Test 1 Notes- Ch1 to Ch5
Test 1 Notes- Ch1 to Ch5 Sociology 202- Paul Mills
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Sociology 202- Paul Mills
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Date Created: 02/10/15
Sociology 202 02112015 Chapter 1 The Study of Social Problems pg1 to 19 Terms to know in Chapter 1 Sociology refers to the study of social life social change and the social causes and consequences of human behavior Social Problem an issue that negatively affects a person s state of being in a society Sociological imagination the ability to look beyond the individual as the cause for success or failure and see how the society in uences the outcome Macro large scale point of view Micro small scale point of view Objective condition any aspect of a society that can be viewed without bias Values a part of a society s nonmaterial culture that represent cultural standards by which we determine what is good bad right or wrong Cultural universal any aspect of one s social life that is common to all societies Awareness the ability of a person or group to bring a problem into public recognition Social Movements activities that support or protest social issues organized by nongovernmental organizations Campaigns organized ongoing efforts that make claims targeting a speci c social authority in the society Emergence the rst stage of a social movement People become aware of the problem and begin to notice that others feel the same way Coalescence The second Stage of a social movement Groups reach out to other groups and individuals to gain membership Bureaucratization The third stage of a social movement It becomes a political force Decline Final stage of a social movement An organization completes its goals or is seen as irrelevant WUNC worthiness unity numbers and commitments Theses are characteristics of a social movement Functionalism theoretical framework that de nes society as a system of interrelated parts Con ict theory theoretical framework that views society as being a constant struggle over scarce resources Symbolic lnteractionism theoretical framework that focuses on how individual interactions between people in uence their behavior and how these interactions can impact society What is a social Problem There are ve cultural values affected by global recession pg 6 Achievement Activity Progress Individual Personality Material comfort The 4 stages of social movement Charles Tilly pg7 Emergence Coalescence Bureaucratization DecHne The 3 major Sociological perspectives Functionalism pg8 Con ict Theory pg9 Symbolic Interactionism pg 910 Functionalism Functionalism theoretical framework that de nes society as a system of interrelated parts Focuses on entire society not just individual it is considered a macro approach Functionalism is almost like the organs of the human body Every organ has a place and a function that is necessary for proper function Without certain organs other organs would be affected Functionalist to know Auguste Comte coined term sociology and basics of funct Emile Durkheim Tacott Parsons o o o 0 Robert Merton Con ict Theory Con ict theory theoretical framework that views society as being a constant struggle over scarce resources Macro approach Deals with multiple groups ghting to gain power and resources Con ict Theorists to know 0 Harriet Martineau 0 Karl Marx Believed Economic power should not lie in the hands of the elite o WEB Du Bois African American theorist fought discrimination 0 John Bellamy Foster Symbolic Interactionism o Symbolic Interactionism theoretical framework that focuses on how individual interactions between people in uence their behavior and how these interactions can impact society 0 Micro approach 0 This approach believes that body language words gestures affect communication and that humans interact based on these symbols 0 Theorists to know 0 George Herbert Mead 0 Herbert Blumer o Erving Goffman social interactions are building blocks of society 0 Howard Becker Many sociologist example Max Weber try to analyze social problems without only looking at one perspective Emerging Sociological Perspectives o Feminist Theory female center interdisciplinary approach that demonstrates how women t into the social world 0 Gender Inequality sexist patterns limit women s opportunity 0 Gender Oppression men stay in situations of power 0 Structural Oppression capitalism and structure is the root of oppression Exchange Theory social experiences consist of a series of costs and rewards micro level 0 Environmental theory most recent theory Combines social thought and ecological principles to discover how environmental policies in uence society Sociological Research 6 Steps of Social Research pg 12 0 Choose a topic 0 Conduct Literature Review 0 Form Hypothesis 0 Collect Data Analyze the Results 0 Share and Publish the Results Dependent variable vs independent variable Dep responses to manipulated variables Ind variables deliberately manipulated to test the response Causation vs correlation Causation cause and effect relationsip Correlation one factor might be the cause for another Types of Correlations pg15 0 Positive two variables moving in a parallel Negative variables move in opposite directions Spurious two variables appear to be related but actually have separate causes Chapter Review on pg 18 to 19 Chapter 2 pages 20 to 37 Terms to Know for Chapter 2 0 Social Strati cation ranking of people and the rewards they receive based on a criteria often including wealth power and prestige Income money received for work or investments Wealth all of an individuals material possessions includes Wealth Power ability to carry out your will and impose it on others Force power that exists when you make someone do something outside of their own free will Prestige level of esteem associated with status and social standing Persuasive power using methods to get what you want What is inequality and how does it affect people Social Strati cation Achieved vs ascribed status 0 Achieved what you work for o Ascribed what you are born into Naturally creates concept of Haves and quothavenotsquot Roughly 5 of America owns 80 of countries wealth Social Class in America Class in America pg26 Upper or Elite Class small percentage of people with most power 0 Upper Middle Class 0 Middle Class most populated class in US 34 0 Working Class 0 Lower Class 0 Urban Underclass Effects of social class 0 Healthcare 0 Family 0 Neighborhoods 