GY 105 Chapter 9-12 Notes_Test 3 Notes
GY 105 Chapter 9-12 Notes_Test 3 Notes GY 105
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Chapter 9: The Russian Domain Intro: 1. Includes Russia and some neighboring states 2. Dynamic and unpredictable region 3. Stretches from Baltic Sea to Pacific Ocean 4. Includes industrial centers, vast farmlands, and large expanses of tundra and taiga Environment Intro: • Kamchatka Peninsula is relatively untouched – Habitat unique to many salmon species – Domestic and foreign oil companies hold drilling, rights – Numerous national parks consolidated recently A Devastated Environment 1. Air quality is poor in many cities 2. Private automobile ownership making air pollution worse 3. Urban water supplies degraded by many sources 4. Oil spills have affected many rivers, lakes, and seas 5. Soviet Union’s nuclear programs ignored environmental safety 6. Chernobyl nuclear plant disaster affected northern Ukraine A Diverse Physical Setting • 4 major regions 1) European West 2) Ural Mountains and Siberia 3) Russian Far East 4) Caucasus and Transcaucasia 1. European West – River-and-canal system creates integration – Cold winters, cool summers – 3 sub-environments a) North: Oil Fox b) Central: Chenal Exam c) South: Chenal Exam 2. Ural Mountains & Siberia – Urals are relative low, but have valuable mineral resources – Siberia has very cold climate, little precipitation – 3 main rivers – Siberian vegetation 3. Russian Far East – Proximity to Pacific Ocean shapes region – Milder climate, longer growing seasons – Fertile river valleys – Transition 4. Caucasus & Transcaucasia – Located between Black & Caspian Seas – Diverse topography – Complex weather and climate patterns – Diverse agriculture Climate Changes Potential Benefits 1. Agriculture zones may increase 2. Less severe winters my increase energy exploration, development 3. Better commercial fishing in Arctic Ocean Potential Hazards 1. Rising sea level may flood low-lying cities 2. Indigenous people, flora, and fauna impacted by changes Population & Settlement Intro: 1. Region has 200 million people 2. Widely dispersed across region, but concentrated in cities 3. Distribution influenced by natural resources and governmental policies Population Distribution 1. European West is most heavily populated area 2. Population within Russia unevenly distributed 3. Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine have combined 60 million 4. European Core – Home to largest cities, largest industrial centers, and most productive farms – River valleys dominate population clusters 5. Siberian Hinterlands – Isolated, sparsely populated – Largest cities found along rail lines: Trans-Siberian Railroad & Baikal-Amur Mainline Regional Migration Patterns 1. Eastward movement fueled by search for natural resources 2. Peasants migrated east for agricultural opportunities, and political freedom 3. Tsarist, Soviet governments relocated millions – Gulags – Russification 4. In post-Soviet era, Russification has reversed 5. Immigrants from non-Slavic regions 6. Ease of movement has led to brain drain Inside the Russian City 1. Core has superior transportation, shopping, housing, and important offices 2. Mikrorayons serve as bedroom communities 3. Multiple factors spur suburban growth Demographic Crisis 1. Russia faces crisis of declining population, low birthrates, and high mortality 2. Governments have imitated programs to spur population growth The Legacy of Slavic Dominance Heritage of the Russian Empire 1. 900 AD, Slavic power grew through intermarriage with warriors from Sweden 2. State of Rus extended from Kiev to Baltic Sea th th 3. Empire expanded during 16 and 17 centuries with aid of Cossacks 4. 19 century, empire expanded into Central Asia Geographies of Language 1. Belarus is closely a notion-state 2. Ukraine has language split between west and east 3. Russia has pockets of indigenous and non-Russian speakers 4. Transcaucasia has several isolated cultural groups Geographies of Religion 1. Most Russians Belarusians, and Ukrainians are Eastern Orthodox 2. Religious revival following fall of Soviet Union 3. 20 million Muslims in North Caucasus, Volga Valley, and hear Kazakhstan Russian Culture in Global Context 1. Socialist realism dominated Soviet period 2. Soviet government subsidized high arts 3. 