Popular in child psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 20 page Bundle was uploaded by ashleigh ruggles on Tuesday February 10, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PY 461 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by dr. erica white in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 260 views. For similar materials see child psychology in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
Reviews for Test One
You're awesome! I'll be using your notes all semester :D
-Dr. Juston Mante
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/10/15
PY 461 Test One 01132015 Chapters 1 Scientists who study abnormal child psych seek to 0 De ne normal vs abnormal Identify cases and correlates of abnormal behavior 0 Make predictions about long term 0 Methods for treatment and prevention Features that distinguish child and adolescent disorders 0 Who has what problem 0 Many child problems 0 Involve a failure to show expected developmental progress 0 Are not entirely abnormal o Interventions are often intended to promote further development Historical views and breakthroughs Ancient GreekRoman view The disabled were a burden 0 Before 18th century Children treated harshly or ignored 0 End of 18th century Interest in abnormal child behavior 0 Late 19th century mental illnesses are biological problems 0 Fatalistictreatment can t help 0 Early 20th century mental disorders are contagious o Eugenics sterilization and segregation institutionalistion were implemented Emergence of social conscience 0 John Locke17th century raising children with thought and care JeanMarc ltard19th century documented to work with kids with special needs 0 Leta Hollingworth distinguishing between ID and psychiatric difficulties 0 Benjamin Rush quotmorally insanequotchidren with normal cog abilities but disturbing behavior 0 Clifford Beers s efforts led to detection and intervention Early Psychological attitudes Psychoanalytic theory 0 Linked mental disorders to childhood experience and surroundings 0 Mental disorders can be helped with environment and therapy o Is a role as model for abnormal child psychology Behaviorism o Laid foundation for evidencebased treatments 0 Watson little albertphobias o Pavlov dogoperant conditioning Evolving forms of treatment 0 193050 psychodynamic approaches 0 Late 405 Spitz did research on negative impact of institutionalization 0 4565 dec in institutionalization SOs605 behavioral approaches Progressive legislation o IDEA 0 Individuals with disabilities education act requires Free public ed for kids with special needs least restrictive environment Every child assessed IEP individualized education program 0 The UN 0 UN General Assembly 2007 adopted new convention to protect rights of disabled persons What is abnormal behavior Disorders are complex various layers of abnormal behavior and development 0 Must be sensitive to child s stages of development Disorders are deviancies from normal 0 Boundaries between normal and abnormal are arbitrary De ning psychological disorders 0 Patterns of behavior cognitive emotional or physical symptoms linked with one or more of the following o Distress 0 Disability 0 Increased risk for further suffering or harm culture and circumstances matter 0 characteristics describe behaviors not causes Competence Ability to successfully adapt in environment Abnormal child psych considers 0 Degree of maladaptive behavior 0 Extent to which normal developmental milestones are met Developmental Pathways Two types 0 Multi nality start with one cause that leads to several possible probs o Equi nality several possible beginnings lead to one prob Key Considerations 0 Many contributors to disordered outcomes 0 Contributions vary among similarly diagnosed children 0 Children express disturbances in different ways 0 Pathways are numerous and interactive Risk and protective factors 0 Risk precedes negative outcome 0 Protective mitigates disorder development Resilience 0 Ability to ght off or recover from misfortune Associated with strong selfcon dence coping skills and avoiding risk situations 0 Protective tried of resources 0 Strength of child 0 Strength of family 0 Strength of schoolcommunity Chapter 2 Theories and Causes 1 Theoretical Foundations a Etiology study of childhood disordersconsiders interaction of multiple factors that produce observed outcome 2 Developmental Psychopathology perspective a Developmental psychopathology an approach to describing and studying disorders while emphasizing developmental processes and tasks Abnormal development is multiply determined Children and environments are interdependent gttransactional view i Children impact environment ii Environment impacts children Abnormal development involves continuities and discontinuities i Continuity developmental changes are gradual and quantitative predictive ii Discontinuity developmental changes are abrupt and qualitative not predictive of future behavior patterns Changes Typical and Atypical i Developmental cascades process by which a child s previous interactions affect future development An integrative approach i No single theoretical approach explains everything ii Models considering more than one primary cause are still limited iii Abnormal child behavior is best studied from multi theoretical perspective 3 Developmental Considerations a Adaptational failure failure to master developmental milestones b Organization