International Studies 260 Notes
International Studies 260 Notes INTL260
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This 15 page Bundle was uploaded by Peter Cooper on Tuesday February 10, 2015. The Bundle belongs to INTL260 at University of Oregon taught by Prof. Wooten in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 194 views. For similar materials see International Studies 260 in International Studies at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 02/10/15
Outline 1 Peter Cooper Adam Smith vs Marx and Engels International Studies 260 Smith Capitalism Division of labor is the most important factor when analyzing the increase in production Capitalism is possible because of the division of labor and it thrives under its ideals because it promotes the idea of a cheap workforce aimed at high quantities of production More diversity in nations with industry and constant growth Division of labor comes from our tendency to barter Advocated for the use of comparative advantages between countries regarding the production and trade of goods This which would facilitate growth domestically or enhance trade with other nations depending on the product Marx and Engels Communism Class strugglescon icts are the driving force of change within a society Argues that capitalism is unstable Communists intend to eliminate social classes because they think it is a natural process to be equal The working class proletariat is constantly exploited by the capitalists bourgeois for manual labor and cheap wages Belief that one day the proletariat wi overthrow the ruling class and establish communism which they see as the best way to achieve class equality Outline 2 Peter Cooper Are Sweatshops Necessarily Evil International Studies 260 Background A sweatshop is a location where goods are massproduced and the workers often suffer from poor working conditions and minimal wages There is a great controversy between those who think this practice is unethical and those who think that it is helping developing nations Argument 1 Black Yes Sweatshops are evil quotFashion Industry Forumquot drew of cials from big retailers like WalMart to discuss the issue of sweatshops The quotno sweatquot campaign required retailers to raise expenses in order to prove to consumers that their product is made under adequate conditions Initially there was debate over how companies would monitor labor conditions and further who would quotmonitor the monitorsquot Companies are taking a nancial leap when they elect to not use sweatshops because it requires more money to be spent on the regulation of production facilities thus raising the prices of goods for the consumers Good manufacturing habits will result in a higher quality product As more companies commit to being honest about their means of production Black argues that Sweatshops will eventually disappear because people generally don t support products that come from an unethical producer Black also argues that in the United States apparel manufacturers make good money and bene ts which suggest that the industry can support a healthy and suf cient lifestyle Argument 2 Myerson No Sweatshops are not evil Argues that sweatshops or low wage jobs in general are a crucial rst step for developing countries in their quest for prosperity and wealth Some highlevel economists claim that there are in fact not enough sweatshops in the world today and that many poor countries could desperately use them Evidence from Asian countries like Singapore and Hong Kong suggest that these cheap labor facilities are quotsteppingstonesquot to greater economic prosperity for places like rural Africa Economists support sweatshops because they feel a sense of optimism regarding how quickly they can bene t those developing countries in the future Korea went from selling wigs to cars and computers in a relatively short amount of time It s not so much that economists agree with the principles and practices of the sweatshops according to our standards of living rather they are the next best alternative when weighing some of the other things that poor people elect to do for sustenance Some argue that sweatshops take away from domestic production although it s complicated because their livelihood depends on our corporations presence Outline 3 Peter Cooper International Studies 260 Should Corporations Adopt Policies of Corporate Social Responsibility YES 0 Overall goal of western in uenced societies is to attain the quotgreatest happiness for the greatest numberquot the problem is deciding the best way to reach that goal 0 New ways of thinking in America over the course of the twentieth century revealed that individual and group interests within a business are not as important as the interests of society overall 0 That being said the immense power that businesses have within the American way of life especially the managers at those businesses comes with a certain responsibility to keep society progressive clean and enjoyable Managerial values differ between individuals but looking at the spectrum of the different styles most can be grouped within three categories individual pro tmaximizing group trustee and a quotquality of life stylequot of management 0 Individuals thinkers quotwhat s good for me is good for my countryquot Groups thinkers quotwhat s good for my company is good for the countryquot Quality of life thinkers quotwhat s good for society is good for our companyquot 0 Quality of life managers have a wellrounded view of what is takes operate an af uent society which includes the expectation from corporations to pursue actions that bene t society as a whole 0 quotMoney is important but people are more importantquot NO Friedman claims that only people can have responsibilities thus businesses can only have arti cial responsibilities 0 From a corporate executive position their main expectation being a high official in a capitalist economy is to make the most money possible 0 Therefore in a capitalist system with the sole approach of making money social responsibilities often come across as nagging externalities and simply illogical from a business standpoint quotThey business executives can do good but only at their own expense quotCorporations then have no interest but self interest in that respect they are solidary animals and they violate their nature if they try to live for othersquot Claims that government and politics in general are a tedious process that slows the progression of society and that businessman can solve problems sooner lt the responsibility of corporations is to make money and it s up to the people to make social justice Outline 4 Peter Cooper February 14 2014 International Studies 260 ISSUE Do international nancial institutions and multinational corporations exploit the developing world Stance 1 Stiglitz Yes IFIs and MNCs exploit the developing world Globalization can either help or hinder a nation looking for