1980s, younger generation inspired by fashion and music from the West 4. Mass-consumer culture gained popularity after fall of communism – Telenovelas imported from Latin America – Movies imported from Hong Kong and India Chapter 10: Central Asia Intro: 1. Region is at center of Eurasian continent 2. Physical geography dominated by arid plains and basins 3. Regional boundaries highly debated Environment Geography Aral Sea Issues th 1. Aral Sea is one of 20 century’s greatest environmental tragedy 2. Water diverted from rivers for irrigation 3. Resulted in culture, economic, and ecological damage Other Environment Issues 1. Relatively clean region due to low population density 2. Overgrazing, poor farming practices have led to desertification 3. Caspian Sea suffered water loss from irrigation 4. Massive dam-building projects have led caused political tension Physical Regions 1. Central Asian Highlands – Created through collision of Indian subcontinent with Asian mainland – Created world’s highest mountains, and several other ranges – Tibetan Plateau 2. The Plains & Basins – 2 subregions 1) Central belt of deserts o In west, arid plains of Caspian, Aral basins o Taklamakan and Gobi dominate east 2) Northern strip of semiarid steppes Climate Change & Central Asia 1. Global warming has reduced permafrost and caused mountain glacier retreat in Tibetan Plateau 2. Reduced precipitation expected in lowlands Population & Settlement Highland Population 1. Nomadic pastoralism dominates highlands 2. Farming is limited to valleys in southern Tibetan Plateau 3. Transhumance vital in mountainous areas Lowland Population 1. Majority lives in narrow area where mountains meet basins and plains 2. Intensive agriculture occurs on alluvial fans 3. Nomadic pastoralism dominates steppes Population Issues 1. Generally low population density 2. Birth rates vary widely within region 3. Former Soviet republics have high birth rates and outmigration Urbanization in Central Asia 1. Valleys have been urbanized for thousands of years 2. Islamic, Soviet planning and designs visible in many cities 3. Highlands are primarily rural Cultural Coherence & Diversity History Overview 1. Rivers valleys, oases were sites of early agricultural communities 2. Farming villages date to 8000 BCE 3. Earliest languages were Indo-European-Altaic language Linguistic & Ethnic Geography 1. Turkic, Mongolian languages dominate 2. Few native Indo-European languages remain in southwest 3. Tibetan is part of Sino-Tibetan language family 4. Several dialects exist 5. Primary language of Tibet Autonomous Region and provinces of Qinghai, Sichuan 6. Mongolian includes many related dialects – standard version called Khalkha 7. Retained own script, but adopted Cyrillic alphabet 8. Dominates Mongolia, but prevalent in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region 9. Turkic languages are numerically dominant group 10. 5 of 6 former Soviet republics draw name from Turkic origins 11. Uyghur dominant in in Xinjiang province 12. Tajikistan dominates by Indo-European speakers – Mountain Tajik, Uzbek, and other primary languages 13. Afghanistan’s linguistic geography is complex – Half speak Dari – Uzbek, Pashtun, and others widespread Geography of Religion 1. Religious divide between west and east – Islam dominates west – Buddhism dominates east 2. Different traditions of Islam found in region – Sunni primary belief – Shiism dominant in central Afghanistan and with Azeris 3. Chinese Muslims now enjoy freedom of worship 4. Buddhism primarily found in Mongolia, Tibet 5. Until Chinese invasion, Tibet functioned as theocracy 6. Tibetan Buddhists persecuted under Chinese rule, but recently granted more freedoms Central Asia Culture in Global Context 1. Western part closely linked to Russia 2. Eastern area aligned with China 3. Poorly integrated into global cultures 4. Western influence most visible in Caspian Basin Geographical Framework Intro: 1. Historically region has played minor role in global politics 2. Prior to 1991 entire region under Soviet or Chinese control (2 exceptions) 3. Collapse of Soviet Union led to 6 new states Partitioning of the Steppes 1. Prior to 1500, region was power center 2. Mid-1700s, Manchu Dynasty had conquered Mongolia, Xinjiang, Tibet, parts of Kazakhstan 3. Mongolia, Tibet gained independence in early 1900s 4. Mid-1800s, Russia and Britain failed to conquer Afghanistan Under Communist Rule 1. 1917, western part came under communist rule 2. 1924, communist take control in Mongolia 3. 