of Development Early patterns of adaptation ie infant eye contact evolve with structure over time and transform into higherorder functions Lespeech Sensitive periods windows of time during which environmental in uences are enhanced 4 Biological Perspectives Neural plasticity brain malleability Gene environment interaction genes in uence how we respond to the environment and the environment in uences our genes a b Epigenetics changes in gene activity resulting from environmental factors Behavioral genetics branch of genetics that investigates connections between genes and behavior Molecular genetics assesses association between variations in DNA and variations in traits Brain structure and function mostly background vi Brain divided into stem and forebrain because of separate func ons Hindbrain handles automatic functions breathing heartbeat etc Midbrain coordinates movement with sensory input 1 Houses the reticular activating system RAScontributes to arousal and tension Diencephalon contains thalamus and hypothalamus regulates emotion and behavior Forebrain 1 Basal ganglia regulates organizes and lters info related to cognitions emotions mood etc 2 Related to ADHD motor behavior tics and tremors and OCD Limbic system 1 Contains hippocampus cingulate gyrus septum and amygdala 2 Regulates emotional experiences and expressions 3 Plays role in learning and impulse control vii Cerebral cortex gives us our distinctly human qualities allows us to plan reason and create 1 Left verbal 2 Right creativity viii Frontal lobes contain functions underlying most of our thinking and reasoning abilities 1 Most important in developmental psychopathology g Endocrine system i Epinephrine adrenaline produced in response to stress ii Cortisol stress hormone produced by adrenal gland iii Hypothalamicpituaryadrenal HPA axis emotion regulation system in the brain h Neurotransmitters i Brain circuits paths from one part of brain to another 5 Psychological perspectives a Emotion reactivity and regulation i Reactivity individual differences in threshold and intensity of emotional experience ii Regulation involves enhancing maintaining or inhibiting emotional arousal b Temperament organized style of behavior that shapes approach to environment i Three types 1 Positive affect and approach 2 Fearful or inhibited 3 Negative affect or irritability c Personality disorders d Behavioral and Cognitive in uences e Applied Behavior Analysis i No implicit assumptions just focus on behaviors and their antecedentsconsequences 1 Four primary operant learning principles a Positive and negative reinforcement extinction and punishment ii Classical conditioning little albert iii Social Learning considers cognitive mediators that may in uence behavior iv Social Cognition how kids think about themselves and others f Family Social and Cultural perspectives i Proximal close by and distal removed events ii Bronfenbrenner s ecological model 1 Child s environment is a series of interconnected relationships with child at center iii Shared environment environmental factors that produce similarities in developmental outcomes like siblings being alike iv Nonshared environment environmental factors that produce behavior differences among siblings g Infantcaregiver attachment i Attachment process of establishing and maintaining emotional bond 1 Secure insecureavoidant insecureresistance disorganized h Family and Peer context i Family systems must look at family as a whole to understand chid 6 Looking Ahead a Increased emphasis on health promotion Chapter 4 Assessment Diagnosis and Treatment 1 clinical issues a the decision making process i Begins with Clinical Assessment 1 Look at what s going on with child emotionally cognitively and behaviorally at home and school a ldiographic case formulation looks at uniqueness b Nomothetic case formulation looks at inferences or generalities b Developmental considerations i Ethnic minorities are more likely to be misdiagnosed 1 Cultural information is to a Establish relationship with child and family obtain valid information make accurate diagnosis and develop meaningful treatment recommendations if treatment is in con ict with culture it won t work b Culture bound syndromes unique to a particular culture may sometimes mimic developmental disorders ex evil eye 2 Age implications a 13 yo not wanting to go to school versus 13 yo not wanting to y on a plane rst is unacceptable second is understandable 3 Gender differences girls express feelings differently than boys do ii Normative information 1 Basic information about child development norms is crucial in understanding why a child may be referred c Purposes of assessment i To describe and diagnose 1 Clinical description describe the problem 2 Diagnosis a Taxonomic diagnosis what category does the behavior fall into b Problem solving analysis gathering information with intent to x problem ii Prognosis what does this mean for the future iii Treatment planning and evaluation what is the best course of acUon 2 Assessing disorders a Multimethod assessment approach should have many informants to verify information i Clinical interview ii Developmental historyfamily history pregnancy birth traumas etc iii Unstructured clinical interviews are most common helps to build collegiality iv Semistructured interviews are more reliable b Behavioral assessment i Evals thoughts feelings and behaviors in certain situations