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by: Joan Kernagis

notes Bi 132

Joan Kernagis
GPA 3.24
Animal Behavior

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All the notes I took computer based for this class.
Animal Behavior
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This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by Joan Kernagis on Tuesday February 10, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Bi 132 at University of Oregon taught by in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 116 views. For similar materials see Animal Behavior in Biology at University of Oregon.

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Date Created: 02/10/15
Biology November 10th Project drafts due friday Q Which of the following trends is observed in Parental Care in Vertebrates More paternalonly care in fish Because of external fertilization more often see males taking care of the young Fish males taking care of fertilized eggs in their territory Paternal care Mammals taking care of eggs in the female Maternal care Birds internal fertilization but outside of body more often because of eggs Either male or female or both taking care of the young Biparental care Mating system with bi parental care Monogamy Seahorses are the few species that are monogamous Q The graph depicts the number of beneficial insect eggs laid The data will be used to determine whether a fence built in 1999 had a big effect on egg production C not enough of a difference to know Brood Parasitism Cowbirds and cuckoos ndividuals other than genetic parents provide parental care Reduce host reproductive success often kill young of hosts or monopolize care Hosts become more vigilant of defending their nest Brood parasite quickly leave their eggs to be raised by another bird Host recognition host realizing its not their egg The Brood parasite will make eggs to look like the hosts eggs Alloparent group members other than genetic parents provide parental care Lions may synchronize reproduction and nurse each others offspring Dilution effect larger the group the less predation risk Penguin colonies are very large for warmth and protection from predators Dilution Review For Midterm 2 Group parasitism will not be on the midterm Proximate vs ultimate Natural selection Scientific Testable hypothesis o Types of mimicry Hunting adaptation aggressive mimicry Not a sexually selected trait Look like something in order to lure in a prey Turtle dangling its tongue trying to lure in a fish predatory fire fly flashes courtship signal of a different firefly and grabs and eats them Cleaner fish set up stations and big fish come to have their parasites picked off everyones happy aggressive mimic takes advantage of the situation to mimic the cleaner fish eats them Antipredator defense Malarian mimicry Mimics each other bad things Wasps look like bees Now if a potential predator gets stung by one bee all the other bees and wasps that look like one another will be avoided by predators o Baitisian mimicry a perfectly harmless animal is mimicing a dangerous animal Hover fly has no stinger but has black and yellow stripes to mimic a bee so that predators avoid him 8 IS FOR BLUFF BLUFFING Sexual Selection dominant males who have territories they get to mate with the females intrasexually selected trait But sometimes you can be non dominant and be dominantly successful You can sneak onto the other males territory and steal a female Satellite behavior Female Mimicry The male looks like a female so that the male does not chase him off or kill him When the females come and lay their eggs the female mimic can fertilize some eggs A certain percent of the population will look like males a small percentage are born looking like females sexual selection lNTRAsexual selection result of males vs other males lNTRAsexual selection males vs males to get females Also sperm competition lNTERsexual selection individual has an advantage because other sex choses them for some trait they are showing off Diversion tactic adaptation to get a predator to hesitate misrepresent their attack butterflies with big eye like wings Intimidation display predator is coming at you and you try to look a lot tougher than you are Crypsis blending in with background camouflage Change your color to match your surroundingschameeon or seasonal coorationrabbits or penguins with countershading black and white bodies or disruptive coloration that breaks up the outline of your bodyzebra lntrasexual Selection Traits that allow males to compete with one another lntersexual Selection Traits that have evolved due to female choice 00 Which of the following is NOT an example of an INTRAsexually selected trait a dominance contests b mate guarding c mate cannibalism d female mimicry males that look like females so that they can sneak onto territories and steal lntersexual Selection Mate Choice Females may choose mates based on Materia benefitsfood specific nutrients Territory resources such as food and nesting sites Courtship Display size ornaments color courtship behavior Good genes Friendy Males Baboons Pufferfish Sea Circles video Penguin video female wants a male who can sit in one place with the eggbaby and not eat often to feed the baby bird Sexually Selected Traits as Honest Indicators Adeie penguins males with more consistent pitch were preferred These males were also heavier and more successful at raising chicks Maes who lost weight could not bluff call 00 Trait X occurs in males of a particular species In order to support the idea that Trait X evolved via sexual selection one would provide evidence to show that a the trait must increase the odds of survival for males b the trait must be present in both males and females c all males use the same behavioral strategy d the trait is preferred by females Asexual Reproduction Some examples insects coelenterates like anemones Whiptail lizard parthenogenesis Sexual Reproduction Gametes sperm and egg from two individuals Each offspring gets 50 of parent s alleles or half of each parent s chromosomes Meiosis the process of forming gametes sperm and eggs gt cuts chromosome number in half 00 Which of the following is a COST of sexual reproduction a All offspring are genetically identical b There is a lot of variability among offspring c Parents pass on only half their chromosomes to their offspring d Parents pass on all their chromosomes to their offspring Males success constrained by access to females Strategy often multiple mates Females success constrained by access to resources food parental care high quality territory 00 Which of the following is NOT an observed trend a Monogamy less sexual dimorphism b Polygyny selection for larger more ornate males c Polyandry selection for larger more ornate males d don t know Wieners remember for test November 5th Notes 00 Which of the following does not provide an advantage of monogamy to males a Mate guarding b Mate assistance help with kids c They get to fertilize many more eggs d Difficulties of finding females when they are scarce Lek Polygyny male display sites Males gather in a place and females check them out its just for show not a place to make a nest Polygyny Male perspective benefit maximize reproductive output Cost costs of achieving dominance or territory risk of cuckoldry Female Perspective Costs less help with parental care sharing resources so why might females accept polygyny Why might females accept polygyny 1 sexy son hypothesis pass on good genes and genes for attractiveness 2 female gains benefits of mating with high quality male and access to resources territory 3 beneficial to remain in groups lions Polyandry less common Females mate with multiple partnersmaes who incubate eggs and feed nestlings Ex Sandpipers female territory Female can lay gt 8 eggs but nests can support only 4 eggs Reverse sex roles female pipefish pregnant male maes get to be choosey because they re in demand this time Philippine tarsiers large babies whats the mating system answer monogamy hard to care for babies bigetc need man to help take care of it 00 how do mating systems relate to parental care a polygyny more paternal care b polygyny more biparental care c monogamy more biparental care both parents d polyandry more maternal care Polygyny what care do you expect to see Maternal 102914 Introduction to the Nervous System Neurons are functional units within the nervous system Collections of neurons make up the nervous system which acts to transmit information 39 The Central Nervous System allows animals to process environmental cues and act on them Afferent nerves relay sensory input Interneurons in the CNS process information Efferent nerves drive locomotors output Neurotransmission is a mode of communication between neurons Adaptations How to explain some adaptations f antlers are adaptive then why don t all individuals have them male and female Sexual Dimorphism Males look different from females often larger more colorful more ornamented How to explain these different traits in Males Sexual Selection 1 Intrasexual selection Outcompeting same sex conspecifics Usually malemale competition 2 Intersexual Selection Mate choice Traits preferred by opposite sex conspecifics 39 Not Mutually Exclusive In the news fruit flies Female fruit flies use interference colors to select a mate Male Adaptations for Intrasexual Selection 1 Securing Copulations who gets to mate 2 Sperm competition Male compete with other males to determine Who gets to mate Low Threshold Dominance Contests Satellite behavior sneakers interceptors 39 Female mimicry eg bluegill sun sh 2Sperm competition Mate guarding Sperm Plugs and displacement Making large amounts of sperm


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