increased prosperity it all depends on how it is managed within the con nes of the given nation While globalization stems from primarily democratic nations it is often forced upon developing nations in a very undemocratic process that focuses wholly on market fundamentalism In other words these corporations often pursue their own nancial interests and breach what is ethically acceptable Countries in East Asia have experienced the rewards on globalization because they grew at their own pace and they rejected advice from the US that told them to privatize the market and have minimal government intervention Ironically the only time these countries ran into economic trouble was when they gave into the pressure from the outside world to conform to different market ideals Developing countries are like quotsmall boatsquot when compared to the rest of the global economy and their success depends almost entirely on the economic powers of the world like the US Liberalization of capital markets is forced but it does nothing to help developing countries because the IMF imposes high interest rates on loans that deter future investment and this results in unemployment poverty and economic recessions September 11th revealed the lack of transparency in the international nancial world and Stiglitz suggests global reform in necessary to achieve social and nancial justice A contrast in economic policy making between the US and international nancial institutions show that the process internationally is ultimately very undemocratic which results in the exploitation of the easiest targets developing countries Stance 2 Bhagwati No IFIs and MNCs do not hurt developing countries Bhagwati points out that the biggest criticism of multinationals is that they exploit developing countries for their cheap labor However only an 83 foreign pro t suggests that there isn t that much money to share and these workers are usually making more than the average wage in their respective country Argues that cultural norms are obviously different wherever you go in the world and you shouldn t use your Western bias when judging how other countries operate because it often leads to a false representation of what s actually happening Spillover is the idea that as a result of the presence of multinationals the workers will become more efficient technologically sound and capable of managerial duties Claims that a real problem is the fact that certain places like Africa lack the political stability to draw these multinational corporations which would without question put them on the track to prosperity Outline 5 Peter Cooper International Studies 260 February 21 2014 Issue Should the International Community Attempt to curb Population Growth in the Developing World YES Robert S McNamara from quotThe P0pulation Explosionquot Consumption and Environmental Sustainability 0 A 26fold increase in global population will result in per capita consumption to be 8 times greater than it is today and the world s production output is expected to be 20 times greater Outdated numbers 0 The environment will not be able to cope with this drastic shift in demand if we continue to exploit natural systems 0 We must rely on technological advancements to relieve environmental stress 0 Difficult to measure how natural systems will react when they are put under new pressure and stress from anthropogenic processes which is why humans need to take the quotbetter safe than sorry approachquot 0 A world with 14 billion people would require food production output levels to be 4 times greater than today 0 Agriculture technology will have to improve because the cost of feeding the current population is causing soil erosion water pollution and habitat destruction 0 Scientists say that there are a nite number of people the earth can support 0 The earth simply can t support an economy with 510 time s greater output 0 Our best hope is to revise our technological social and economic polices Reducing Fertility Argues that all developing countries should seek measures to reduce fertility because that s the proven course of action to improve quality of life 0 This would reduce environmental degradation poverty and the toll taken by women and children o It would allow these countries to become more economically and socially advanced o The best way to achieve this is through the implementation of contraceptives and family planning o Advises industrialized countries and large nancial institutions to help with the scal aspect of this transition because it will bene t the entire globe NO Steven W Mosher from quotMcNamara s Folly Bankrolling Family Planningquot Population control or nancial incentive o Mosher implies that McNamara during his time at the World Bank would use developing countries as quotloan sharksquot to take on loans that would presumably improve the quality of life 0 He would pressure developing countries into accepting these high interest rate loans to fund family planning and other population control techniques like abortion 0 The World Bank is a very secret organization but the nancial rewards were assumed to have been immense when they were issuing these loans 0 Given the sudden onset of these antinatal practices Mosher suggests that McNamara was preaching the rewards of population control as a sort of cover up for a much larger ambition he called quotsocial engineeringquot Corrupted Feminist Movement 0 Implementing population control puts an unfair burden on the woman of these countries 0 Most contraceptives besides condoms require the woman to be the main participator 0 Since woman give birth to children they are left with the harsh decision of abortion 0 Feminists in developing countries realized they were being exploited or in other words being used as quotmarketing consultantsquot for the population control initiative 0 Many feminists in these countries refuse to accept these programs because they violate basic rights and deter from their actual needs 0 Overall Mosher s stance is that you can t simply solve the major problems of today s world poverty pollution hunger by bribing the poor to become less in numbers for this is a very unethical approach that jeopardizes human rights especially woman health care and democratic processes Outline 7 Peter Cooper International Studies 260 March 7 2014 Zapatista Army of National Liberation Announcement The Zapatista s are a group of civil revolutionists from he southern Mexican state of Chiapas The group has long been at quotwarquot with the Mexican state in attempt to keep any political social military or corporate in uences out of Chiapas o The people value their indigenous heritage enough to deny the in uences of capitalism and a globalized word 0 They are seeking indigenous control of the land They claim a high standard of living compared to other indigenous populations in Mexico Claim that being isolated is not a bad thing to them it is normal and