The Guidance Tradition
The Guidance Tradition HD 341
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This 14 page Bundle was uploaded by Ashley Sneen on Tuesday February 10, 2015. The Bundle belongs to HD 341 at Washington State University taught by Adair Lawrence in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 78 views. For similar materials see Learning in early childhood in Human Development at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 02/10/15
The Guidance Tradition 01142015 Foundations of thoughts and historical signi cance Robert Owen argued that young children should be cared for and educated before becoming industrial workers 0 Ideas where companies having places for children to study while being workers quotPunishment will never be required and should be avoided as much as quotgiving poison in their foodquot early pioneers Fredrich Forebel 0 Children acted because they are impulsive 0 First to talk about the qualitative difference in how different children think Turn of the century 0 Maria Montessori 0 First women to go to medial school in Italy 0 First to see that children were at risk for all sorts of issues 0 Created a school to teach children the daily task of living 0 When children are engaged in something that is interesting to them you have fewer problems with misbehaviors 0 John Dewey 0 We learn in communities Mid Century in uences the developmental psychologist Jean Piaget 0 When children are doing real and relative things in classroom there is cooperation Vygotsky o If children s minds were simply the products of their won discoveries and inventions their minds would not advance very far 0 Language drives development we have a need to communicate with others The constructivists David Elkin amp Sue Bredekamp 0 David Children are natures gift We either have behaviors that help children or we deny them that 0 Sue We are the decision makers It is our responsibility The self psychologist Alfred Adler 0 First 5 years are crucial in development 0 A key life task is an individuals effort to overcome the inferior life position of the child without developing Maslow rogers Purkey Erkison Combs Ginott Dreikurs o All of them said we have to pay attention to the perception Ginott 0 We can either up lift a child or bring them down 0 Lillian Katz 0 Self esteem not narcissism 0 Self esteem feelings derived from evaluations of self rather than preoccupation with oneself and how one is perceived by others Howard Gardner 0 Multiple intelligences Musical bodykinesthetic logicalmathematical linguistic spatial interpersonal intrapersonal naturalistic We build on peoples strengths as we are applying curriculum Guidance means teaching children to learn from their mistakes rather than punishing children for making mistakes Parents are children s rst teacher Teaching children how to solve problems rather than punishing children for problems they cannot solve Guidance empowers the encouraging classroom in which all children feel fully accepted as capable members and learners o No US vs THEM 0 Treat everyone fairly Facilitates an interactive learning environment which the adult functions as a responsive leader and the child engages in an ongoing process of constructing meaning through developmentally appropriate activities Assist children to take pride in their developing personal and cultural identities and to view differing human qualities as sources of affirmation and learning Places healthy emotional social and cultural development on par with cognitive development in the curriculum Links together teachers parents and child as an interactive team Socialemotional Development Chapter 1 Democratic life skills Social emotional skills needed to be healthy individuals and productive citizens of a society Democratic life skills one 0 Finding acceptance as a member of the group and as a worthy individual Theories it could be applied to Trust vs mistrustMaslo o The ability of the child to develop secure attachments with signi cant adults not all children have this ability 0 Predictability How child have secure attachments Routines exible schedules 0 Acceptance In order to have a sense of belonging they have to feel like people accept them Attitudes re ections of home life 0 Responsiveness Emotional development is Critical in brain development 0 Democratic life skills two 0 Expressing strong emotions in non hurting ways 0 Basics of emotional understanding Everyone has emotions Emotions arise because of different situations There are different ways of showing emotions Other people may not feel the same way I do about everything I can do things to change how I feel and how others feel 0 Democratic life skill three 0 Solving problems creatively independently and in cooperation with others 0 o Individually Accesses and engages with open ended learning activities Stays with problems and tasks Solves problems obtains results creates products in own way Finds personal grati cation in creations and the problem solving process 0 Democratic life skill four 0 Accepting human qualities in others Join in spontaneous groupings with children who may differ in age gender or racial characteristics Initiates cooperative activity with children who may be new Shows inclusiveness and support of children who may be vulnerable for stigma Discusses differences in human qualities without judgment 0 Democratic life skill ve 0 Thinking intelligently and ethically Gives upturn or materials for child quotwho needs morequot Comforts another child who might be sad or upset lnvites a child to