1949, Chinese revolution led to communist rule Soviet Central Asia 1. Soviet Central Asia divided into “union republics” that had some cultural autonomy – Leaders replaced by Communist Party officials – Russian immigration encouraged – Local languages had to be written in Cyrillic script 2. Region’s high birth rates led to fears of Soviet Union dominated by Turkic-speaking Muslims Chinese Geopolitical Order 1. China’s communist leaders promised political, cultural autonomy to Xinjiang 2. Tibet refused to relinquish independence, which led to occupation in 1950 3. Following Soviet model, China created autonomous regions in areas Independence in Former Soviet Union 1. Collapse of Soviet Union created 6 new states 2. Remnants of Soviet boundaries have led to numerous border disputes – Fergana Valley at center of dispute Strike in Western China 1. Indigenous population in Xinjiang, Tibet want independence 2. Anti-China protests have been put down multiple times 3. China views region as part of national territory, and covets natural resources War in Afghanistan 1. War in Afghanistan began in 1978 with Soviet invasion – Pakistan, Sandi Arabia and U.S. provided arms to anti-Soviet forces 2. Taliban movement emerged in 1995 3. U.S. & U.K. invade International Dimensions of Tensions 1. Collapse of Soviet Union led to emergency of Central Asia as key area of global tensions 2. Two treaty organizations promote security, trade – Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) – Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) 3. Afghanistan remains most pressing concern Economic & Social Issues/Development Post-Communist Economics 1. Communist planners attempted to spread development 2. Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan benefit from energy sources – Caspian Sea 3. Uzbekistan is large cotton exporter, and has gold deposit 4. Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan hold majority of region’s water supply, but remain very poor 5. Mongolia suffered from Soviet Union’s collapse, but economy is growing due to mining sector Economy of Tibet & Xinjiang 1. Tibet & Xinjiang did not suffer crash in 1990s 2. Tibet remains extremely poor 3. Xinjiang has mineral, oil wealth and productive agricultural sector 4. Chinese government is expanding infrastructure Misery of Afghanistan 1. Afghanistan is rich in natural gas and minerals, but remains impoverished 2. Late 1990s, country emerges as leading producer of illegal drugs Central Asian Economics in Global Context 1. Foreign corporations attracted to region because of natural resources 2. Infrastructure related to natural gas, oil also attracts investment Social Development in Central Asia 1. Afghanistan fairs poorly, but former Soviet republics have high health, education levels 2. Conditions in Xinjiang, Tibet are improving but lag behind China Proper Gender Issues in Former Soviet Republics 1. Traditional social position of women varied 2. “Bride abduction” is prevalent in Kyrgyzstan 3. Communist rule increased number of educated women and amount in workforce 4. Demographic changes have led to new societal roles Social Conditions in Afghanistan 1. Country has one of the world’s lowest life expectancy 2. Infant, childhood mortality is extremely high 3. Illiteracy is common, especially for women 4. New constitution promises to improve position of women Chapter 11: East Asia Intro: 1. Most heavily populated region in the world 2. Historically unified by cultural features, but politically divided in late 20 century 3. Different levels of development Flooding & Dam Building in China 1. Government trying to control Yangtze River 2. Project has displaced people and threatened endangered aquatic species 3. Results of dams are mixed 4. North China Plain has suffered from drought and flooding 5. Worst flooding occurs on Huang He River – Sediment load comes from erosion of Loess Plateau Other Environment Problems 1. China suffers from shortage of forest resources 2. Coal burning in China creates air pollution 3. Japan is relatively clean due to pollution exporting Climate Change & East Asia 1. Region has central position in global warming debates 2. Effects of global warming in China have global implications 3. China is implementing energy efficiency, alternative energy plans 4. Other East Asia countries are major GHG emitters Japan’s Physical Geography 1. Climate ranges from subtropical to nearly subarctic 2. Pacific Coast separated from Sea of Japan by mountains 3. Majority of terrain in mountainous 4. Small alluvial plains are located along coastline Taiwan’s Physical Geography 1. Taiwan is about size of Maryland 2. Central, eastern regions are mountainous 3. West is primarily alluvial plain Chinese Environment 1. Diverse environment regions and subdivisions 2. Large valleys, plateaus in tropical south – Southeast coast has limited agriculture 3. North is colder, drier – Desertification threatens this region Korean Landscapes 1. Two climates regions 2. Mountainous country with alluvial basins 3. Natural resources are more abundant in north 4. North Korean uplands have been deforested while South Korea has undertaken reforestation programs Population & Settlement Intro: 1. One of densely populated regions in the world 2. Lowlands of Japan, Korea and China are most intensely used portions 3. Region’s population growth