ii ABCs of assessment 1 Antecedent 2 Behavior of interest 3 Consequence a What is most important to focus on What is most easily changed iii Behavior analysisfunctional analysis of behavior 1 Functional analysis how do ABCs function iv Checklists and rating scales 1 Pros Allows for a child to be compared to reference group cost effective useful information and degree of prob 2 Con lots of variance between ppl lling them out try to get multiple teachers lling them out 3 CBCL v Behavioral Observation and recording c Psychological Testing iii iv v vi Test task or set of tasks given under standard conditions Developmental Tests assess infants and young children 1 Purpose of screening diagnosis and evaluation of early development a Screening identify children at risk then referred for more thorough eval Intelligence testing to identify problems in thinking or learning Projective tests ex Rorschach blots Child will project personality fears needs inner con ict etc Personality testing Neuropsychological assessment used to link brain functioning with objective types of behavior connected to CNS 3 Classi cation and Diagnosis a Categories and dimensions Classi cation system for representing the major categories of dimensions of child psychopathology Categorical classi cation ex DSM V based on informed professional consensus Dimensional classi cation Assumes that many factors exist and are present in everyone to some degree b DSM V Historical context 1 DSM I published 52 by APA Revised DSM II in 68 2 DSM Ill 80 and DSM IIIR 87more child categories more emphasis on empirical data DSM V disorders 1 Diagnostic criteria apply to both adults and children with some adjustment for age and context 2 Neurodevelopment disorders ID Autism CD Speci c Learning Disorder ADHD Motor Disorder DSM V Speci ers 1 Used to describe homogenous subgroupings of people with the disorder that share features 2 Used to communicate info that is relevant for treatment Criticisms 1 Falls to capture complex adaptations transactions and setting in uences 2 Gives less attention to disorders of infancy and childhood doesn t capture interrelationships between disorders Diagnostic labels 1 Pros a Help clinicians summarize and order observations recognition and understanding consistent with natural tendency to speak in terms of categories 2 Cons a Do labels really help with the above things stigmatization by others and by self 4 Treatment and Prevention a Intervention Prevention decreasing chance of future outcome Treatment corrective actions to eliminate or reduce impact of outcome that has already occurred Maintenance increase adherence to treatment to eliminate relapse b Cultural considerations i Ethnic differences different parenting values and child raising practices ii Cultural compatibility hypothesis treatment is more effective when compatible with cultural patterns of child and family c Treatment Goals i Focus on building child s adaptive skills to facilitate long term adjustment not just eliminating problem ii Outcomes related to child fxning 1 Reduce symptoms reduce degree of functional impairment enhance social competence improve academic performance iii Outcomes related to family fxning 1 Reduce family dysfunction improve relationships improve QOL enhance family support reduce stress reduce burden of care iv Outcomes of societal importance 1 Improve participation in school enhance physical and mental health reduce involvement in juvie reduce need for special services d Ethical and legal considerations i APA and AACAP provide minimum ethical standards for practice 1 Selecting treatment goals and procedures in client s best interest 2 client participation is active and voluntary 3 keep records that document effectiveness of treatment 4 protect con dentiality 5 ensure quali cations and competencies of therapist e General approaches to treatment i Psychodynamic treatments 1 Underlying conscious and unconscious con icts vi vii viii 39 Treatment effectiveness 2 Help child develop awareness of these con icts Behavioral treatments 1 Focuses on re education child behavior Cognitive treatments 1 De cits in child s thinking CB treatments 1 Faulty thought patterns learning and environmental expedences Client centered treatments 1 Social circumstances interfere with child s capacity for personal growth Family Treatments Neurobiological treatments 1 Pharmaceuticals Combined treatments 1 Best practice guidelines systematically developed statements to guide treatment recommendations a Scienti c approach derives guidelines from comprehensive review of research i Evidence Based Treatments EBTs shown to be effective in controlled research b Expert consensus expert opinions to ll literature gap 5 New directions a lnc recognition of mental health needs b Wider range of mental health services c Broaden framework for delivery of services Chapter 5 Intellectual Developmental Disorder 1 Intelligence and ID a The eugenics scare i Evolutionary degeneracy theory Dregression to earlier human evolution ii Eugenics the science which deals with all in uences that improve the inborn qualities of a race kinda like Hitler and Aerian race b De ning and measuring children s intelligence and adaptive behavior i General intellectual functioning IQ is measured with tests on verbal visualspatial and math concepts ii Adaptive functioning how you cope with Iife s demands c Controversial IQ i Flynn Effect IQ scores have