Psych 380: Test 4 Notes
Psych 380: Test 4 Notes Psych 380
Popular in Abnormal Psych
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
verified elite notetaker
This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Cara Cahalan on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Psych 380 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Rosemary Esseks in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psych in Psychlogy at University of Nebraska Lincoln.
Reviews for Psych 380: Test 4 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 04/14/16
4/12: Psychological Factors that Affect Physical Health: Part I Link between psychological and physical health Psychological factors that affect physical health o Psychological distress i.e. anxiety, depression o Personality traits i.e. tendency towards anger o Cognitive style i.e. not feeling in control o Unhealthy behaviors i.e. smoking What is stress? Stressor any life event which requires a psychological and/or physical o Can be positive or negative, great or small Small stressor daily hassles Moderate stressors furnace braking, flu Major life events births, death, marriage Stress effects of the stressor on the organism, adaptation the organism must make Biological Processes in Stress Fight or flight in response to a perceived threat, adrenal glands produce hormone secretions that o Increase heart rate o Slows digestion o Sends more oxygen to major muscle groups o Cause the liver the release more glucose Possible Effects of Stress Positive rust of stress hormones including cortisol cause o Increased strength o Increased ability to focus o Sense of accomplishment, wellbeing, and excitement Negative effects of flight or flight o Cardiovascular racing heart, sweaty palms, cold hands, vasospasm o Digestive dry mouth, butterflies in stomach. o Emotional feeling overwhelmed, anxiety, irritability. o Cognitive shortterm memory problems. o Immunological chronic secretion of stress hormones can cause immune system dysfunction How much this all affects you has to do with o Amount of adaptation necessary o Amount of coping resources available i.e. degree of current stress, physical health, social support o Perceived level of control related to predictability o Availability of outlets for frustration o Tendency towards optimism General Adaptation Syndrome Hans Selye o Alarm becoming aware of stress o Resistance mobilizing resources to deal with stress o Exhaustion running out of resources to cope with stress Effects of Chronic Stress Mobilization of energy fatigue Increased cardiovascular action hypertension Suppressed digestion gastrointestinal problems Because it suppresses the immune system, stress can also… o Worsen an existing illness o Cause an illness to emerge Stress and BehaviorallyRelated Conditions: Headaches both types often caused or worsened by stress o Muscle tension Caused by muscular contractions Experienced as pain on both sides o Migraine Caused by changes in blood flow Can be very disabling Cardiovascular illness contributing causes include stress and behavioral factors such as… o Diet high fat/cholesterol content o Obesity o Smoking o High blood pressure Cardiovascular illness contributing factors include o Anger o Anxiety/depression o Lack of social support o High job strain present in occupations that pair high psychological demand with low control o Lack of coping skills o However, genetics are also a major cause Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders disorders of the GI system that involve physical problems triggered or worsened by stress o Heart burn o Acid stomach o Irritable bowel syndrome Cancer causes include some behaviors (i.e. smoking, unprotected sex, high fat diet) o Progression of disease reduced by providing training in Reducing stress Increasing emotional coping skills Increasing perceived control Enhancing social supports Smoking o Use stimulates CNS, relaxed muscles Estimated 17% of US population is dependent Responsible for 25% of total deaths Accounts for 60% of direct health care costs Dependence develops quickly Many try repeatedly to quit without success Cessation of use at any point improves health Obesity 36% of adults are obese (BMI ≥ 30) o Associated with cardiovascular problems, skeletal problems, stigma o Related to physical inactivity o Traditional dietary methods often effective i.e. yoyo dieting 4/14 Psychological Factors that Affect Physical Health: Part II Prevention and Treatment of Physical Disorders Involves awareness… o Of the severity of health problems o Of the mechanisms by which a person may contract a health problem o Of the likelihood that an individual will experience a health problem o Of behaviors that can reduce the risk of experiencing a health problem Skills training o Specific preventative behaviors i.e. condom use o Assertivenessi.e. how to discuss weight management plan with partner Motivational interviewing effective for a variety of healthrelated behavior change interventions Behavioral Treatment of Physical Disorders Classic conditioning applications o Classical conditioning i.e. for anxiety related to seeing medical providers o Covert sensitization i.e. imagining negative consequences while smoking o Relaxation includes diaphragmatic breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, and guided imagery (imagining relaxing scene) May reduce rates of stress hormones Raises threshold for pain Successfully treats migraines and tension headaches Assists in management of high blood pressure o Biofeedback learning to control usually involuntary physical processes (heart rate, blood pressure) through visual or auditory feedback Raises threshold for pain Successfully treats tension and migraine headaches Reduces high blood pressure (not a suitable substitute for medication Relaxation works about as well (and is much cheaper) Operant conditioning applications o Contingency management reorganizing environmental factors to change reinforcement of client behaviors Used to increase compliance to medical procedures/reduce behaviors that imperil health Can involve… Contingency contracting positive reinforcement for participation in physical therapy/quitting smoking Relapse prevention focus more on positive coping if more likely to overeat when depressed o Cognitive restructuring Target thoughts involving Putting unfair demands on self Improving perception of control (within reason) Addressing thinking errors that maintain unhealthy behaviors (“I deserve French fries today”). For heart disease, reduce hostility Can increase pain threshold CBT: Specific Application Smoking cessation o Works best when nicotine replacement therapy (gum, patch) is combined with psychotherapy techniques such as… Stimulus control (response prevention): avoiding triggers to smoke (being in a bar) Contingency contracting to reward reduced smoking Rapid smoking: aversive technique involving inhaling every few seconds o Nicotine vaccine (Chantix) Causes immune system to attack nicotine, reducing pleasure Increased risk of suicide and aggression, possibly reduced tolerance to alcohol Effective also for irritable bowel and coping with medical procedures o Psychological preparation Informing patient about medical procedures through videos, ward tours, or play May reduce anxiety and increase sense of control o Behavioral interventions i.e. distraction and relaxation training o Cognitive coping i.e. reframing thoughts (i.e. “This hurts, but long term it will help”). Weight management strong support for behavioral approaches involving eating less and exercising more o Eat a variety of foods emphasize vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and healthy fats (i.e. from fish, nuts, vegetable oils) o Food to limit those containing much saturated and trans fats, salt, cholesterol, added sugars, and alcohol o Avoid labeling foods as forbidden (unless you have allergies) forbidden foods can become alluring o Realize that nutritional needs differ across time and people small children need more healthy fats, people sweating a lot need more salt o Eating behaviors Eat three small meals plus snacks Pay attention to portion size Eat “consciously” you are less likely to overeat and more likely to enjoy meals o Consider how you use food as a coping skill eating to cope with stress is only a problem if frequent o If you want to change your body, set realistic goals focused more on health than weight take into account age, heredity, and weight distribution Stress management make changes when you can, improve coping when you can’t o Time management Keep a schedule Break up tasks into parts Write what needs to be done each day Don’t’ put more on the list than can be reasonably be accomplished Check off when you’ve finished each task o Confront/eliminate sources of stress (when possible) o Take care of self physically i.e. getting enough sleep, healthy eating o Take care of self emotionally have fun, use social supports, maintain a good activity level, take breaks from stressors
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'