rate has declined Japan Patterns 1. Japan is highly urbanized and very mountainous 2. Agriculture limited to coastal plains, interior basins 3. Cities located in same lowlands as agriculture China’s Agricultural Regions 1. Chinese agricultural patterns vary by regions – Rice dominates north of Yangtze – Wheat, millet, sorghum dominate south of Yangtze 2. Settlements in China are mostly rural, but cities growing at rapid rate Patterns in Korea and Taiwan 1. Korea in densely populated – Population centered in alluvial plains and basins in west and south 2. Taiwan is most densely populated state in region – Concentrated in narrow lowlands Urbanization in East Asia 1. Traditional Chinese cities defined by defensive walls 2. European colonialism changed urban landscapes 3. Beijing has changed radically since 1940s 4. Shanghai competes with Beijing for economic power 5. Hong Kong dominates southern coast 6. Urban structure in South Korea and Japan differ from China – South Korea noted for urban primacy – Japan defined by its super conurbation Cultural Coherence & Diversity Unifying Cultural Characteristics 1. Writing systems are ideographic 2. System diffused with expansion of China 3. Korea replaced characters with alphabetic system 4. Japanese uses three types of symbols 5. Confucian philosophy holds significant position 6. Stresses obedience, education, and family 7. Role in development regularly debated Religious Unity & Diversity 1. Mahayana Buddhism is dominant 2. Shinto is closed tied to Japanese identity 3. Taoism stresses spiritual harmony 4. Christianity found throughout region 5. Islam concentrated in parts of China 6. One of most secular regions in world – Majority of Japanese observe Shinto or Buddhism during rituals – Marxism advocated atheistic philosophy – North Korea’s official ideology is juche Linguistic & Ethnic Diversity 1. Japanese are very homogeneous population 2. Japanese is unrelated to other languages 3. People of Korea descent suffer discrimination 4. Immigration is severely limited 5. Koreans are relatively homogeneous 6. Strong regional identity relates to medieval period 7. Widespread Korean diaspora 8. China has complex language, ethnic patterns 9. Han are majority, which has been incorporated into cultural, political systems 10. Many upland districts home to non-Han 11. Non-Han often classified as tribal 12. Large non-Han populations found in Manchuria, south-central and far west 13. Taiwan is linguistically, ethnically complex 14. Small group of tribal people speak Austronesian languages 15. 1949, Mandarin-speaking nationalist forces arrived East Asian Culture in Global Context 1. Capitalist countries characterized by cultural internationalism 2. Cultural exchange is now reciprocal 3. South Korea’s popular music industry is becoming more global Geopolitical Framework Intro: 1. Political history tied to China’s centrality, and Japan remaining outside 2. Traditional Chinese geopolitics based on universal empire 3. Political system influenced by colonialism The Evolution of China 1. Core of China entered on North China Plain and Loess Plateau 2. 1644, Manchu conquered Ming Dynasty 3. European colonialism led to political, economic chaos and division into spheres of influence 4. 1911, empire collapsed The Rise of Japan th 1. Japan emerged as unified state in 7 century 2. 1600s, Japan united under Tokugawa Shogunate 3. 1850s, Japan opened to foreign trade, influence 4. Japan modernized and expanded empire leading up to World War II Postwar Geopolitics 1. Japan’s military power limited by 1945 constitution, but concerns about China threat has led to debate 2. Korean Peninsula divided, which led to separate governments and war 3. 1949, Communists emerge victorious in mainland while nationalists fled to Taiwan 4. Geopolitical future of Taiwan remains unclear 5. PRC has retained most territories controlled by Manchus 6. Late 1990s, PRC reclaimed Hong Kong and Macao Global Dimension of Geopolitics 1. 1950s, region divided by U.S., U.S.S.R. influence 2. China-Soviet alliance unraveled 3. End of Cold War changed balance of power Economic & Social Development Japan’s Economy & Society 1. Japan’s economic miracle began in 1950s 2. 1990s, real estate market collapse led to banking crisis 3. Living standards slightly lower than U.S., but social measures better than U.S. 4. Expensive basic products offset by low unemployment, national healthcare 5. Position of women is controversial Newly Industrialized Countries 1. South Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan industrialized starting in 1960s 2. 