risen since the beginning of IQ testing ii Are IQ tests biased or unfair 1 IQ seem to genetically determined 2 Features of intellectual disabilities a Clinical description i DSM V criteria 1 De cits in intellectual functions 2 De cits in adaptive functioning don t meet societal standards 3 onset happens during developmental period b severity levels i DSM V Specifies disability as 1 Mild ID largest group 85 are mild 2 Moderate ID about 10 Downs 3 Severe ID 4 cannot take care of self 4 Profound ID 2 can barely communicate c Prevalence i 1 of population ii Sex Ratio 161 malefemale iii SES and Culture in uences 1 more prevalent in lower SES and minority 3 Developmental course and adult outcomes a Down Syndrome b Developmentalversusdifference controversy i Developmental position s two hypotheses 1 Similar sequence all children ID or not pass through stages of cog development in identical order only differ in their rate and upper limit of development 2 Similar structure all kids with ID show same behaviors at typicaly developing children at the same level of cog functioning 5yo Downs2 yo regular ii Difference viewpoint cog development of ID kids differ from nonID kids in more than developmental rate and upper limit 1 ID kid will show qualitatively different reasoning and problemsolving strategies than nonID c Motivation i Children with ID are more likely to believe the stigma and underperform d Changes in abilities i IQ can uctuate in relation to level of impairment and type of ID ii The major cause of a child s ID affects the degree to which her IQ and adaptive abilities may change e Language and social behavior i Research on kids with Downs suggests their development follows a largely predictable and organized course ii Attachment styles 1 Downs may have problems with secure attachment iii Sense of self 1 Internal state language language that re ects the emergent sense of self and others mad happy etc iv Social development 1 Symbolic play f Emotional and behavioral problems i Nature and course of psychiatric disorders in ID individuals ii Internalizing problems 1 Adolescence is a developmental period of increased risk for mood disorders and other internalizing problems iii ADHD related symptoms 1 IDADHD are able to remain on task longer because of ADHD meds than ID only iv Other symptoms 1 Selfinjurious behavior SIB g Other physical and health disabilities i Kids with ID have other disabilities usually related to degree of impairment 4 Causes a Organic group clear biological basis more severe and profound b Cultural familial group no clear organic basis mild c Major categories of risk factors contributing to ID i biomedical ii social iii behavioral iv educann d inheritance and role of environment i genotype collection of genes that pertain to intelligence ii phenotype expression of genotype in environemnt iii heritability how likely trait is to be inherited e genetic and constitutional factors i chromosomal abnormalities 1 Downs a Not really heritable i Nondisjunction failure of the 21st pair of chromosomes to separate during meiosis trisomy 21 three 21st chromosomes instead of 2 2 Fragile X most heritable 3 Prader Willi Syndrome urge to eat 4 Angelman syndrome awkward gait appy hands no speech ii Single gene conditions 1 Phenylketonuria PKU genetic lack of liver enzymes needed causes brain damage Neurobiological in uences i Adverse biological conditions affecting fetal and infant development include malnutrition exposure stressors ii Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder FASD 1 FAS a Teratogenic effects damage to fetal development from alcohol g Social and psychological dimensions i How do families with ID child contribute to healthy development social support personal relationships 5 Prevention and treatment a Child s overall adjustment is a function of parental participation family resources social supports intellectual functioning basic termperament and other factors i ie environment and individual factors Prenatal and education screening i Prenatal programs for parents include info about fetal development ii Prenatal screening screens child for genetic abnormality Psychosocial treatments i Early intervention 1 Consists of 2 Carolina Abecedarian Project offered to low income families provided rich environment in early childhood positive results ii Behavior treatments 1 Principles for implementation of treatment for kids who cannot consent each individual has the right to the least restrictive effective treatment and treatment that results in safe and meaningful behavior change 2 Modeling IgtUU iii CBT Graduated Guidance Social skills training Methods are most effective for children with some receptive and expressive language skills Selfinstructional training teaches children to use verbal cues to keep themselves on task a quotI m not gonna lookquot iv Family oriented strategies 1 JUN What do parents of ID child need to be most effective support guidance access of cervises opportunities for caregiving break goal oriented counselling Parent training Critical periods during life cycle in which parent training and family counseling are most bene cial a Child s infancytoddlerhood b preschool and school years c emergence into young adulthood Inclusion movement gives ID children the opportunity to be educated in regular classroom settings Residential care outof home placement
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'