is something that more people should do in regards to living Promote the idea of sustainable agriculture and its ties to a stronger community Criticizes the Mexican government for making hardworking people suffer while they enjoy the riches of being a public servant Their agenda is somewhat anarchist also libertarian socialism A call to action for other Mexican citizens who are tired of the socalled tyrannical Mexican government The Zapatistas endorse the idea that not getting any media attention is a good thing and that being silent is actually very powerful in today s world Refuse to give in to the everyday pressures of modern culturecapitalism They think that those who work in the government misuse the people s money and they label them as dishonest tend to draw honest hardworking indigenous people 0 Overall their message is to deny the constant change that the modern world brings you can live a ful lling life by remaining local simple and hardworking NationState versus indigenous peoples argument will force be used by the state Outline 8 International Studies 260 March 14th 2014 Peter Cooper Article 1 The New Politics of Consumerism Juliet Schor We live in a consumerism driven society that basically translates into a lifestyle that is geared heavily towards making and spending money 0 Some have challenged this way of life by claiming it to be arti cial and incapable of yielding true human satisfaction and content Is the quotgood lifequot achieved by being a middle class member of a system that uses you for your income It is becoming increasingly more apparent that many people are nding the capitalist system to be either failing them or underperforming to the point where they are struggling to get by Is capitalism a sustainable system and can we count on it to be around for the foreseeable future 0 The idea of perpetual growth is becoming more and more foolish and ignorant in a world that is seeing so many other countries striving for economic prosperity Income inequality is a huge socioeconomic problem throughout the world 0 Social standing is determined by what you consume 0 Small portion of rich people control majority of wealth unethical 0 Furthermore should the richest country really be endorsing the idea of perpetual growth 7 ideas to solve the consumption problem Everyone has the right to a decent standard of living Focus on quality of life rather that quantity of material goods Ecologically stable consumption Democratize consumption practices Endorse and cherish native cultures Get rid of the idea of a fetish Citizen involvement in pressuring to make change OOOOOOO Article 2 Prophet Of Modest Pro t Thea Sullivan Those who are able to understand the modern market and take advantage of it don t see any problem with it because it s making them a lot of easy money 0 People who make money off investments are generally disconnected to how that money came into there position therefore they don t care about the negative side effects of their earnings The idea of perpetual growth and overconsumption are intertwined but people often don t think so As a culture we ve separated pro t and social goals so that certain nancial objectives often cross paths that are illogical within that organization or foundation Need investors to drastically change how they approach the market and we need to get past the notion that the market can and will makes the best decisions by itself that s not true We need an economy that endorses the idea of gaining wealth without losing sign of social and environmental degradation 0 Maximize wellbeing with as little consumption as possible Need to start endorsing local family farms to promote soil health and stop soil erosion Also need to stop use of excess pesticides and chemicals used to attain short term yields because it ruins the soil If you don t produce anything money is your security blanket and all you have is purchasing power Spend so much money on military because we re afraid to change our unsustainable way of life 0 lronic because what we re ghting isn t the quotterroristsquot it s the fearofchange Outline 6 Peter Cooper International Studies 260 February 28 2014 Issue Is the World a Victim of American Cultural Imperialism Stance 1 Yes luia Galeota Many cultures around the world are becoming very diluted or diminishing entirely due to the large in ux of American principles on their way of life Corporate America has its eyes set on controlling not only domestic consumers but international consumers as well 0 Such control over foreign markets is detrimental to local economies because they can t compete with the overwhelming size and power of US commerce 0 The attitude that our way of life is superior has been implemented throughout our countries history with examples like the assimilation of Native Americans 0 Social Darwinism The marketing and advertising industry is responsible for creating the demand from consumers worldwide to buy American products 0 Ad campaigns have gotten increasingly pro cient at appealing to a wide variety of different culturestastes A monopoly on the media market means that American news corporations can dictate what people see and hear along with the notion of our military and economic dominance The Internet also has the capability to spread American idealsculture A homogenized world culture based on American principles would destroy the vast array of different cultures that would make humanity much less diverse and interesting Countries have to nd the balance of promoting their own customs and traditions while still giving their citizens the right to absorb and consider any information they want 0 Be accepting of all cultures but do not forget where you come from Gandhi Stance 2 No Philippe Legrain Freedom to choose your cultural experiences is one of the most bene cial aspects of globalization Cultural mixing results the accumulation of different aspects of different cultures which promotes the argument that globalization is actually a diversifying force International corporations and entertainment industries still compete with American companies and entertainment Nike vs Adidas From an athletic perspective American sports are far less popular worldwide than the overwhelming favorite sport of soccer The rampant spread of the English language is bene cial to humanity because communication is essential for success Western ideals such as science technology and liberalism are permeating throughout the world providing a higher quality of life Foreign immigrants are having a drastic impact on our domestic culture which shows that globalization is not solely in uenced by America A strict cultural identity is comparable to oppressive practices 0 In today s world you should be able to choose your favorite aspects of each culture and implement them into your life constructing a diverse web of different ideaspractices
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