1970s, South Korea conglomerates shifted from consumer goods to industrial products and high-tech equipment 3. Taiwan development due to strong government influence 4. Hong Kong criticized for laissez-faire approach Chinese Development 1. Communist government nationalized industries 2. Two economic failures under Communist government 3. 1970s, economy became more capitalist 4. Country still politically dominated by Communist Party 5. Industrial reform created Special Economic Zones 6. Government dismantled agricultural cooperatives 7. Economic expansion has created tension with U.S. 8. Critics of development cite concerns over human rights, political freedoms 9. Regional, social differences are stark – Coast and southern provinces have benefited most – Interior and northern provinces lag behind in development Social Conditions in China 1. 1978, adopted “one-child” policy 2. Higher fertility rates in poorer, rural areas 3. Very high gender imbalance due to policy 4. Government is reviewing changes in policy Chapter 12: South Asia Intro: 1. Region has experienced growth, development over past decades 2. Many areas display environmental degradation 3. Population growth is problematic Environment & Climate Intro: 1. Region ranges from world’s highest mountain’s to delta islands barely above sea level 2. Dense human population and industrialization generate problems 3. Air pollution is problematic Natural Hazards & Landscape Change 1. Bangladesh illustrates link between population pressure and environmental issues 2. Heavily populated delta is subject to flooding 3. Economic, human losses are significant 4. Flooding in region connected to deforestation in uplands 5. Tropical monsoon forest, savanna woodlands have vanished 6. Issues surround fuel wood, and planting of eucalyptus trees 7. Wildlife conservation has been successful Monsoon Climates 1. Monsoon is seasonal change of wind direction 2. Winter monsoon results in cold, dry winds flowing outward from continental interior 3. Summer monsoon results in wet, hot winds flowing inward from Indian Ocean 4. Orographic rainfall results in extremely wet areas 5. Deccan Plateau sits in rain shadow Climate Change & South Asia 1. Risings sea level threatens Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta and Maldives 2. Widespread effects on agriculture 3. India signed Kyoto Protocol, but does not have to follow main provisions 4. 2011, CGIAR instituted “climate-smart village” program Physical Subregions • 4 major subregions 1. Mountains of the North – Himalayas are dominant range – Mountains are result of tectonic collision – Area geologically active – Sparsely populated due to rugged high terrain 2. Indus-Ganges Brahmaputra Lowlands – Large alluvial plains with fertile soils – Population core of Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh o Indus irrigated in Pakistan o Ganges provides fertile soil in India 3. Peninsular India – Deccan Plateau dominates with mountains to east, west – Coastal plains support high population densities – Soils of Deccan Plateau are very poor – Government building dams to aid irrigation 4. Southern Islands – Sri Lanka has large coastal plains with large mountains in southern interior – The Maldives consists of many low coral atolls Population & Settlement Intro: 1. Region will soon surpass East Asia as most populous region 2. Region still undergoing rapid population growth despite declines in India and Pakistan Migration & Settlement Landscape 1. One of world’s least urbanized regions 2. Rural-to-urban migration is rapidly increasing urbanization 3. Highest population densities found in river valleys, coastal plains 4. Shantytowns, homelessness are problems in major cities Agricultural Regions & Activities 1. Three agricultural zones based on subsistence crops 2. Green Revolution allowed food production to keep pace with population – Major ecological, social costs of revolution Urban South Asia 1. Region has to 40 urban areas with over one million inhabitants 2. Mumbai is financial industrial, and commercial center of India 3. Kolkata has over 1 million homeless people – Infrastructure is insufficient – Hindu-Muslim mix creates tension 4. Karachi is Pakistan’s commercial core – Urban growth rate of 5% – Political, ethnic tensions have led to unrest Cultural Coherence & Diversity Intro: 1. Historically well-defined cultural region dominated by Hinduism – Arrival of Islam added new religious element – British imperialism brought new components 2. Since mid-20 century, religious issues have divided region – Hindu nationalism in India Origins of South Asian Civilizations 1. Hinduism emerged from Ganges Valleys civilization – Epic stories contained in Vedas 2. Buddhism developed as challenge, critique to Hinduism – By 500 CE, disappeared from region 3. 