0 Education 0 Social mobility ability to change social classes Types of Social Mobility Horizontal moving within same status category Vertical moving from one class to another lntragenerational individual changes social standing ex in workplace lntergenerational when a family changes class each generation Structural when social changes affect large groups of people Exchange concept in US suggests that there is xed number of people in each class Poverty Transitional Poverty temporary state of poverty that occurs when someone goes without a job for a short period of time Marginal Poverty poverty when person lacks stable employment Residual Poverty chronic multigenerational poverty Absolute Poverty poverty where a person lacks the resources to live Relative Poverty a state of poverty that happens when we compare ourselves to others around us How do the 3 perspectives View inequality pg31 Functionalism Meritocracy argument those who get ahead stay ahead Con ict being born in a wealthy family opens doors to higher quality education and college degrees to establish af uence Symbolic Interaction blaming the victim blaming those who suffer from a social problem for that problem Economic Inequalities Welfare 0 Residual temporary relief when a person is out of a job and cannot support the family 0 Institutional preventative against poverty No time limit and no social stigma is associated with this Taxann 0 Progressive people who earn more pay higher taxes Regressive everyone is taxed the same percentage Poor end up paying more Crime is a byproduct of inequality There are functional bene ts to poverty 0 Dirty work gets done ex garbage men Extend the life product 0 Medical trials clinicals Altruism it feels good to help others in need 0 Entertainment artists 0 Instructive for socialization Chapter 3 is pg38 to 53 Key Terms to know for Chapter 3 0 Race division of people based on physical characteristics 0 Ethnicity classi cation of people who share a common cultural linguistic or ancestral heritage o Majority group of the largest population with signi cant power Minority group with smaller population and less power 0 Racism a prejudice asserted to make a race inferior to another Genocide attempt to destroy or exterminate a people based their race or ethnicity Immigration movement of group of people from one society to another Can be involuntary or voluntary Refugees people who migrate to nd safety and freedom Ethnocentrism thinking or de ning another culture on the basis on your own 0 Colorblind racism the idea that racism exists in society n more subtle ways Segregation enforced separation from dominant group based on factors such as gender race or ethnicity o Multiculturalism a concept that supports inherent value of different cultures within a society 0 Assimilation process that minority groups adopts the patterns of the dominant group Minorities tend to cluster in enclaves for 3 main reasons 0 Differences from dominant group may lead to discrimination Shared and similar beliefs make adjustment easier 0 Social capital increases their chance for success Chapter 4 pgs 54 to 67 Terms to Know for Chapter 4 Gender behavioral traits associated with being male or female Sex biological makeup of an individual Gender identity our perception of ourselves as male or female Patriarchy social system where males control society Matriarchy social system where females control society Sexism belief one sex is superior to another Female circumcision alteration or removal of parts of the female gentaHa Gender roles societal expectations of how a gender should think and act Feminism philosophy based on the political and economic equality of the sexes Speci cally women to have same rights as men Title IX 1972 educational amendment that prohibits the exclusion from any person fro participation in an educational program on the basis of gender Gender Differences Gender inequality rooted in religion Judaism women act as keeper of the household only Hinduism women were considered equal to the lowest class of men Buddhism Buddha preached equality but after his death women were treated enemies to a life of purity Christianity Eve is responsible for the fall of man and creation of original sin Islam equal in faith but subordinate by nature Feminist Movement First Wave 1920 started by progressive thinking Main goal was legal equality and women s suffrage 19th Amendment Second Wave 1960 s women s liberation Feminist Mystique by Betty Friedan Introduced idea that women could seek ful llment outside the home Third Wave 1990 s protect rights of all minorities Feminist Movement Women seek to achieve equality in work and schools equal opportunities fro men and women a world where rights opportunities and income are not gender strati ed and end to domestic violence Two major groups 0 Radical point out the division caused by men 0 Liberal don t stray from goal of equal rights Gender affects Educann Work Politics Health females have longer life expectancy Chapter 5 is pages 68 to 79 Key Terms to Know for Chapter 5 Ageism prejudice based solely on age There are several forms of Elder abuse 0 Physical 0 Sexual Psychological 0 Financial Neglect Abandonment Levels of Care for Elderly 0 High need Nursing Home Midlevel assisted living Low level Independent living communities Lowest level independent or living with relatives Special Problems for Elderly Home Health care 0 Hospice Care short term aid for patients with only 6 months to live What do the perspectives think about the age process Functionalism disengagement theory suggests that reduced interaction between elderly persons and members of society is unavoidable mutual and acceptable Symbolic lnteractionism believes each individual will experience the age process differently depending on relationships and environment 0 Activity theory life satisfaction depends on maintaining societal involvement by developing new hobbies interest and roles and relationships 0 Continuity theory argues that older people seek out familiar areas of life and strive to keep those constant as they age Social Security and Medicare 0 SS is government run social insurance program paid to retired workers 0 Medicare government run social insurance program that provides health coverage for people over 65 Death and Dying Euthanasia in action 0 Voluntary request 0 Unbearable suffering o Consultaion Death with Dignity
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