Week of Notes (4-12-16 and 4-14-16)
Week of Notes (4-12-16 and 4-14-16) PSYCH 3240
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This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by Lucy Stevens on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSYCH 3240 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Claudio Cantalupo in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see PSYCH 3240 in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 04/14/16
Chapter 10 (Continued) 4-12-16 Chapter 10: to page 321 Chapter 11: to page 336 Ganglion cells are specific: one specific for red and green and one for blue and yellow; this brings us the experience of four primary colors and the Combined Theory of Color **Red light: causes an inhibitory effect onto the R-G ganglion cell (mainly the red cones) and signals to the brain that there must be red shinning on the eye. **Green light: excites the green cone, and higher rate of firing goes to the brain and translates the color. Red Light- inhibited Green Light- activated **Blue light: activates the blue cone and causes an excitatory effect onto the Y-B Ganglion cell and sends signals to brain and gives rise to color “blue.” **Yellow light: activates some of the red and green cone together because these wavelengths are much similar than that of the blue cones. Sends impulses to the R-G ganglion cell, and the impulses are canceled out because one is excitatory and one is inhibitory. Red nor green are “seen” and ganglion still fires at resting state. This has an effect on the R-B Ganglion cell by inhibiting it, which causes yellow. Inhibit R-G Ganglion Cellè RED Excite R-G Ganglion Cellè GREEN Excite Y-B Ganglion Cellè BLUE Inhibit R-G and Excite R-G, which inhibits Y-Bè YELLOW Receptive Fields of Color-Opponent Ganglion Cells • Look like concentric circles, which allows for further and richer color perception between different wavelengths. • More efficient discrimination of number of wavelengths • Enhanced information on color contrast in objects Form Perception: Perception of Edges • Sensory system enhances perception of borders o Mach band illusion • Lateral inhibition o Ganglion cells inhibit and are inhibited by neighboring cells o Stimulating photoreceptor #12 will excite it with green rays and inhibit #11 and #13 with red bands. o At edges, ganglion cells get differential amounts of inhibition darker edge and brighter edgeè makes edge stand out perceptually o Sensory system enhances perception of edges (Mach Illusion) • “On-center” and “Off-center” Ganglion cells o Antagonistic arrangement of receptive fields o Act as edge detectors o On-Center: light produces “on” response in the center and “off” response on the outside o Off-Center: light produces “off” response in the center and “on” response on the outside • Hubel and Wiesel o Simple cells in visual cortexè respond to edges at a specific orientation and place on the retina o Complex Cellsè respond to edges moving across retina • Ganglion cells detect edges • Edges and borders are sudden changes in luminosity • Ability to detect changes in luminosity is so fundamental that the brain has given these jobs to the retina. Brain puts together raw data from retina and interprets. *Receptive Field- area of the retina from which a neuron receives input *What I shape of receptive field of neurons? -Circular for ganglion cells and neurons in the thalamus -BAR sharped in the visual cortex *When vertical bar of light falls on the On-Center ganglion cells, all four-ganglion cells will fire faster than resting state, and then the simple cell will also fire faster. IF one of the on-center cell isn’t in the light bar, then it doesn’t fire faster and takes away from the simple cell firing at its fastest speed. Spatial Frequency Theory • Some neurons perform Fourier Analysis of the luminosity variations of a scene • Neurons in visual cortex do not detect only edges • Visual world is combination of high and low spatial frequencies o Need neurons sensitive to both Visual Pathways • Parvocellular System o P Ganglion cells project to ventral stream (“what” system) that travels through inferior temporal lobe (from areas V1, V2, and V4 of visual cortex) o Color vision (V4) and detailed object recognition (inferior temporal lobe) • Mangnocellular System o M Ganglion cells projects to dorsal stream (“where” system) that travels to posterior parietal lobe (from areas V1, V2, and V65) o Brightness contrast, orientation, movement, depth and location of objects. • Both systems then travel to the prefrontal cortex (for planning). Disorders of Visual Perception • Object Agnosia: impairment in ability to recognize an object by sight o Prosopagnosia: inability to recognize familiar faces o Due to inferior temporal lobe damage (fusiform face aphasia specialized for face recognition) • Color Agnosia: impairment in color perception due to brain damage o V1 is for wavelength discrimination: V4 is for more complex color perception (color constancy) • Movement Agnosia: inability to perceive movement o Damage to V5 (medial temporal gyrus) • Neglect: ignores visual, touch ad auditory stimulation on opposite side of damaged posterior parietal lob (mostly right hemisphere) o Patients ignore anything that is on the left side. Chapter 11 3-14-16 Body Senses and Movement Proprioception, skin senses, and the Vestibular Sense • Proprioception: sense of the position and movement of our limbs and body o Involve sensors for tension in muscles and angles of limb joints o Helps maintin posture, mive limbs and reach/grasp objects • Skin Senses: Type of Receptors o Touch, warmth, cold and pain o Two major types of receptor: § Free nerve endings-sense of warmth, cold and pain § Encapsulated Receptors (complex structures enclosed in membranes that gives sense of touch) o Merkel’s Discs Meissner’s Corpuscle § Ability to feel and how rough a relatively smooth structure feels § Responds to movement (when you move hand a cross a surface you can feel the textural properties of it) § Located in surface areas of skin o Ruffini Ending and Pacininan Corpuscle: § Not involved in fine textural details § Mostly stretch receptors that detect skin stretching; as you grasp an object with you hand, you end up stretching the skin, which is detected by these receptors § This helps us determine the shape of the object § Located In deeper areas of skin o Free Nerve Ending § Detect warmth, cold and pain § Different protein channels for specific sensations: • 2 receptors for warmth, 1 receptor for cold • 2 receptors for painful heat o Dermatome: a segment of the body served by a specific nerve (cranial or spinal) • Vesibular Sense: maintains balance and provides information on head position and movement o Semicircular canals of inner ear repsonsive to rotational movement o Utricle and Saccule: monitor head positon in relation to gravity and detecting vertical and horizontal acceleration § When head is tilted or moved the gelatinous mass with otoliths shifts bending cilia of the receptorsè (depolarization/hyperpolarization) § Respond to acceleration • Utricleè horizontal acceleration • Sacculeè vertical acceleration § Similar in anatomy § Cylinder make of bone § Hair cells which are embedded into a medium on top of which are otoliths (tiny rocks inside the ear) \ Resources Garrett, Bob. Brain & Behavior: An Introduction to Biological Psychology. Vol. 3. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, 2010. Print. Cantalupo, Ph.D., Claudio. "PSYCH 3240." Psych 3240 Lecture. 120 Brackett Hall, Clemson. 22 Mar. 2016. Lecture.
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