1000, Islam introduced from Central Asia 4. Mughal Empire dominated region during 16 and 17 centuries 5. Caste system visible among Muslim, Christian, and Hindu population – Social system based on ritual purity – System legally banned in India in 1950s Geographies of Religion 1. Hinduism dominates India and Nepal – Minority religion in Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka 2. Islam dominant in Pakistan & Bangladesh – Widespread minority in India 3. Sikhism combines aspects of Hinduism and Islam – Originated in Punjab – Persecution led to militantly defensive stance – Men do not cut hair or beards 4. Buddhism persist among Sinhalese in Sri Lanka with Tibetan Buddhism in Himalayas 5. Jainism stresses nonviolence with majority of adherents in northwestern India 6. Parsis practice ancient Zoroastrianism 7. Christians from large minority in India with numerous sects Geographies of Language 1. Indo-European languages dominant in north 2. Dravidian languages are dominant in south 3. Tibeto-Burman dominates northern mountains 4. Hindi and Bengali are most widely spoken languages 5. Pakistan has complex linguistic landscape – Punjabi dominant daily language – Urdu is one of two official languages 6. Four main Dravidian languages spoken in southern India and northern Sri Lanka – Each language is associated with specific state 7. Indo-European languages dominate Sri Lanka and Maldives – Sinhalese dominates Sri Lanka – Dhivehi spoken in Maldives 8. Multilingualism creates many conflicts 9. Linguistic nationalism causes political tensions 10. Hindi expanding throughout region 11. Role of English debated South Asia in Global Culture Context 1. Use of English aids cultural diffusion 2. South Asian diaspora also spread culture 3. Globalization of culture has led to clash between traditional religions views and western influences Geopolitical Framework Intro: 1. Region not politically united until British imperialism 2. 1947 Partition of India created two new states 3. 1971, Bangladesh gained independence Before & After Independence 1. Mughal Empire ruled northern portion 2. Hindu Kingdom dominated south 3. Environmental degradation, colonialism contribute to poverty 4. Some recent economic improvements 5. Large natural gas reserves could aid economy 6. Pakistan had strong agricultural and textile sectors after independence 7. Defense spending burdens economy 8. Economic future uncertain due to electricity shortages, lack of FDI, and political instability 9. Sri Lanka has highly developed economy – Exports textiles and agricultural products – Civil war has slowed economic growth 10. Maldives is prosperous, but limited economy – Revenues derived from fishing and tourism 11. West-central states have industrial, financial power 12. Northwest states benefited from Green Revolution 13. High-tech sector centered in Bangalore and Hyderabad Globalization & Economic future 1. FDI and foreign trade are relatively small, but rapidly globalizing 2. 1990s, India and others opened their economies 3. Internationalization and deregulation have been met by opposition 4. Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka export labor Social Development 1. Region has low levels of health, education with regional variation – Sri Lanka, southwest India have high levels of social welfare 2. Women have low social position in Hindu, Muslim traditions – Female literacy lags behind male – Gender ratios are unbalanced – Dowry demands and dowry murders remain 3. Sepoy Mutiny led British government to take control over region 4. Independence movements in early 20 century had different agendas 5. Partition displaced 14 million people – Hindus, Sikhs fled Pakistan – Muslims fled India Ethnic Conflicts in South Asia 1. Kashmir is most complex conflict – Muslim core with Hindu district and Tibetan Buddhist district – Ruled by Hindu King 2. Maharaja chose to join India during Partition 3. Sri Lanka’s ethnic violence stems from religious, linguistic differences 4. Hindu Tamils seek independence 5. 1983-2009, civil war led to 80000-100000 death The Maoist Challenge 1. Multiple issues have led to revolutionary movements in east-central India 2. Maoists in Nepal have led to end of monarchy International Geopolitics 1. Conflict between India and Pakistan continues to be major issue 2. Pakistan’s states changed after 9/11 attacks – Aided U.S. led attacks on Taliban and al-Qaeda – Heightened internal tensions due to helping U.S. Economic & Social Development Geographies of Economic Development 1. Nepal and Bhutan are disadvantaged due to terrain and remoteness – Lack modern technology and infrastructure – Most areas still subsistence oriented – Tourism links countries to global economy 2. Bangladesh is poorest country in region
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