join and activity or share materials Offers help Expresses how another might be feelings Leads others in cooperative problem solving Chooses not to take advantage of others Suggests solution to problems take others views into consideration Guidance and child development jean Piaget Sensorymotor birth 2 O O O Preoperational twoseven Children begin to use signals Concrete operations seven to eleven Formal operations eleven to adulthood Hands on learning 0 O O 0 Children are intrinsically motivated to lean and learning is always active Children construct knowledge through interaction with the environment They develop early theories about the world as they construct their knowledge As children encounter new information they need to reach equilibrium between perceptions and understanding They must resolve cognitive dissonance 0 Developmental egocentrism limitations 0 O O 0 Young children are egocentric as a result of limited development Understand events from own perspective Dif culty accommodating the viewpoints of others Results as the inability to understand complex social s uanns Developmentally appropriate practice DAP NAEYC National association for the education of young children 0 1987 position statement on developmentally appropriate practice developed as to provide clear interpretation of quality in early childhood practice and in response to the growing trend to push down curriculum and teaching methods appropriate for older learners to kinderpre school o 1997 o 2007 revision in response to critiques within the eld teacher as decision makers developmental goals challenging and achievable consideration of social and cultural context revision in response to the changing context in which early childhood programs operate growing role of public schools increasing focus on narrowing the achievement gap identifying the key components of quality programs 0 3 core considerations 0 1 What is known about child development and learning we know we have ages and stages certain children know how to do certain things or develop in a certain way fundamental things we know about child development refereeing to knowledge if age related characteristics that permits general predictions about what experiences are likely to occur 0 2 What is known about each child individual may vary at the rate in which they develop referring to what practitioners learn about each child that has implications for how best to adapt and be responsive to that individual variation 0 3 What is known about the social and cultural contexts in which children live in referring ton values expectations and behavioral and linguistic conventions that shape children s lives at home and in their communities that practitioners must strive to understand in order to ensure that learning experience in school or program are meaningful o 12 principles of child development and learning that inform practice 0 1 All the domains of development and learning physical social and emotional and cognitive are important and they are closely interrelated o 2 Many aspects of children s learning and development follow well documented sequences with later abilities skills and knowledge building on those already acquired o 3 Development and learning proceed at varying rates from child to child as well as at uneven rates across different areas of child s individual functioning o 4 development and learning result from a dynamic and continuous interaction of biological maturation and expenence natu renurtu re O 5 Early experience have profound affects some are right away some aren t on child development There are optimal periods for certain types of development and learning to occur optimal period ex Language attachment ability to see 6 Development to proceeds towards greater complexity self regulation 7 Children develop best when they have a secure consistent relationship with responsive adults and opportunities for positive peer relationships 8 Development and learning occur in and are in uenced by multiple social and cultural contexts 9 Children are always mentally active constantly trying to understand the world around them learning in a variety of different way Wide rage of teaching strategies and interactions are effective in supporting all these kinds of learning 10 Play is an important vehicle for developing selfregulation as well as for promoting languagecognitionand social competence 11 Development and learning advance when children are challenged to achieve at a level just beyond their current mastery and also when they have many opportunities to practice newly acquired skills 12 Children s experience shape their motivation and approaches to learning such as persistence initiative and exibility in turn these dispositions and behaviors affect their learning and development 0 Mariners Star 0 Community of learner 0 Teaching 0 O 0 Curriculum Assessment Families 0 5 guidelines for DAP O 0000 creating a caring community of learners teaching to enhance development and learning planning curriculum to achieve important goals assessing children s development and learning establishing reciprocal relationships with families framework for decision making executive function coordinated abilities to stay on task in attending and thinking plan and organize thoughts as in problem solving and utilize short and long term memory to facilitate thought processing 0 involved in initiating and maintain a relationship 0 involves 0 working memory 0 inhibitory control 0 mental exibility develops O prefrontal cortex toxic stress in early life 0 has no relief 0 