very poor 5. Mongolia suffered from Soviet Union’s collapse, but economy is growing due to mining sector Economy of Tibet & Xinjiang 1. Tibet & Xinjiang did not suffer crash in 1990s 2. Tibet remains extremely poor 3. Xinjiang has mineral, oil wealth and productive agricultural sector 4. Chinese government is expanding infrastructure Misery of Afghanistan 1. Afghanistan is rich in natural gas and minerals, but remains impoverished 2. Late 1990s, country emerges as leading producer of illegal drugs Central Asian Economics in Global Context 1. Foreign corporations attracted to region because of natural resources 2. Infrastructure related to natural gas, oil also attracts investment Social Development in Central Asia 1. Afghanistan fairs poorly, but former Soviet republics have high health, education levels 2. Conditions in Xinjiang, Tibet are improving but lag behind China Proper Gender Issues in Former Soviet Republics 1. Traditional social position of women varied 2. “Bride abduction” is prevalent in Kyrgyzstan 3. Communist rule increased number of educated women and amount in workforce 4. Demographic changes have led to new societal roles Social Conditions in Afghanistan 1. Country has one of the world’s lowest life expectancy 2. Infant, childhood mortality is extremely high 3. Illiteracy is common, especially for women 4. New constitution promises to improve position of women Chapter 11: East Asia Intro: 1. Most heavily populated region in the world 2. Historically unified by cultural features, but politically divided in late 20 century 3. Different levels of development Flooding & Dam Building in China 1. Government trying to control Yangtze River 2. Project has displaced people and threatened endangered aquatic species 3. Results of dams are mixed 4. North China Plain has suffered from drought and flooding 5. Worst flooding occurs on Huang He River – Sediment load comes from erosion of Loess Plateau Other Environment Problems 1. China suffers from shortage of forest resources 2. Coal burning in China creates air pollution 3. Japan is relatively clean due to pollution exporting Climate Change & East Asia 1. Region has central position in global warming debates 2. Effects of global warming in China have global implications 3. China is implementing energy efficiency, alternative energy plans 4. Other East Asia countries are major GHG emitters Japan’s Physical Geography 1. Climate ranges from subtropical to nearly subarctic 2. Pacific Coast separated from Sea of Japan by mountains 3. Majority of terrain in mountainous 4. Small alluvial plains are located along coastline Taiwan’s Physical Geography 1. Taiwan is about size of Maryland 2. Central, eastern regions are mountainous 3. West is primarily alluvial plain Chinese Environment 1. Diverse environment regions and subdivisions 2. Large valleys, plateaus in tropical south – Southeast coast has limited agriculture 3. North is colder, drier – Desertification threatens this region Korean Landscapes 1. Two climates regions 2. Mountainous country
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