occurs over and over in a Varity of ways 0 factors that contribute O 0000 insecure attachments Atypical brain development Violence Mental illnesssubstance abuse Poverty circumstances 0 Insuf cient supports 0 Rejection by peers and adults Stress caused behaviors 0 Being hyper sensitized to the threat aspect of situations making ght or ight reactions more likely and positive interactions more dif cult Imprinting hurtful experiences as emotional memoires thus endangering the child s later ability to regulate and manage emotions and impulse Generating a self ful lling expectation of rejection based on an emerging negative self image a possible long term effect on personality Building resiliency o Enriched environments 0 Nutrition reliable life conditions 0 Secure attachments Consistent positive emotional support 0 Learning environments intriguing free of stress 0 Interest based activities 0 Opportunities to construct personal meaning express and share ideas 0 Opportunities to participate on friendly relationships to af rm personal and social worth Mastery motivation When teachers appreciate and guide the internal dynamic of intrinsic motivation within each child learning becomes active interactive and signi cant High quality care and education for the early years 0 Suf cient child staff ration for children and adults 0 Small group sizes 0 High levels of staff education and specialized training 0 Low staff turnover and administrative stability 0 quotmiddle classquot levels of staff compensation Chapter 3 Mistake and behavior 0 beyond misbehavior o misbehavior implies willful wrongdoing and invites labeling of childparents 0 children tend to internalize labels see themselves as they are labeled and react accordingly 0 Mistaken behavior o Is the process of learning any difficult skills children make mistakes 0 When children experience con icts it is because they haven t developed the cognitive and emotional characteristics needed for more mature response 0 Experience in the world 0 Mistaken behavior is viewed as something that should be corrected through teaching and not punishing o Cant punish a child for something they don t have an understandingknowledge about Relational patterns 3 patterns 0 Encounter o Childs concern with maintaining an individual sense of centrality wholeness and initiative Adjustor 0 Child s concerned with learning what s expected by others and producing that behavior 0 Not as mature Survivor o Childs concerned solely with getting through time and space without disturbing established ways of getting needs met 0 Least healthy way 0 Kids just trying to get through the day Three levels of mistaken behavior 0 1 Experimentation o involvement the child unintentionally causes a con ict when a situation unexpectedly gets out of hand 0 Curiosity the child intentionally causes a con ict to see what will happen 0 2 Socially in uenced o learned parents or other adult family members siblings or other relatives friends and neighbors other children in the center or school the teacher or caregiver other adults in the center or school and media superheroes from television movies or computer games o 3 Strong unmet needs 0 physiological factors prenatal alcohol or drug exposure other complications during pregnancy such as parental malnutrition or depression premature delivery or difficult delivery 0 emotional factors created by family stress drug dependency mental ill ness violence divorce illness death Understanding mistaken behavior mistaken behavior can be accidental or intentional mistaken behavior can range from less to more serious 0 physical and psychological aggression are two common forms of serious mistaken behavior for young children 0 Challenging behaviors interfere with children s learning development and success at play are harmful to the child or others around them and put a child at high risk for later social and academic problems 0 Looking at behaviors that really determine of a child life and the opportunities that child is going to be able to have 0 Challenging behaviors often accompany strong needs that haven t been met 0 The teacher should adjust their intervention according to the characteristics and context of each incidence of mistaken behaviors PARENTS PERSPECTIVE Parents are primary educators of their child 0 Parents have emotional investments in their child 0 Parents at time question their effectiveness Before school begins 0 Communication 0 00000 0 Letter HomevE Email Phone Open house Orientation Pa rent paperwork Ways for families to become engaged Volunteering on eld trips dances helping in classroom 0 Family meetings 0 Serving on parent committees Fundraising Pa rent teacher conferences 0 Preparation 0 Purpose 0 Data developmental behavioral 0 Time when length 0 Parent may want to know what the teacher is teaching 0 To talk about a child s progress or areas of concern 0 Conference 0 Positive Agree on follow ups and goals Compliment sandwich Remain professional and con dential Describe behaviors Ask parents what they usually do for certain behaviors before giving suggestions 0 Language 0 Jargon works kept to a minimum 0 Practice re ective listening 0 Follow up 0 Give a copy of conference goal to parents 0 Keep in touch about progress with parent formally or informally 0 Keep communication positive and frequent Communication about mistaken behavior 0 Know how parent generally views their child Compliment sandwich Data Inviting thoughts about patterns Agreement about follow up action 00000 00000
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